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xxx F.A. Damasceno, J.A. Osorio, C.E. Alves Oliveira, P.F.P. Ferraz and L.F. Brandão
Assessment of a low-cost solar water heating systems in farrowing facilities
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Assessment of a low-cost solar water heating systems in farrowing facilities

F.A. Damasceno¹*, J.A. Osorio², C.E. Alves Oliveira¹, P.F.P. Ferraz¹ and L.F. Brandão³

¹Department of Engineering, Federal University of Lavras, BR37200-000 Lavras - Minas Gerais, Brasil
²University National of Colombia, Faculty of Agrarians Science, Department of Agricultural and Food Engineer, Calle 59 A N 63-20, CO050001 Medellín, Colombia
³Department of Engineering, Federal University of Ouro Preto, BR35400-000 Ouro Preto – Minas Gerais, Brasil
*Correspondence: flavio.damasceno@deg.ufla.br

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to develop a prototype solar heater using alternative materials and then to compare its thermal efficiency against that of two other commercial solar heating systems when heating the floor of piglet housing. To evaluate the thermal heaters, temperature sensors were installed in the inlet and outlet of each floor and the thermal reservoir. The results showed good performance, however the thermal efficiency of the alternative heater was lower than the conventional systems. However, due to the construction of this solar collector with alternative materials its cost was relatively low and its operation is easier than the other conventional heater, therefore this heater is a good alternative to use for small livestock producer.

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xxx O. Gayosso-Barragán, A. López-Benítez, S.A. Rodríguez-Herrera, J.N. Ek-Maas, D.M. Hidalgo-Ramos and J.S.G.J. Alcala-Rico
Studies on combining ability in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)
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Studies on combining ability in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

O. Gayosso-Barragán, A. López-Benítez*, S.A. Rodríguez-Herrera, J.N. Ek-Maas, D.M. Hidalgo-Ramos and J.S.G.J. Alcala-Rico

Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Departamento de Fitomejoramiento, Calzada Antonio Narro 1923, MX25315 Saltillo, Coahuila, México
*Correspondence: alfopezbe_2000@hotmail.com

Abstract:

The present study was done seven elite tomato lines (Solamun lycopersicum L.) of determinate and indeterminate growth with good yield potential and good combining ability, using diallel fashion without reciprocals to produce 21 F1s. General combining ability (GCA) and Specific combining ability (SCA) analysis were conducted, with Diallel-SAS, assessing six yield and component traits. Results showed highly significant differences (p ≤ 0.01) among genotypes, as well as in GCA and SCA effects in all the characteristics that was assessed, with the exception of Days to First Cut. The results revealed that variance contribution to the yield attributed to the crossings had more non-additive effects (SCA) than additive effects (GCA). Furthermore, Line D4 had the greatest effect on yield in terms of GCA, as well in AFW (Average Fruit Weight), NFP (Number of Fruits per Plant) and PD (Polar Diameter) followed by D3 and K3. These lines can be used as donor parent in future tomato-breeding program. Hybrids K3×D4, R1×Y53, D3×IR13 and F3×Y53 had the highest level of SCA, with average yields of 93 t ha-1. These potential hybrids could be exploited at commercial level after critical testing.

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xxx L. Argentel-Martínez, J. Garatuza-Payán, T. Arredondo, E.A. Yépez
Effects of experimental warming on peroxidase, nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activities in wheat
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Effects of experimental warming on peroxidase, nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activities in wheat

L. Argentel-Martínez¹², J. Garatuza-Payán¹³, T. Arredondo⁴, E.A. Yépez¹³*

¹Instituto Tecnológico de Sonora, 5 de febrero, 818 Sur, Col. Centro, Cd. Obregón, Sonora, México, CP: 85000
²Instituto Tecnológico del Valle del Yaqui, Calle 600, Block 611, Bácum, San Ignacio Río Muerto, Sonora, México, CP: 85275
³Laboratorio Nacional de Geoquímica y Mineralogía, Sede Regional Sur de Sonora, 5 de febrero, 818 Sur, Col. Centro, Cd. Obregón, Sonora, México, CP: 85000
⁴Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica. Camino a la Presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas, Sección 4, San Luis Potosí, México, CP: 78216
*Corresponding author: enrico.yepez@itson.edu.mx

Abstract:

