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xxx M. Olle
The yield, height and content of protein of field peas (Pisum sativum L.) in Estonian agro-climatic conditions
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The yield, height and content of protein of field peas (Pisum sativum L.) in Estonian agro-climatic conditions

M. Olle

Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Plant Breeding, J. Aamissepa 1, EE48309 Jogeva alevik, Estonia
Correspondence: margit.olle@etki.ee

Abstract:

Pisum sativum L. is important protein crop in the world. The purpose of this investigation was to see whether pea varieties differ in their yield, height and content of protein. Another aim was to select the best varieties suitable for production. Field experiments with different varieties of peas (‘Bruno’, ‘Capella’, ‘Clara’ and ‘Vitra’) were carried out at the Estonian Crop Research Institute in 2014 and in 2015. Yields (t ha-1) in 2014 and 2015 did not differ much, while yield from variety ‘Bruno’ was very different between years 2014 and 2015 and was much higher in 2015. The most suitable height of field peas is in a range of 60…100 cm, because the plants with such a height are most effectively suppressing weeds. It can be concluded that varieties with suitable height in our investigation were: ‘Bruno’, ‘Capella’ and ‘Clara’. Variety ‘Vitra’ was too high, is lodging easily and is therefore hard to harvest. Crude protein content (% in dry matter) was lowest in ‘Clara’; all other varieties had a higher content of protein, within much the same range. Based on the results of present investigation it can be concluded that out of those four varieties the most suitable varieties for production are ‘Bruno’ and ‘Capella’. Choice of the right variety for pea cultivation is very important, but depends on the local agro-climatic conditions. As in Baltic – Nordic countries and in north of America the agro-climatic conditions are more or less similar the results are useful for those countries.

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xxx A. Ünlükara, T. Yurtyeri and B. Cemek
Effects of Irrigation water salinity on evapotranspiration and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. Matador) plant parameters in Greenhouse Indoor and Outdoor Conditions
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Effects of Irrigation water salinity on evapotranspiration and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. Matador) plant parameters in Greenhouse Indoor and Outdoor Conditions

A. Ünlükara¹*, T. Yurtyeri² and B. Cemek³

¹Department of Biosystem Engineering, Agricultural Faculty, Erciyes University, TR38039 Kayseri, Turkey
²Gazipaşa First School of National Educational Ministry of Turkey Republic, Tokat, Turkey
³Department of Agricultural Structures and Irrigation, Faculty of Agriculture, Ondokuz Mayıs University, TR55139 Samsun, Turkey
*Corresponding author: unlukara@gmail.com

Abstract:

Response of spinach to irrigation water salinity under greenhouse indoor and outdoor conditions was investigated in this study to reveal different weather conditions on salinity tolerance of the plant. For this purpose, saline waters at six different salinities (0.65, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 7.0 dS m-1) were applied to spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. Matador) grown in pots. Soil salinity increased linearly with increasing salinity of irrigation water. Threshold salinity is 2.35 dS m-1 and yield lost slope after this threshold is 3.51% for indoor and threshold salinity is 2.83 dS m-1 and yield lost slope is 3.3% for outdoor. Salinity harmful effect on spinach yield is higher for indoor conditions than for outdoor conditions because of higher indoor temperatures. These results apparently showed that spinach salinity response could change with changing weather conditions especially for temperature. Yield response factors (ky), which is the ratio of relative evapotranspiration decrease to relative yield decrease, were close in the cases of irrigation water salinity in greenhouse outdoor and indoor (ky = 2.4 and 2.1), respectively. Considerable water consumption decreases because of salinity were determined. Every 1 dS m-1 increment in soil salinity caused about 1.35% water consumption decrease for spinach. Therefore, depressing effect of salinity on water consumption should be considered in irrigation and salinity management to prevent excess saline water application and to protect environment.

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xxx S. Akdemir, C. Cavalaris, and T. Gemtos
Energy balance of sunflower production
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Energy balance of sunflower production

S. Akdemir¹*, C. Cavalaris², and T. Gemtos²

¹Namık Kemal University, Technical Sciences Vocational School, TR 59030 Tekirdag, Turkey
²University of Thessaly, Department of Agriculture Crop Production and Rural Environment, Volos, Greece
*Correspondence: sakdemir@nku.edu.tr

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to make an energy analysis of sunflower crop in the Trakya Region of Turkey, to evaluate the potential for using it as bioenergy source. Actual data for the common cropping practices applied in the region were collected with questionnaires given to the farmers. Literature data were used to obtain necessary energy indices. The collected information was used to establish energy budgets. Two alternative scenarios were examined: 1st-Using only the seed for biofuel production and 2nd -using the seed for biofuel and the stalks as biomass for bioenergy. The results showed that sunflower presented positive energy balance for both cases. Net energy was 35,334 MJ ha-1 when only the seed was taken into account and 87,308 MJ ha-1 for both seed and stalks. Energy efficiency was 3.67 and 7.34 respectively. Fertilization was the most energy intensive input (6,594 MJ ha-1) accounting for 48–50% of the total inputs. Tillage was the second most energy intensive input (3,595 MJ ha-1) accounting for 26–27% of total inputs. There were 6 different tillage operations such as ploughing, 4 machinery passages for seedbed preparation and hoeing in the sunflower production. All these operations increased energy inputs of the tillage. The total energy inputs were relatively low because it was possible to achieve high yields without irrigation.

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xxx H. Meripõld, U. Tamm, S. Tamm, T. Võsa and L. Edesi
Fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam) grass potential as a forage and bioenergy crop
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Fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam) grass potential as a forage and bioenergy crop

H. Meripõld*, U. Tamm, S. Tamm, T. Võsa and L. Edesi

Estonian Crop Research Institute, EE-48309 Jõgeva, Estonia
*Corresponding author: heli.meripold@etki.ee

Abstract:

Fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam.) is a forage legume that has been grown in Estonia for almost forty five years. Pure galega is known to be persistent, high-yielding crop and rich in nutrients, in particular crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF). Galega is usually grown in a mixture with grass in order to optimize its nutrient concentration, increase dry matter (DM) yield and improve fermentation properties. The trial plots were established on a typical soddy-calcareous soil. There are certain grass species suitable for the mixture. In this study galega mixtures with reed canary grass cv. ‘Marathon’, timothy cv. ‘Tika’, red fescue cv. ‘Kauni’ and festulolium cv. ‘Hykor’ were under investigation in three successive years (2013–2015). In order to increase competitiveness of grasses and the yield of the first cut, two N fertilization levels were used: N0 and N50 kg ha-1. Two cuts were carried out during the growing season in all three years. The total dry matter yield varied from 9.1 to 12.8 t ha-1. The NDF concentration in the DM varied from 495−559 g kg-1. Both DM-yield and NDF were dependent on the year, mixture, cutting time and fertilization. Nitrogen fertilization (N50 kg ha-1) favoured grass growth and reduced the role of galega in the sward.

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xxx M. Welc, A. Lundkvist, N-E. Nordh and T. Verwijst
Weed community trajectories in cereal and willow cultivations after termination of a willow short rotation coppice
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Weed community trajectories in cereal and willow cultivations after termination of a willow short rotation coppice

M. Welc*, A. Lundkvist, N-E. Nordh and T. Verwijst

Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7043, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
*Correspondence: Monika.Welc@slu.se

Abstract:

According to guidelines for willow short rotation coppice (SRC), weeding is needed during establishment, while weed populations which develop later under a well-established willow canopy do not require control. However, farmers are concerned that weeds which develop in SRC may result in long-lasting weed infestations in succeeding crops after SRC termination. We assessed the effects of two SRC-termination methods (with shallow and deep soil cultivation) on the development of the weed flora in a cereal system (CS) and in SRC during six seasons. Richness, ground cover, life-cycle strategy and composition of the weed species, and their environmental requirements (inferred from Ellenberg index) were evaluated.
SRC-termination method had no effect on the weed community trajectories in the succeeding SRC and CS. However, cropping system and growing season had significant impacts on species richness, ground cover and composition of the weed flora.
Differences in weed communities over time and between cropping systems were related to the impact of cropping systems on factors such as light, soil moisture, nitrogen level, and soil reaction, as inferred from the Ellenberg index. After termination of the old willow cultivation, the weed flora of the SRC and CS rapidly diverged and approached the weed flora characteristic for old willow stands and non-weeded old cereal plot, respectively. We conclude that willow stands can be converted, regardless of termination method, either into willow or cereal cultivations without additional risk of weed infestations other than those specific for their respective cropping systems. Furthermore, willow cultivations in agriculture contribute to floristic diversity at the landscape scale.

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xxx S. Locs, I. Boiko, P. Drozdovs, J. Dovoreckis and O. Devoyno
Investigation of coaxial laser cladding process parameters influence onto single pass clad geometry of tool steel
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Investigation of coaxial laser cladding process parameters influence onto single pass clad geometry of tool steel

S. Locs¹², I. Boiko¹*, P. Drozdovs², J. Dovoreckis² and O. Devoyno³

¹Riga Technical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Transport and Aeronautics, Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Viskalu street 36A, LV-1006 Riga, Latvia
²Daugavpils University, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Parades street 1, LV-5401 Daugavpils, Latvia
³National Technical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering B.Khmelnitsky street 9-6, 220013 Minsk, Belarus
*Correspondence: irina.boiko@rtu.lv

Abstract:

This paper is devoted to the investigation of the influence of technological parameters on the single pass clad geometry and quality as well as elemental composition in the clad after coaxial laser cladding (CLC). The objects of the investigation are components of expensive machines and tools for presswork needed to be repaired, i.e. refurbished for the future application with the goal of effective using of material resources in production. Nowadays such repair of worn tools is an actual task due to tendency for thrifty management of resources at affordable cost. Experimental work was carried out using CLC system, which consists of industrial robot and a ytterbium fiber laser with a core diameter of 100 μm, integrated to the coaxial powder supplying cladding head. During research separate cladding tracks of metal powder AISI М2 (particle size 53–150 μm) were deposited on the top surface of steel plates, which were ground before treatment. This work’s highlighted parameters for variation were laser scanning speed and laser beam focus plane distance. The clad geometry was examined on cross-sections with SEM. Elemental composition was determined by the X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Gladding beads with good surface quality were achieved. Cross-sectional observation presented that clads has a good fusion with the base material without exfoliation. Keyhole shape of molten substrate area was achieved, which leads to increase of the dilution value. The future research is needed to achieve stable quality of cladding, which is extremely necessary for industry.

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xxx L. Sunina and B. Rivza
Unified client service centres for rural development and smart governance in Latvia
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Unified client service centres for rural development and smart governance in Latvia

L. Sunina and B. Rivza*

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Economics and Social Development, Institute of Economics and Regional Development, 18 Svetes Str., LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: linda.sunina1@gmail.com

Abstract:

Nowadays rapid increase of technological environment allows residents to be more mobile, choose working place, different from one’s place of residence, start a new business or transfer company to rural areas, thus promoting polycentric development of a territory and increasing capacity of rural territories. It means that government should think of smart governance and service provision, providing different government services at one place. From June 2015 until December 2015, under the concept of improvement of public service system, the government of the Republic of Latvia established 75 unified state and local government customer service centres. Service centres operate on a local basis and in accordance with the uniform principles, provide customer with one place to access multiple public services. The objective of the present article is to evaluate the necessity and current activity of unified customer service centres and their contribution to smart governance of the country. The necessity for unified client service centres in the rural areas were therefore assessed with the analysis of attributable data, theory on establishment of such centres, and residents’ survey, which showed that a big part of customers of the present centres are residents of neighbouring towns and cities where the regional governmental and local institutions are located, but they are attracted by the possibility to receive all the necessary services at one time.

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xxx S. Lamptey, S. Yeboah L. Li and R. Zhang
Dry matter accumulation and nitrogen concentration in forage and grain maize in dryland areas under different soil amendments
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Dry matter accumulation and nitrogen concentration in forage and grain maize in dryland areas under different soil amendments

S. Lamptey¹²⁴*, S. Yeboah¹³⁵ L. Li¹² and R. Zhang¹³

¹Gansu Provincial Key Lab of Arid Land Crop Science, Lanzhou CN730070, China
²College of Agronomy, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou CN730070, China
³College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou CN730070, China
⁴University for Development Studies, P.O Box TL 1882, Tamale–Ghana
⁵CSIR–Crops Research Institute, P.O Box 3785, Kumasi, Ghana
*Correspondence: naalamp2009@yahoo.com

Abstract:

Soil amendment plays significant role in improving soil fertility and increasing crop productivity in rain–fed agriculture. Understanding the grain yield associated with dry matter and N concentration is essential for improving maize production. A 3– year field study was conducted to determine dry matter accumulation, nitrogen concentration and grain yield of forage and grain maize under different soil amendments in the Western Loess Plateau of China. The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and three replicates per treatment. Results showed that dry matter accumulation and nitrogen concentration in the swine manure in combination with chemical fertilized (SC) crops was significantly higher (by ≈ 60% and 39%) than no amendment (NA) which therefore translated into increased grain yield ≈ 74%. The SC treatment also improved leaf area index and chlorophyll content (P < 0.05) by approximately 34% to 32% compared to NA, which supported the above results. The nitrogen concentration in the leaf was higher at jointing and lower at maturity. Grain yield positively correlated with dry matter accumulation and nitrogen concentration at jointing, flowering and milk stage. Dry matter accumulation and grain yield also increased in the sole swine manure (SM) and maize stover (MS) treatments, but to lesser extent than SC. Based on the improvement of dry matter accumulation, nitrogen concentration and grain yield, swine manure in combination with chemical fertilizer appears to be a better fertilization option under dryland cropping systems.

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xxx M. Gailis, J. Rudzitis, J. Kreicbergs and G. Zalcmanis
Experimental analysis of hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and commercial diesel fuel blend characteristics using modified CFR engine
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Experimental analysis of hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and commercial diesel fuel blend characteristics using modified CFR engine

M. Gailis¹²*, J. Rudzitis¹, J. Kreicbergs¹ and G. Zalcmanis¹

¹Riga Technical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Transport and Aeronautics, Department of Automotive Engineering, Viskalu 36A, LV1006 Riga, Latvia
²Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanics, Liela street 2, LV 3001, Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: maris.gailis@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Performance parameters of different commercial diesel fuels is a subject of interest for fuel consumers. Fuel retailer Neste recently introduced a new brand of WWFC 5th grade diesel fuel in Baltic market, consisting of diesel fuel and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) blend. Fuel samples have been recently tested on chassis dynamometer, measuring wheel power and torque and in road conditions, measuring fuel consumption. Evaluation of fuel consumption and performance parameters in road or laboratory conditions may yield uncertain results due to complexity of modern automobile engine management and emission reduction systems. To better evaluate the combustion, fuel samples have been tested in modified CFR engine at various intake air pressure, temperature and compression ratio settings. Engine indicated performance parameters and combustion phasing of regular diesel fuel and diesel fuel-HVO blend are presented. Comparing to regular diesel fuel, fuel blend with HVO showed reduced apparent heat release rate (AHRR) during premixed combustion phase at low inlet air temperature and low compression ratio conditions, comparing to regular diesel fuel. Premixed combustion phase AHRR of diesel-HVO blend increased above AHRR of regular diesel fuel at higher inlet air temperature and higher compression ratio conditions. Diffusion controlled combustion phase AHRR of diesel-HVO blend increased above AHRR of regular diesel fuel at higher inlet air temperature, higher compression ratio conditions and supercharged air supply.

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xxx J. Hůla, M. Kroulík and I. Honzík
Critical velocity of solid mineral fertilizers in a vertical upward airstream and repose angle
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Critical velocity of solid mineral fertilizers in a vertical upward airstream and repose angle

J. Hůla*, M. Kroulík and I. Honzík

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: hula@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Critical velocity of mineral fertilizers in airstream is important not only at the application of fertilizers by spreaders but also at combine of fertilizing and sowing. The knowledge of angles of repose is important to design hoppers on spreaders for solid mineral fertilizers. Critical velocities for six solid mineral fertilizers were measured in the vertical aspiration duct of a laboratory sorting machine. Variation curves were constructed for particular fertilizers and the mean critical velocity of fertilizers (velocity of uplift) was computed. The mean critical velocity of fertilizers was between 8.53 and 12.43 m s-1. The lowest critical velocity was found out in the fertilizer UREA 46%, the highest in the fertilizer LAV. Statistical significance of differences in the critical velocity of fertilizers was assessed. Angles of repose of eight solid mineral fertilizers were also measured and statistical significance of differences was evaluated. The highest values of repose angle were determined for potassium salt and ammonium sulfate (35.9° respectively 34.9°), the lowest values for UREA and LAV (28.7° respectively 29.6°). The obtained results extend information applicable to an assessment of parameters of the operation quality of spreaders during mineral fertilizer application.