Given the effects of climate change and its significant consequences on plant productivity, it is necessary to evaluate the enzymatic responses of the most important crops such as wheat (Triticum durum L.). We examined the response of foliar peroxidase activity, nitrate reductase, and glutamine synthetase to experimental increments of temperature (+2 °C) under field conditions following conventional agricultural practices. Foliar samples, in both control and warming treatments were taken during growth, tillering and flowering phenophases to test the peroxidase activity. Similarly, nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase activities, and glutamine content were measured during the heading phenophase. Due to the effects of experimental warming, peroxidase activity significantly increased. The nitrate reductase activity was also higher in the warming treatment, suggesting a high nitrogen metabolism efficiency. Whereas, the increase observed in the glutamine synthetase activity, and consequently the glutamine content, evidenced a biochemical signal of an early senescence due to the effect of warming.

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xxx N. Lebedová, R. Stupka, J. Čítek, M. Okrouhlá and K. Zadinová
Effect of feed restriction on muscle fibre characteristics and meat quality traits in pigs
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Effect of feed restriction on muscle fibre characteristics and meat quality traits in pigs

N. Lebedová*, R. Stupka, J. Čítek, M. Okrouhlá and K. Zadinová

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Animal Science, Kamýcká 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: lebedova@af.czu.cz

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feed restriction on muscle fibre composition and meat quality traits in pigs. Forty crossbred pigs (Pietrain × Large WhiteSire) × (Landrace × Large WhiteDam) were divided into two feeding groups: ad libitum (AL) and restricted (R1). The effects of feed restriction on muscle fibre characteristics of the musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis (MLLT) and meat quality traits were evaluated. Muscle fibres were stained and classified as fibre types I, IIA, and IIB. For each muscle fibre type, the fibre density, fibre cross-section area (CSA), and fibre proportion were determined. Fibres IIB were divided into small- (diameter < 46 μm), medium- (diameter 46–86 μm) and large-sized (diameter > 86 μm) fibres. The AL group had significantly lower (P < 0.05) percentage area of IIB fibres and lower (P < 0.01) CSA of IIB fibres than did the R1 group. The R1 group had significantly greater content of large-sized IIB fibres and smaller content of medium-sized IIB fibres than did the AL group (P < 0.05). The group fed ad libitum had greater backfat thickness and smaller lean meat content and tended to have better meat quality traits compared to the restricted group. The results of this study show that strong feed restriction had a negative effect on muscle fibre composition, especially on the amount of large-sized fibres IIB, which are associated with poor meat quality.

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xxx S. Murtic, J. Jurkovic, E. Basic and E. Hekic
Assessment of wild plants for phytoremediation of heavy metals in soils surrounding the thermal power station
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Assessment of wild plants for phytoremediation of heavy metals in soils surrounding the thermal power station

S. Murtic¹*, J. Jurkovic², E. Basic¹ and E. Hekic¹

¹University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Physiology, Zmaja od Bosne 8, BA71 000, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
²University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Chemistry, Zmaja od Bosne 8, BA71 000, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
*Correspondence: murticsenad@hotmail.com

Abstract:

The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the phytoextraction potential of three main wild plant species: annual nettle (Urtica urens L.), daisy fleabane (Stenactis annua (L.) Ness.) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) that grow spontaneously in heavy metal contaminated areas near the thermal power station in Kakanj, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Analyses of the heavy metal content (Ni, Fe, Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn) in soil and plant samples taken from the examined area were performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results obtained revealed that the examined soils are polluted by Ni and Pb and contain relatively high value of Cr and Fe. Annual nettle, daisy fleabane and yarrow have not shown high efficiency in the absorption and accumulation of heavy metals from polluted soils, and therefore these plants are not be considered as potential phytoremediators of soils on the examined area. Furthermore, the results of the study undoubtedly confirm the fact that the total content of heavy metals in soils is not a sufficient parameter for estimating the toxicity of heavy metals in soils and consequently for their transfer and accumulation in plants.