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xxx J. Maga and K. Krištof
Effect of drill machine operating speed on quality of sowing and biomass yield
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Effect of drill machine operating speed on quality of sowing and biomass yield

J. Maga and K. Krištof*

University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Biosystems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovakia
*Correspondence: koloman.kristof@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The paper is focused on the study and evaluation of quality of the seeding of seeds and its effect on the biomass yield. The aim was to evaluate the space arrangement of the seeds by using of polygon method on one field with the repetition for different forward speeds of the drill machine. For the evaluation there were used digital photographs, which were taken during repeated measurements of the each value of the forward speed after sprouting of crop. These images have been used in order to determine the shape and size of the surface area belonging to the plant. Own software TfPolyM was used for the image analysis. The shape of the polygons belonging to the individual plants was expressed by values of the shape factor Tf. This factor characterises the suitability the shape of polygon surface related to the individual plant. By comparing of the values of the shape factors for different forward speeds of the drill machine we can determine the optimal value of the forward speed from the point of seed placement uniformity in horizontal level. During harvest of the crop there was analysed the variability of the biomass yield in relation to values of the forward speed used during seeding. The most suitable values of shape factor Tf (0.8519) was recorded for speed of drill machine set on 12 km h-1. For other tested speeds 8, 10, 15 km h-1 were recorded lower values of shape factor 0.7994, 0.8173 and 0.8449, respectively. In determination of biomass production for drill machine speed 12 km h-1 the greatest yield from 1 m2 was observed. Subsequently, for speeds 8 and 10 km h-1 was lower about 4.26% and 1.83%, respectively. For tested speeds of drill machinery 15 km h-1 and above was observed only a small descent of yields about 0.6%. Fluctuation in yields affected by working speed then demonstrates fluctuation in sowing rate. It was also observed that the working speed of sowing machinery also affect the amount of yield directly. However, in case of lowest yield of straw recorded it was observed even 20% decrease in yield of grains.

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xxx R. Zewdie and P. Kic
Substantial factors influencing drivers’ comfort in transportation
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Substantial factors influencing drivers’ comfort in transportation

R. Zewdie¹* and P. Kic²

¹University of Life Sciences in Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological equipment of buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: zewdie@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Research shows that driver stress is associated with workload and fatigue, and an inappropriate microclimate in the driving cabin can have an impact on overall driver’s safety. The aim of this scientific study is to examine whether driver stress, across various urban and field drive conditions, can affect performance in a confined environment and whether the natural breathing process can also compound these effects and aggravate health hazards. This paper will address the influencing parameters associated with driver comfort of everyday job occupations in the urban communication network of Prague city public transport. In this research paper the authors will characterize cardinal components directly accountable to the safe operation elements; the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the relative humidity (Rhi) in the driving cabin, affecting the contentment of the drivers comfort while performing their duties. Similar inquiries were carried out on ventilation emphasis and air intake impact in drivers’ cabin, recommending a design to minimize safety problems associated with comfort. Data on the concentration of carbon dioxide and internal relative humidity in the respective cabins have been collected carefully for detailed analysis. This research paper is the outcome of these findings.

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xxx A. Annuk, A. Allik and K. Annuk
Reed canary grass cultivation’s energy efficiency and fuel quality
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Reed canary grass cultivation’s energy efficiency and fuel quality

A. Annuk¹*, A. Allik¹ and K. Annuk²

¹University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Department of Energy Engineering, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 5, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: andres.annuk@emu.ee

Abstract:

The article discusses the energy yield and yield capacity of reed canary grass stands in semi-natural and cultivated meadows with edaphic conditions most favourable for species growing on fertile soil. Energy grass production yields have been assessed with respect to the issues of precipitation, sunshine, and frozen ground. In Estonia, a dried matter level of 4.2–8.5 t ha-1 of reed canary grass may produce 72.91–147.56 GJ ha-1 gross energy by using 1.48–3.06 GJ ha-1 input energy, which consequently nets 71.44–1,445.00 GJ ha-1. The above finding indicates that 1 MJ input energy enables the production of 2.8 kg dry matter. The efficiency of energy production (ratio of energy returned on energy invested) depends on the amount of input energy used to grow and harvest reed canary grass. The input energy payback ratio for the given case was 48.2–49.4, which was higher than cases with lower and higher dry matter yield levels. Precipitation during the second part of the Estonian summer, heavy winter snow cover and a simultaneous frequent lack of frozen ground reduce the productivity of reed canary grass as energy hay because the winter or early spring harvest cannot be used.

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xxx R. Abrahám, R. Majdan and R. Drlička
Comparison of tractor slip at three different driving wheels on grass
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Comparison of tractor slip at three different driving wheels on grass

R. Abrahám¹, R. Majdan¹ and R. Drlička²

¹Department of handling and transport machinery, Faculty of Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
²Department of Quality and Engineering Technologies, Faculty of Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovak
*Correspondence: rudolf.abraham@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The paper deals with a possibility of tractor slip reduction on a grass and evaluates an use of two versions of special wheels. Both prototypes were developed at the Department of Transport and Handling of the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra. The first system was designed in 2010 year as blades wheels. The second system (spikes device) consists of spikes which are mounted onto standard tractor tyres with special cuts, was designed in 2014 year. The spikes are settled in these cuts while moving on road surface. The second one is placed near the drive wheels and uses the blades. The spikes and blades are ejected to reduce wheels slip when tractor operates on grass or soil. The base position allows tractor transport on road with standard tyres. The goal of experiments realized on grass surface was to compare mutually slip behaviour achieved. The measurements were realized with standard tyres without any modification, too. A tractor with three types of drive wheels were loaded by heavier tractor. Drawbar pull and wheel rotation speed for slip calculation were measured in tests. The results show a fact that a loss of energy due to the wheels slip increases, while a penetrometric resistance in the surface layers of a soil decreases, at soil humidity 33.2%. An application of both prototypes is very advantageous because they reduce the wheels slip, increase tractor operation efficiency and so protect the soil.

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xxx B. Osmane, I.H. Konosonoka, A. Trupa and L. Proskina
Peas and beans as a protein feed for dairy cows
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Peas and beans as a protein feed for dairy cows

B. Osmane*, I.H. Konosonoka, A. Trupa and L. Proskina

Latvia University of Agriculture, Svetes street 18, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: baiba.osmane@arei.lv

Abstract:

The need for alternative protein sources to soybean meal, partially or fully substituted in the diets of dairy cows, is an urgent problem in farming nowadays. Soybean meal is the most common protein source included in feed concentrate for dairy cows in Latvia and in other European countries as well. Among possible alternatives, grain legumes seem interesting for dairy cow diets because of their rapid degradation in the rumen and readily available energy. Peas and beans will be an important source of proteins in feed. Biochemical tests were done on eight samples of domestically grown dried peas of average size, 11 samples of dried beans of average size and some samples of soybean meal to examine the chemical composition of the peas and beans. Peas and beans were included in the feed ration during a feeding trial on dairy cows. Milk yields and milk quality parameters were examined in the trial. The digestibility of peas of most varieties and breeding lines examined was considerably higher than that of soybean meal, while the digestibility of beans of all the varieties and breeding lines examined and of soybean meal was the same. The peas contained more reducing sugars, starches and had a higher value of NEL than the tested beans, which meant the peas had a higher nutritional value. The diets comprising beans and peas fed to the dairy cows increased the fat and protein contents of milk, compared with the control group and the beginning of the trial. The total amount of amino acids increased in the bulk milk samples of all the trial groups during the feeding trial.

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xxx L. Chladek, V. Plachy, P. Vaculik and P. Brany
Evaluation of nutritional and physical values of pellets based on pea and lupine with added yeast in chickens fattening
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Evaluation of nutritional and physical values of pellets based on pea and lupine with added yeast in chickens fattening

L. Chladek¹*, V. Plachy², P. Vaculik¹ and P. Brany¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS), Faculty of Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague - Suchdol, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Microbiology, Nutrition and Dietetics, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague - Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: chladekl@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The article is focused on the development of the new type of broiler chicken feed, based on pea (Pisum sativum L.) and blue lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L), enriched with used dried brewer´s yeast. This composition eliminates use of soybean meal (PES) that was yet a traditional component in chicken feed. The main reason for its elimination was the using of genetically modified varieties of soybean and its relatively high price around 0.5 €uro kg-1 in Czech Republic. For milling of pea or blue lupine was used vertical (hammer) mill type Taurus, supplied by company TAURUS, for drying of used brewer´s yeast had been used drier Memmert UFE 800, final dry matter of the yeast was 88%. For pellets production were used two devices, press type JGE 120-6110 and Testmer. For the determination of physical properties of manufactured pellets (the weight of 1,000 pieces, bulk density, abrasiveness and pellet durability index PDI) were used following laboratory devices, Pellet Tester Holmen NHP and Testmer 200. Experimental activities had shown that the best results were reached using pellets manufactured on base blue lupine enriched by dried brewer´s yeast (6%).

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xxx O. Šařec and P. Šařec
Results of fifteen-year monitoring of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) production in selected farm businesses of the Czech Republic from the viewpoint of technological and economic parameters
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Results of fifteen-year monitoring of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) production in selected farm businesses of the Czech Republic from the viewpoint of technological and economic parameters

O. Šařec* and P. Šařec

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamycka 129, CZ165 00 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: sarec@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The paper presents field trials focused on technological and economic comparison of conventional tillage (CT) and reduced tillage (RT) technologies of soil cultivation and drilling of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). During fifteen production years starting in 2001/02, trials were set up in 520 fields of around 40 farm businesses located in all of the districts of the Czech Republic. With respect to average seed yields, no significant differences were proved with respect to tillage systems, to the application of organic fertilizers and to the fertilization during sowing. Irregular distribution of trial fields into the individual production areas influenced the outcomes thou. Concerning winter rape seed yields, costs per production unit, and earnings per hectare, the most suitable production area proved still to be the potatoes one, but particularly over the recent period also beet production area. The corn production area produced, despite some exceptions, worst results. Over the fifteen-year time, the average oilseed rape yield of all 520 monitored fields was 3.72 t ha–1. Reduced tillage attained average yield of 3.73 t ha–1, i.e. matched almost exactly the one of 3.70 t ha–1 attained by conventional tillage. Unit production costs realized by conventional tillage surpassed by 4.1% those gained by reduced tillage. Related earnings per hectare were on the other hand lower by 17.0%. With respect to fuel and labour consumption, reduced tillage brought significant savings reaching in average 20.2%, respectively 24.0%. In terms of yields, reduced tillage with deeper soil loosening proved repeatedly favourable results.

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xxx B. Rivža, L. Āzena and P. Rivža
Evaluation of smart economy development in the RIGA planning region (LATVIA)
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Evaluation of smart economy development in the RIGA planning region (LATVIA)

B. Rivža, L. Āzena* and P. Rivža

Latvia University of Agriculture, 2 Liela Str., LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: azenaligita@gmail.com

Abstract:

Aim of the study: to evaluate the indicators of smart economy development and the interaction with other indicators for the Riga planning region.
Methods: analysis of documentation and statistical data, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method.
To evaluate the potential development of smart economy in the Riga planning region (henceforth – RPR), it is important to understand the present situation in the region, its specificity, and role in the context of provisional future trends. Two approaches have been employed in the present study to evaluate the situation on a regional level. One includes the collection and comparison of the basic economic development indicators, whereas AHP method has been used in the second approach, where 5 experts expressed their opinion on the options of potential development of smart specialisation in the RPR.
RPR as a capital city region is pronouncedly monocentric, with Riga city as its socioeconomic core that develops a wide network of functional ties, and creates a home for the part of the society that works in Riga, but lives in the adjacent suburban territories – Pieriga.
Traditionally the basic indicators of development include only the demographic and economic indicators. Sometimes these results are not objective, do not describe the potential for development, but clearly show the inequal social and economic situation in the region. To characterise the economic development in the RPR, we will include the economic profile data, statistical data and expert opinions on the population, regional government, state and EU influence on the development of the Pieriga region smart specialisation.

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xxx J. Čedík, M. Pexa and R. Pražan
Effect of rake angle and cutting speed on energy demands of mulcher with vertical axis of rotation
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Effect of rake angle and cutting speed on energy demands of mulcher with vertical axis of rotation

J. Čedík¹*, M. Pexa¹ and R. Pražan²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21, Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Research Institute of Agriculture Engineering, Drnovská 507, CZ161 01, Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: cedikj@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The contribution deals with the reduction of agriculture energy demands. For maintenance and treatment of permanent grassland areas, areas left fallow and put to rest the mulching in combination with other workflows (mowing, grazing) is advantageous procedure. As conventional impact grass cutting and chopping is energy demanding procedure, it is proper to reduce the energy demands of such device. In the paper the effect of shape of cutting tool, particularly the rake angle, on energy demands of mulcher with vertical axis of rotation is studied. The effect of cutting speed on energy demands is also verified. The measurement was performed using mulcher MZ 6000 made by Bednar FMT Ltd. with working width of 6 m and three rotors. During the measurement the test rides using the cutting tools with different rake angle and cutting speeds of 105m s-1, 89 m s-1 and 79 m s-1 were performed. The rake angle of cutting tools were chosen 0°, 15° and 25°. The test area was pasture with permanent grassland. During the measurement the torque and power, transferred through PTO to the machine, fuel consumption and GPS coordinates were measured. From each test ride the samples of grass matter were taken in order to determine the yield and moisture content. It was found that increase of the rake angle up to 25° and decrease of the cutting speed resulted in decrease of the power requirement of the mulcher.

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xxx M. Pexa, J. Čedík, F. Kumhála and R. Pražan
Comparison of mechanical and electric drive of mulcher
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Comparison of mechanical and electric drive of mulcher

M. Pexa¹*, J. Čedík¹, F. Kumhála² and R. Pražan³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521, Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521, Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Research Institute of Agriculture Engineering, Drnovská 507, CZ161 01, Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: pexa@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The contribution is focused on comparison of mechanical and electric drive of mulcher with vertical axis of rotation by means of mathematical model. The mulcher has working width of 6 m and it is usually aggregated with tractor of minimal power of 150 kW. On the test plot the torque and power transferred trough the tractor PTO, fuel consumption and the production of gaseous emissions components were monitored. This field measurement served as a basis for modelling as well as measured complete characteristics of the combustion engine of the tractor John Deere 7930. As a main base for the modelling the record of real operation of the tractor with mulcher was used. Then, in the software product MathCad the operation of the tractor with mechanical and electrical drive of the mulcher was modelled. In the case of the electrical drive of the mulcher the tractor with internal combustion engine, connected to generator was taken into consideration. Due to overall lower efficiency of the electrical drive with generator, worse values of the fuel consumption and emissions production in comparison with mechanical drive were reached in case of electric drive. At hypothetical use of batteries (100% electro-powered tractor) and when the energy mix at Czech Republic is taken into consideration, it is possible to reach the quarter values of emissions production in comparison with combustion engine.

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xxx J. Čedík, J. Chyba, M. Pexa and S. Petrásek
Influence of shape of cutting tool on pressure conditions in workspace of mulcher with vertical axis of rotation
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Influence of shape of cutting tool on pressure conditions in workspace of mulcher with vertical axis of rotation

J. Čedík¹*, J. Chyba², M. Pexa¹ and S. Petrásek²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521, Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521, Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: cedikj@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Nowadays there is laid great insistence on work efficiency improvement. This effort also affects the construction of mowers such as mulchers. Mulching with a vertical axis of rotation is very energy demanding work operation mainly, due to high energy losses. These energy losses, but also the quality of work, are influenced by the airflow and associated conditions of pressure inside the workspace of mulcher. Airflow in the workspace ensures repetitious contact of the truncated forage crops with the cutting edge tool and thus ensures crushing of aboveground parts of plants. The paper deals with the influence of the cutting tool shape on the mulcher’s inside workspace pressure conditions with the vertical axis of rotation. The influence of the trailing edge angle and rake angle on the pressure profile in the mulcher’s workspace with dependence on the rotor speed was examined. Measurements were performed on a laboratory single rotor mulcher model. It was found that in the mulcher’s workspace the vacuum is formed by virtue of the rotary movement of the cutting tools wherein the vacuum increases with rotor speed. The maximum measured vacuum was about 2.4 kPa and from the centre of the rotor towards its circumference almost linearly decreases. Furthermore, it was found that with decreasing trailing edge angle and with increasing rake angle the maximum vacuum decreases. When reducing the angle of the trailing edge from 45° to 25° led to reduction of vacuum of about 0.3 kPa (12.6%).

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xxx K. Křížová and J. Kumhálová
Comparison of selected remote sensing sensors for crop yield variability estimation
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Comparison of selected remote sensing sensors for crop yield variability estimation

K. Křížová¹* and J. Kumhálová²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: krizovak@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Currently, spectral indices are very common tool how to describe various characteristics of vegetation. In fact, these are mathematical operations which are calculated using specific bands of electromagnetic spectrum. Nevertheless, remote sensing sensors can differ due to the variations in bandwidth of the particular spectral channels. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to compare selected sensors in terms of their capability to predict crop yield by NDVI utilization. The experiment was performed at two locations (Prague-Ruzyně and Vendolí) in the year 2015 for both locations and in 2007 for Prague-Ruzyně only, when winter barley or spring barley grew on the plots. The cloud-free satellite images were chosen and normalised difference vegetation indices (NDVI) were calculated for each image. Landsat satellite images with moderate spatial resolution (30 m per pixel) were chosen during the crop growth for selected years. The other data sources were commercial satellite images with very high spatial resolution – QuickBird (QB) (0.6 m per pixel) in 2007 and WorldView-2 (WV-2) (2 m per pixel) in 2015 for Prague-Ruzyně location; and SPOT-7 (6 m per pixel) satellite image in 2015 for Vendolí location. GreenSeeker handheld crop sensor (GS) was used for collecting NDVI data for both locations in 2015 only. NDVI calculated at each of images was compared with the yield data. The data sources were compared with each other at the same term of crop growth stage. The results showed that correlation between GS and yield was relatively weak at Ruzyně. Conversely, significant relation was found at Vendolí location. The satellite images showed stronger relation with yield than GS. Landsat satellite images had higher values of correlation coefficient (in 30 m spatial resolution) at Ruzyně in both selected years. However, at Vendolí location, SPOT-7 satellite image has significantly better results compared to Landsat image. It is necessary to do more research to define which sensor measurements are most useful for selected applications in agriculture management.

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xxx V. Mironovs, I. Boiko, M. Lisicins and V. Zemcenkovs
Band structures for binding and holding of objects made from recycled metallic materials
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Band structures for binding and holding of objects made from recycled metallic materials

V. Mironovs¹, I. Boiko², M. Lisicins¹* and V. Zemcenkovs¹

¹Riga Technical University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Building Production, Kipsalas street 6a–331, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
²Riga Technical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Transport and Aeronautics, Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Viskalu street 36A, LV-1006 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: mihails.lisicins@gmail.com

Abstract:

The aim of the present research is the investigation of the possibility and effectiveness of using the band structures made from recycled metallic materials for binding and holding of objects (in particular, tubular objects as pipelines or shells). The using of band elements and structures as such is a perspective way to increase the safety and bearing capacity of the pipelines and vessels. Nowadays during repair works the outer surfaces of the mentioned objects are braided by the steel tapes, i.e. the objects are strengthened by the binding. The mentioned steel bands are specially produced for binding purpose. From the other hand after stamping of small-size details (like the elements of supply chains for different apparatus) the metallic waste in the shape of perforated metallic tapes are received and needs to be reused in compliance with the good practice in effective resource using and recycling. The band structures for binding and holding of tubular objects, produced from the perforated metallic tape by the longitudinal profiling, multilayer and spiral winding are presented. It is proposed to apply in industry the composite band structures made from perforated metallic materials and epoxy matrix for binding and holding of tubular objects as pipelines or shells, which allows simplifying and speeding up the repair works especially in the cases of the local damages.

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xxx Y. Katsiagiannis, A. Annuk and E.S. Karapidakis
Contribution of pumped hydro energy storage for more RES utilization on autonomous power systems
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Contribution of pumped hydro energy storage for more RES utilization on autonomous power systems

Y. Katsiagiannis¹, A. Annuk² and E.S. Karapidakis¹*

¹Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Faculty of Applied Science, Department of Electrical Engineering, Estavromenos Campus, GR71004 Heraklio, Greece
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Department of Energy Engineering, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: karapidakis@staff.teicrete.gr

Abstract:

This paper addresses the performance issues of autonomous power systems under high renewable energy sources (RES) penetration. Renewable energy sources could be the main option for isolated power generation at remote locations in case that energy storage introduced. At the moment, pumped hydro storage (PHS) units and batteries storage systems (BSS) represent the most mature technologies for large scale energy storage. The basic criteria for this kind of energy storage unit installations include, (a) the existence of an autonomous power system with local power stations, (b) the high electricity production cost, (c) the potential of renewable energy sources (mainly wind and solar), and (d) the non-flat terrain morphology (for PHS). Greek islands represent ideal cases for large scale energy storage installations, as they fulfil all the above criteria. This paper shows the effect of the installation of a planned PHS unit in Crete island. The calculations are based on real data provided by the Cretan power system operator, whereas the results show the effect of energy storage units operation on the energy mix, as well as the economic viability of the project, which is combined with significant environmental benefits.

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xxx M. Barát, V. Rataj, Š. Týr, M. Macák and J. Galambošová
Effect of controlled traffic farming on weed occurrence
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Effect of controlled traffic farming on weed occurrence

M. Barát¹*, V. Rataj¹, Š. Týr², M. Macák¹ and J. Galambošová¹

¹Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Biosystems, Tr. Andreja Hlinku 2, SK94976 Nitra, Slovakia
²Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Department of Sustainable Agriculture and Herbology, Tr. Andreja Hlinku 2, SK94976 Nitra, Slovakia
*Correspondence: xbarat@is.uniag.sk

Abstract:

Soil compaction caused by field traffic is one of the most important yield limiting factors. Moreover, published results report that soil over-compaction inhibits the uptake of plant nutrients and decreases their ability to compete with weeds. Controlled Traffic Farming (CTF) is technology which prevents excessive soil compaction and minimizes compacted area to the least possible area of permanent traffic lines. A long-term experiment was established at University farm in Kolinany (Slovakia) in 2010 with 6 m OutTrack CTF system. Random Traffic Farming (RTF) is simulated by 1 annual machinery pass crossing the permanent traffic lines. Aim of presented study was to assess the effect of CTF on weed infection pressure. To achieve this, weed occurrence at different traffic treatments was determined. Emerged weeds per square meter were counted, identified and recorded at 14 monitoring points. Results showed that higher weed infection was found at the area with one machinery pass compared to the non-compacted area. Following weeds were identified: Bromus secalinus L., Stellaria media (L.) VILL., Veronica persica POIR. in LAMK., Poa annua L., Polygonum aviculare L., Convolvulus arvensis L. Occurrence of these weeds could be used as soil compaction indicator. Based on these results it can be concluded, that CTF technology has potential to decrease weed infestation in comparison to RTF system due to ration of non-compacted to compacted area. Moreover, with exact localization of weeds in traffic lines together with exact identification of weed species, it is possible to target the application of herbicides.

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xxx P. Prochazka, A. Murjan, V. Hönig and K. Pernica
Some factors affecting the efficiency of potato production, under Al–Ghab plain conditions, Syrian Arab Republic
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Some factors affecting the efficiency of potato production, under Al–Ghab plain conditions, Syrian Arab Republic

P. Prochazka¹*, A. Murjan¹, V. Hönig² and K. Pernica²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, Kamýcka 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
²University of Economics, Faculty of Business Administration, Department of Strategy, W. Churchill Sq., CZ130 67 Prague 3, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: pprochazka@pef.czu.cz

Abstract:

Data were collected by a field survey of 300 farmers from Al–Ghab region (Syria) during 2014–2015. The non–parametric Data Envelopment was used in analyzing the Technical efficiency. The relationship between farm size and production efficiency was considered. Technical efficiency amounted about 53% and most of farms are operating at low level of technical efficiency. The relationship between farm size and productivity efficiency is Non–linear, it decreases from small to medium farm size and then increases as the size increase. Large farms have the higher net farm income per thousand square meters and are the most efficient technically followed by small and medium farm size. To disclose that factors causing the technical efficiency, Two–limit Tobit Regression Model was used. The calculated results showed that, Household Size, Occupation, Farm Size, Experience in Farming, Seed Type and Membership are factors that cause the technical inefficiency potato farming at Al–Ghab region. Therefore, the Syrian Planning Board and Decision Makers should take this results into account when they draw their plans to improve farmer’s skills by allocating more investment in farm research and extension programmers.

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xxx J. Ereline, K. Pärenson, D. Vahtrik, M. Pääsuke and H. Gapeyeva
Skeletal muscle tone and motor performance characteristics in dentists as compared to controls
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Skeletal muscle tone and motor performance characteristics in dentists as compared to controls

J. Ereline¹*, K. Pärenson², D. Vahtrik¹, M. Pääsuke¹ and H. Gapeyeva¹

1University of Tartu, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Sport Sciences and Physiotherapy, 5 Jakobi Street, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
²Selfdiagnostics GmbH OÜ, Rävala pst 3/Kuke 2, EE10143 Tallinn, Estonia
*Correspondence: jaan.ereline@ut.ee

Abstract:

The daily work tasks of dentists are associated with repeated movements and static load during the treatment of patients. Dentists’ profession includes manual dexterity and maintaining the occupational posture for a long time. Previously it has been noted that dentists have increased muscle stress in neck, shoulder and lower back regions. The aim of the present study was to compare the muscle tone and motor performance characteristics of neck and shoulder region in dentists and representatives of other professions who do not have similar static load of long-time duration (as controls). Twenty women aged 34–55 years participated in the study: ten dentists with the age (mean and SE) of 40.2 ± 3.9 years and ten controls (bookkeepers, security guards, office workers, printing house workers, laundry and dry cleaning workers) with the age of 40.9 ± 2.4 years; working period was on the average 14 years in both groups. The tone characteristics of m. trapezius and m. extensor carpi radialis were investigated by device Myoton-2 (Müomeetria Ltd, Estonia) at rest and at maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in sitting position at the workplace of participants. The cervical range of motion (CROM) and the handgrip strength were measured. Significantly higher (P < 0.05) tone and elasticity characteristics of m. extensor carpi radialis and lower (P < 0.05) tone and elasticity characteristics of m. trapezius at rest were noted in dentists compared to controls. At MVC, no significant differences were found in the studied characteristics between body sides in the measured groups. Dentists had lower (P < 0.05) CROM of flexion and rotation than controls. In dentists emerged significant difference in muscle elasticity characteristics for the right body side, this is related with stretching for dentistry instruments.

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xxx M. Mimra and M. Kavka
Risk analysis regarding a minimum annual utilization of combine harvesters in agricultural companies
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Risk analysis regarding a minimum annual utilization of combine harvesters in agricultural companies

M. Mimra* and M. Kavka

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilisation, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6–Suchdol, Czech Republic *Correspondence: mimra@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This article presents the results of entrepreneurial risk analysis concerning a minimum annual utilization of harvesters in a company providing agricultural services where a group of combine harvesters is used. Furthermore, this article presents the following analysed key operating parameters with the greatest influence on reaching the minimum annual utilization and performance: the changing market price of mechanized work, the volatile purchase price of the machines, average maintenance costs).
Partial profit which an enterprise can reach through operating combine harvesters is directly affected by the level of their annual utilization. Not reaching the minimum annual utilization of combine harvesters would create losses that could result in termination of business activity in the specific field or even insolvency of the company. It is therefore necessary to monitor the key factors which influence the minimum annual usage and in case of negative developments to take timely corrective actions.

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xxx A. Muntean, T. Ivanova, P. Hutla and B. Havrland
Influence of raw material properties on the quality of solid biofuel and energy consumption in briquetting process
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Influence of raw material properties on the quality of solid biofuel and energy consumption in briquetting process

A. Muntean¹, T. Ivanova¹*, P. Hutla² and B. Havrland¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Department of
Sustainable Technologies, Kamýcká 129, CZ 16500 Prague, Czech Republic
²Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Drnovská 507, CZ 16101 Prague,
Czech Republic
*Correspondence: ivanova@ftz.czu.cz

Abstract:

The present paper is related to a pressing process research of raw materials with different density in order to investigate impact of biomass density on a formation of monolithic structure and the briquette’s strength. Another focus of the study is an influence of raw materials particles’ size on agglomeration process and quality of final product. Different biomass materials like two varieties of miscanthus, industrial hemp and apple wood were selected for experimental purposes of this research. Mechanical durability which represents one the main indicator of briquettes’ mechanical quality (strength) was determined. The research was conducted using hydraulic piston briquetting press. For assessment of briquetting efficiency during the whole process energy consumption was measured. One of the most important factors that can affect briquetting process is the temperature of pressing chamber which was registered as well. The main goal of the research was practical study of possibilities for increasing production efficiency and quality of briquettes on hydraulic piston briquetting press with respect to optimization of particles’ size of raw materials and use of raw materials the most appropriate density.

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xxx S. Kovář, J. Mašek and P. Novák
Comparison of tillage systems in terms of water infiltration into the soil during the autumn season
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Comparison of tillage systems in terms of water infiltration into the soil during the autumn season

S. Kovář*, J. Mašek and P. Novák

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamycka 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: kovars@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The soil belongs to the most valuable parts of the planet Earth. It is, endangered by water erosion, which causes huge destruction every year, or damage to farmland. More than half of the agricultural land in the Czech Republic is threatened by water erosion. The measurement was performed in the location Nesperská Lhota. The trial has been established on loamy sand Cambisol. In the field experiment, there were created 6 different variants which wad differed by soil tillage and crop. In the individual variants maize and oats were located. The field trial has been existing for a long time, as it was founded in 2009. Two measuring methods of water infiltration were used for the measurements: a mini disk infiltrometer and a single ring. The measurement was performed in the period of September 2016 before the harvest of maize. The soil aggregates were already stabilized at that time after all tillage operations. The measurement result showed the difference between the methods of soil tillage. The greatest ability of infiltration had a variant of maize with inter-row oats. Surprisingly, it was followed by maize, which was processed by ploughing technology. The lowest infiltration capacity was showed by oats reduced by soil tillage. A variant without vegetation had the second lowest infiltration. Our results obtained at rate of water infiltration into the soil affirm the need to control measures in the late vegetative stages. It is important for most of the rainfall to be quickly infiltrated so that it prevents the formation of massive surface runoff.

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xxx J. Šimon, J. Vegricht and J. Bradna
The effect of bedding amount on gas emissions from manure during storage
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The effect of bedding amount on gas emissions from manure during storage

J. Šimon*, J. Vegricht and J. Bradna

Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Drnovská 507, CZ161 01 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: josef.simon@vuzt.cz

Abstract:

One of the major agricultural pollutants of environment is manure from livestock. We focused on dairy cows kept in the barns with straw bedding commonly used in the Czech Republic. We tested the hypothesis that the amount of bedding used daily relative to the number and size of animals kept has a significant effect on the emissions of gases from manure stored in a manure pile. In the experiment, a group of 10 dairy cows of Holstein and Czech Red Pied breed was housed in a stable bedded with various amounts of wheat straw (4–10 kg/livestock unit per day). The manure was removed from the stable after 48 h and mixed was stored in cubic containers with drain floor allowing measurement of manure leachate release. For 50 days we measured weight, volume, weight of manure leachate and manure temperature. Decreasing stored manure weight can be attributed to release of manure leachate and emissions of gases, primarily water vapor, as a result of microbial activity and increased temperature in the manure during storage. Using the calculated model, we found that daily production of emissions of water vapor and other gases was related to bedding amount in a statistically significant manner (P < 0.001). The cumulative amount of gas emissions grew rapidly in all treatments. Also total amount of emissions was related to bedding amount in a statistically significant manner (P = 0.004). We also found the relationship between internal manure temperature and the logarithm of the amount of emissions produced to be statistically significant (P < 0.001).

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xxx G. Hrenov, I. Vilcane, V. Urbane and P. Tint
Improving job satisfaction with different intervention methods among the school personnel in Estonia and Latvia
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Improving job satisfaction with different intervention methods among the school personnel in Estonia and Latvia

G. Hrenov¹, I. Vilcane², V. Urbane² and P. Tint¹*

¹Tallinn University of Technology, Faculty of Economics, Institute of Business Administration, Ehitajate 5, EE19086, Tallinn, Estonia
²Riga Technical University, Faculty of Engineering Economics and Management, Institute of Labour Safety and Civil Defence, Kalku street 1, LV-1658, Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: piia.tint@ttu.ee

Abstract:

This investigation was carried out in two high schools: one in Estonia (EST1) and one in Latvia (LAT1). The offices EST2 and LAT2 were chosen from the countryside of the both countries. Office EST1 is situated in an atrium-type building for educational and research needs. The second building is mainly for education (auditoriums) and the offices LAT1 are situated on the ground floor. The third and the fourth offices were taken for comparison. Office EST2 is situated in a countryside in an old wooden building; the fourth office LAT2 is located in a new building in Latvian countryside. All together 181 office-workers were involved. At first, the work environment conditions were measured. The ergonomics of workplaces was assessed with ART-tool and Kiva-questionnaire was used to study psychosocial conditions and job satisfaction at computer-equipped workplaces. Occupational hazards were measured to clarify, do the work environment influence on the behaviour and the job motivation and satisfaction of the worker at workplace? After the first questioning of workers using Kiva-questionnaire, the Metal Age programme was implemented and after the intervention, the Kiva-questionnaire was carried out again. The results showed that if the preventive measures for solving the problems at workplace are implemented, and the employers and the employees are trained and consulted using the appropriate programmes, the stress situations could be avoided. The workers in all offices were confident that the discussion about the problems is very important as the work with computers is intensive and there is a very short time to communicate with each other. The educational work is also stressful.

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xxx V. Novák, D. Novák J. Volf and V. Ryzhenko
Verification of mathematical model of pressure distribution in artificial knee joint
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Verification of mathematical model of pressure distribution in artificial knee joint

V. Novák¹, D. Novák² J. Volf¹ and V. Ryzhenko¹*

¹University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
²Matej Bel University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Technology, Tajovského 40, SK974 01 Banská Bystrica, Slovakia
*Correspondence: volf@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The paper deals with pressure distribution measurement in knee arthroplasty, which is an artificial replacement of human knee joint. The scope of the article is to verify the accuracy of a mathematical model by real measurements. The calculated pressure values basing on the mathematical model are compared with actually measured pressure values in the contact area of the joint. Hereby maximal load the in the contact area, the distribution of the pressure and any potentially dangerous pressure deviations during the walk cycle are checked. To enable accurate pressure distribution measurement without interfering into human’s body, a sophisticated measuring setup was created: the contact area of the joint was equipped with several pressure sensors and a machine simulating the human walk cycle was used. The measured pressure data are finally compared with those from the mathematical model and with the strength limit of the used material, to verify the accuracy of the mathematical model experimentally.

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xxx D. Vejchar, M. Stehlik and V. Mayer
Influence of tied ridging technology on the rate of surface runoff and erosion in potato cultivation
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Influence of tied ridging technology on the rate of surface runoff and erosion in potato cultivation

D. Vejchar*, M. Stehlik and V. Mayer

Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Drnovská 507, CZ 16100 Prague, Czech Republic
*Contact: daniel.vejchar@vuzt.cz

Abstract:

Water management and securing good condition of soil is becoming an important factor in agriculture one of the reasons being adaptation to the increasingly frequent extremes in weather. Tied ridging technology enables to reduce significantly the loss of water and soil from arable land. The effect of a tied ridger mounted on 2-row planter and effect of 6-row tied ridger on basin renewal was tested in potato cultivation on plots of land with length of 10 m. During entire season lasting 135 days the technology helped achieve 78% of efficiency in reduction of surface water runoff and 88% of efficiency in case of soil loss. In the case of furrows with only tied ridging the water retained represented additional 15% of total water from rainfall (37.5 mm of 250 mm) over untreated furrows. In the case of basins formed in furrows with wheel trails the water retained represented 15% of total water from rainfalls in the trail. This water retained on the land would have otherwise flown off and would not have been utilized without this technology. The renewal of dams after 1/3 of the season increased significantly the efficiency of this technology. The technology of tied ridging significantly contributes to sustainable agriculture management.

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xxx A. Adamovics, S. Ivanovs and V. Bulgakov
Investigations about the impact of the sowing time and rate of the biomass yield and quality of industrial hemp
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Investigations about the impact of the sowing time and rate of the biomass yield and quality of industrial hemp

A. Adamovics¹, S. Ivanovs¹* and V. Bulgakov²

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, 2, Liela str., Jelgava LV-3001, Latvia
²National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15, Heroyiv Obrony str., Kyiv UK 03041, Ukraine
*Correspondence: semjons@apollo.lv

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to find the optimum sowing rate of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and to clarify the impact of the sowing rate on the production of biofuel from hemp biomass in Latvia. Field trials were carried out at the Research and Study Farm ‘Pēterlauki’ of the Latvia University of Agriculture in 2012–2014. The industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) ‘Futura 75’ was sown in a Luvic Endogleyic Stagnosol soil: pHKCl 6.7; P – 52 mg kg-1; K – 128 mg kg-1; the organic matter content – 21–25 g kg-1. Hemp was sown in 10-m2 plots, triplicate, on May 8 and 17. The total sowing rate was 20 (100), 30 (150), 40 (200), 50 (250), 60 (300), 70 (350), 80 (400), 90 (450), and 100 (500) kg ha-1 (germinating seeds per 1 m2). The plots were fertilised as follows: N – 120 kg ha-1; P2O5 – 80 kg ha-1; and K2O – 112 kg ha-1. Hemp was harvested when the first matured seeds appeared. The biometrical indices (height and stem diameter), harvesting time, the amount of fresh and dry biomass, and the fibre content were evaluated. Depending on the sowing rate, the yield of dry matter was on average 9.2–12.1 t ha-1 when hemp was sown at the beginning of May, and 7.9–10.0 t ha-1 when hemp was sown in the middle of May.

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xxx I. Szabó, M. Hushki, Z. Bártfai and L. Kátai
Operator’s behaviour measuring methodology inside off-road vehicle cabin, operator’s focusing scheme
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Operator’s behaviour measuring methodology inside off-road vehicle cabin, operator’s focusing scheme

I. Szabó, M. Hushki, Z. Bártfai and L. Kátai*

Szent István University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Mechanics and Machinery, Páter K. Street 1., HU2100 Gödöllő, Hungary
*Correspondence: katai.laszlo@gek.szie.hu

Abstract:

Operator’s workplace design takes a priority to be developed in order to reach the highest possible level of Quality, Safety and productivity. Continual improvement of the workplace is yield from studies carried out on different approaches, each approach shall keep into consideration many aspects, in this research; the results will be used for feeding the productivity aspects with valuable and reliable input data using relatively simple engineering solutions. This research is made based on literature of the accumulated knowledge from diverse fields in which different studies and analysis are made to provide the necessary input for Human Centred Design process, adopting the-state-of-the-art technologies and methodologies used for data collection and analysis for Human behaviour inside the dedicated workplace. Better understanding of the operator’s Gaze in addition to the change according to the mental and physical workloads inside the tractor cabin will lead to optimal designs for higher productivity operation.

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xxx O. Chotovinský and V. Altmann
Performance analysis of biodegradable municipal solid waste collection in the Czech Republic
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Performance analysis of biodegradable municipal solid waste collection in the Czech Republic

O. Chotovinský* and V. Altmann

Department of Machinery Utilization, Faculty of Engineering, Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague, Kamycká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic *Correspondence: chotovinsky@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The article deals with the issues of biodegradable municipal solid waste management system, focusing on its separate collection. The two basic locations are compared – rural area and urban area. The emphasis is put on evaluation of individual biodegradable municipal solid waste collections development from 2012 to 2015. Individual technological performances of collection are also observed and evaluated (e.g. biodegradable municipal solid waste production, development of container quantity and collection frequency). The observed data also verify the efficiency of biodegradable municipal solid waste management compared to relative representation of this waste in rest municipal solid waste, which is produced in both locations. Also referential locations without separate biodegradable municipal solid waste collection are observed for evaluation. There are one locality of an urban area and one rural area too. The decrease of biodegradable municipal solid waste in rest of municipal solid waste at the basic rural researched area indicates that the directive on landfills could be followed with well-chosen technological parameters of separate biodegradable municipal solid waste collection at a given site. A statistically significant impact of separate biodegradable municipal solid waste production on relative amount of the biodegradable part in rest municipal solid waste has been demonstrated at the side of this basic rural area.

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xxx V. Urbane, I. Vilcane, P. Tint, J. Ievins, V. Jemeljanovs and L. Birgere
Prevention the impact of chemicals on the health of workers in fibreglass industry
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Prevention the impact of chemicals on the health of workers in fibreglass industry

V. Urbane¹, I. Vilcane¹*, P. Tint², J. Ievins¹, V. Jemeljanovs¹ and L. Birgere¹

¹Riga Technical University, Faculty of Engineering Economics and Management, Institute of Labour Safety and Civil Defence, Kalku street 1, LV-1658 Riga, Latvia
²Tallinn University of Technology, Faculty of Economics, Institute of Business Administration, Ehitajate 5, EE19086 Tallinn, Estonia
*Correspondence: Inese.Vilcane@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Most of the chemicals make our everyday life easier and safer. However, there are a lot of new emerging risks connected with chemicals causing damage to people’s health and environment. The results of the investigation: the chemical exposure index (EI) is between 0.16 to 25.98 (the last determined by the mould spray-up, outside of the protective masks). The air pollution index determined was between 16 to 760%. The ventilation rates for the remove of the volatiles from the workplace air are settled, the possibilities for substitution of hazardous chemicals to less hazardous are presented. When the concentration of a volatile is measured under the protective mask, which has a new filter, the tested substance concentration is lower that under the mask with an old filter, although the differences between these two were rather small. When the volatiles were measured under the protective mask, the concentrations of tested substances met the requirements.

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xxx Z. Roja, H. Kalkis, I. Roja, J. Zalkalns and B. Sloka
Work strain predictors in construction work
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Work strain predictors in construction work

Z. Roja¹, H. Kalkis²*, I. Roja³, J. Zalkalns² and B. Sloka⁴

¹University of Latvia, Ergonomic Research centre, Jelgavas street 1, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia
²Riga Stradiņš University, Faculty of European Studies, Dzirciema street 16, LV-1007 Riga, Latvia
³Riga 1st Hospital, Latvia, Bruninienu 5, LV-1001 Riga, Latvia
⁴University of Latvia, Faculty of Business, Management and Economics, Aspazijas blvd. 5, LV-1050 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: henrijs.kalkis@gmail.com

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to predict the work strain indicators for construction workers and to work out measures for prevention of strain at work. Subjective and objective research methods were utilized in the research, including survey, work intensity measurements (Borg Scale), work strain index, fatigue index and work ability index determination, objective blood pressure and pulse measurements. Statistical analysis with significance calculations was carried out. The limitation of this study is the small number of subjects involved in the research. Subjective evaluation of fatigue index and strain index resulted in moderate and somewhat hard work heaviness categories accordingly to Borg Scale. Measurements of heart rate, blood pressure approved work strain of employees of both professions does not exceed the admissible heart rate limit during physical load. The research proved that the strongest work strain predictors were connected with psycho-social risks rather than with physical ones.

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xxx N. Mazitova, N. Simonova, E. Adeninskaya and M. Trofimova
Occupational diseases among agricultural workers in the Russian Federation: review of statistical data
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Occupational diseases among agricultural workers in the Russian Federation: review of statistical data

N. Mazitova¹*, N. Simonova², E. Adeninskaya³ and M. Trofimova⁴

¹Research and Clinical Center of Otorhinolaryngology of Federal medical and biological agency, Department of Occupational diseases, Volokolamskoye hgw., 30, build. 2, RU 123182 Moscow, Russia
²Klinsky Institute of occupational safety and working conditions,Department for Science, Berezovoy roschi str., 4, RU125252 Moscow, Russia
³Central Clinical Hospital of Civil Aviation, Department of Occupational Health, Ivankovskoye hgw., 7, RU125367 Moscow, Russia
⁴Administration of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare in the Republic of Tatarstan, B.Krasnaya str., 30, RU420111 Kazan, Russia
*Correspondence: mazitova@otolar-centre.ru

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to analyze the epidemiological situation of occupational diseases among agricultural workers in Russia. To address this task, the analysis of occupational diseases incidence was carried out.
Conclusions. For the last decades the proportion of rural working population in Russia is gradually decreasing, but remains noticeably higher than in other industrialized countries. There is a huge difference between entities of the Russian Federation in occupational illnesses incidence rates among agriculture workers, which can be explained by: (a) the distinction of health care availability; (b) lack of occupational physicians in rural areas; (c) the high level of the incidence of non-communicable diseases, which can disguise occupational illnesses among agricultural workers. The improvement of the health care regulatory legal framework, development of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, quality improvement in postgraduate education of medical doctors in rural areas, increasing in the number of occupational health physicians in rural areas, and implementation of long-term health promotion programs are necessary in order to maintain the heath of agricultural workers in the Russian Federation. This list of priority measures is not sufficient, as it highlights only the main issues in the field of occupational health.

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xxx R. Raimla and E. Merisalu
Effectiveness of simulation models on technical skills among surgeons. A critical review
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Effectiveness of simulation models on technical skills among surgeons. A critical review

R. Raimla* and E. Merisalu

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Husbandry Engineering and Ergonomics, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014, Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: riin.raimla@emu.ee

Abstract:

Based on simulation models the surgeons can train technical skills and improve their functional status of musculoskeletal state. Work in good ergonomic position could reduce and prevent musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this review is to carry out critical analysis of research on simulation techniques analysing the effectiveness of simulators on technical skills among the surgeons. The search of the articles based on the databases EBSCO, Science Direct and Web of Science. The articles published in 2011–2016 years and not the literature reviews of simulator models in surgery were the selection criteria. Most often the simulator models have used for training of laparoscopic operations, choosing new instruments or introducing new methodologies. Some articles have paid more attention to ergonomic equipment layout in practice to prevent musculoskeletal disorders. It is important to use simulators in the university hospitals, where the young surgeons and medical students are practicing.

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xxx B. Bernardi, J. Tous, S. Benalia, L.M. Abenavoli, G. Zimbalatti, T. Stillitano and A.I. De Luca
The assessment of hazelnut mechanical harvesting productivity
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The assessment of hazelnut mechanical harvesting productivity

B. Bernardi¹, J. Tous², S. Benalia¹*, L.M. Abenavoli¹, G. Zimbalatti¹, T. Stillitano¹ and A.I. De Luca¹

¹University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Department of Agraria, Feo di Vito IT89122 Reggio Calabria, Italy
²EMP Agrícola. Sant Antoni 26, ES43480 Vila-seca Tarragona, Spain
*Correspondence: soraya.benalia@unirc.it

Abstract:

Hazelnut cultivation represents a new opportunity for Calabrian mountainous and sloping areas (Southern Italy), where no alternative fruit crops, except forestry, could be settled. In this Region, hazelnut production doubled during the last fifty years, inciting the farmers to introduce mechanization in cropping practices such as harvesting in order to increase productivity and decrease production costs. Indeed, harvesting is currently one of the most expensive processes of the productive cycle, moreover to be time consuming if carried out manually. Mechanization degree depends significantly on the terrain topography: in sloping areas, rakes are often associated to aspirating machines to harvest the fallen fruit, while the employment of harvesting machines from the ground prevails in flat areas. In this context, the present paper aims to assess technical and economic aspects of harvesting operation, using a harvester from the ground model ‘Jolly 2800’ (GF s.r.l., Italy). Particularly, for technical purposes data about operational working time as well as working productivity were collected according to CIOSTA requirements, in two harvesting sites, whereas, for mechanical harvesting economic evaluation, an estimation model was applied to calculate machinery cost per hour. Moreover, the cost per kg of hazelnut in shell and the average cost per hectare were estimated also. The obtained results show a working productivity of 0.065 ha h-1 op-1 in the first harvesting site, while it was equal to 0.022 ha h-1 op-1 in the second one. Concerning the average cost per hectare, the second harvesting site showed the worst economic performances, with 550.76 € ha-1 against 182.54 € ha-1 obtained in the first one.

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xxx L. Proskina and S. Cerina
Legumes in the diet of dairy cows from the economic perspective
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Legumes in the diet of dairy cows from the economic perspective

L. Proskina¹* and S. Cerina²

¹Faculty of Economics and Social Development, Latvia University of Agriculture, Svetes street 18, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, Priekuli Research Centre, Zinatnes street 2, LV-4130 Priekuli, Priekulu parish, Priekulu district, Latvia
*Correspondence: liga.proskina@llu.lv

Abstract:

Based on the experimental data, one can conclude that feed rations may comprise peas var. ‘Bruno’ and faba beans var. ‘Lielplatone’ grown in Latvia, thereby replacing the use of imported soybean cake. After summarising the results of trials, one can conclude that the diets comprising only one kind of legumes (peas or beans) were the most economically efficient, while the highest production efficiency was achieved if incorporating 22–24% ‘Lielplatone’ faba beans into the diet for dairy cows. In Europe and Latvia, foods of animal origin comprise, on average, 45% of the total agricultural output value; an essential role in the production of the foods is played by the supply of protein-rich feedstuffs to the livestock industry. An analysis of the factors influencing productivity in dairy farming shows that a diet is the most important factor that promote or hinder the functioning of the inherited genetic potential. In order to meet the dietary energy, protein and mineral requirements of cows, the cows have to be fed a diet according to their physiological condition. In recent years in many countries, research investigations into protein sources have been conducted, as a high protein content of feedstuff is the most expensive component of a feed ration. For this reason, their use in livestock diets might be economically inefficient and therefore the key focus has to be placed on opportunities to increase the content of protein in domestically produced feeds.

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xxx N. Montemurro, G. Cucci, M. A. Mastro, G. Lacolla and A. Lonigro
The nitrogen role in vegetables irrigated with treated municipal wastewater
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The nitrogen role in vegetables irrigated with treated municipal wastewater

N. Montemurro, G. Cucci*, M. A. Mastro, G. Lacolla and A. Lonigro

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences – University of Bari – Via Amendola 165/A, IT70126 Bari, Italy
*Correspondence: giovanna.cucci@uniba.it

Abstract:

The reuse of treated municipal wastewater for irrigation is an established alternative to conventional water, in many countries of the world, particularly where or when water resources are extremely limited. Wastewater reuse could represent a double benefit when used in agriculture, helping overcome any lack of water resources and additionally, enriching the soil with nutrients – especially nitrogen and phosphorus.
In the experimental site of Castellana Grotte (Apulia region, Southern Italy) during the 2012/13 and 2013/14 growing seasons, vegetable crops (fennel and lettuce) in succession were drip-irrigated with three different water sources. Two reclaimed water streams, obtained by applying different treatment schemes to the same municipal wastewater (an effluent from the full-scale treatment plant and an effluent from the Integrated Fixed-film Activated Sludge – Membrane BioReactor pilot plant) and a conventional source, to verify the crops response and nutrient contribution through wastewater supply.
Both lettuce and fennel yields were enhanced by the high content of nutrients in the effluent of one of the treatment plants, which had been operated for partial nitrogen removal. For Fennel 2013/14, wastewater-reuse led to a 54% reduction of nitrogen supply in relation to the other plots normally fertilized. In this way, an estimated saving of about 98.00 € ha-1 was achieved.
Crops irrigated with treated wastewater operated for partial nitrogen removal (IMBR) showed early ripening (8 days for lettuce and 35 days for fennel 2013/14) and better quality than others not similarly-treated. However, the wastewater presented a nitrate content in excess of legal limits (35 mg L-1, D.M. 185/2003). Therefore, the contribution of nutrients increased production (47 vs 32 t ha-1 in IMBR and WELL 2012/13 fennel theses, 53 vs 31 t ha-1 in IMBR and WELL 2013 lettuce theses and 40 vs 31 t ha-1 in IMBR and WELL 2013/14 fennel theses respectively) and improved product quality, while simultaneously saving money for chemical fertilizers not supplied, producing less environmental impact.

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