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xxx A. Aboltins and P. Kic
Determination of the mass diffusion coefficient of wood by thin-layer drying kinetics
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Determination of the mass diffusion coefficient of wood by thin-layer drying kinetics

A. Aboltins¹* and P. Kic²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technology, Institute of Agricultural Machinery, Cakstes blvd.5, LV–3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamycka 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: aivars.aboltins@inbox.lv

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present the method of using thin layer drying under controlled conditions, to obtain variable moisture diffusion coefficient expression of wood drying. The obtained relationship parameters can then be used for a larger sample drying process simulation. This paper includes the theoretical study of changes of moisture content determination in wood in response to high temperature of the drying air (105 °C). A 1-D diffusion model with a variable concentration-dependent diffusion coefficient is considered. This problem is solved, using the differential scheme. Paper described theory and experimental results of wood drying by the high temperature at 105 °C. For studies have selected five types of wood: oak (Quercus robur), beech (Fagus silvatica), spruce (Picea abies), scots pine (Pinus silvestris), and larch (Larix decidua). Experimental measurements and modelling results are given.

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xxx A. Zeidmane and T. Rubina
Mathematics education for sustainable agriculture specialists
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Mathematics education for sustainable agriculture specialists

A. Zeidmane¹ and T. Rubina²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Information and Technologies, Department of Mathematics, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of information and Technologies, Department of Computer Systems, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: Anda.Zeidmane@llu.lv; Tatjana.Rubina@llu.lv

Abstract:

One of the Sustainable Development objectives is to promote life-long learning opportunities for all, but one of the Lifelong Learning competences is mathematical competence, which can be obtained studying mathematics at schools and universities. The question is how much and whether the course of mathematics should be included in the curriculum of the agronomy specialties at universities. The aim of the article is to highlight the insufficient amount of higher mathematics in the education of agriculture specialist in the context of sustainable development.
The objectives of the study: to identify the importance of mathematics for agronomy specialists by analysing the role of the mathematics education for agronomy specialists and to analyse the proportion of mathematics courses in the curriculum of the agronomy programmes in the Baltics States and the Baltic Sea region’s higher education institutions. The mathematics education is important for agronomy specialists in many fields. Agronomy specialists need knowledge and skills in basic mathematics, in statistical analysis and interpretation, mathematical modelling, in scientific methods, in economic analysis. The knowledge and skills in a direct and indirect means is provided by mathematical studies at universities. In order to analyse the proportion of mathematics courses in study programmes of Agriculture, Agronomy and Horticulture, three universities of the Baltic States were compared: the Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Aleksandras Stulginskis University (Lithuania) and Estonian University of Life Sciences. For a more comprehensive analysis and comparison several universities from the Baltic Sea region were chosen that provide studies in agricultural sciences. Unfortunately, not all agronomy programmes in the Baltic Sea region contain the higher mathematics course that would help to understand the role of derivatives, integrals, and differential equations in the modelling process, as well as further developing general problem-solving skills.

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xxx A. Jaunzems and I. Balode
Eduard Stiefel’s linear programming method as tool in agro metrics
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Eduard Stiefel’s linear programming method as tool in agro metrics

A. Jaunzems* and I. Balode

Ventspils University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Economics and Management, Inženieru street 101, LV-3601 Ventspils, Latvia
*Correspondence: jaunzems@venta.lv

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the linear optimization models’ application problems in the research processes and in the didactics processes. Our target is to convince the colleagues about preferences of Eduard Stiefel’s method comparing with widespread George Bernard Dantzig’s simplex method. Indeed, the Stiefel’s method provides researchers and teachers with clear and pithy interpretations of linear model. Our pedagogical praxis during long time period conclusively confirms that Stiefel’s method makes the theory of linear optimization match easier for understanding and for active employing to students especially in the specialities with limited mathematical education. We offer in this paper also some new theoretical concepts and methods adapted for the linear model information analysis (the concept of general optimal plan, the methods of the profounder sensitivity analysis), and we appeal economists to interpret simplex predicates as productions functions in a broad sense.

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xxx G. Karráa, T. Ivanova, M. Kolarikova, P. Hutla and V. Krepl
Using of high-speed mills for biomass disintegration
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Using of high-speed mills for biomass disintegration

G. Karráa¹, T. Ivanova¹*, M. Kolarikova¹, P. Hutla² and V. Krepl¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Department of Sustainable Technologies, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i., Drnovská 509, CZ161 01 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: ivanova@ftz.czu.cz

Abstract:

The need for mechanical disintegration of biomass is very current topic with regard to the requirements of an agrarian sector, beside the importance of a material’s moisture content reduction to be used in further applications. The drawbacks of commonly applied devices are the limited use of moist biomass and high energy consumption for disintegration. In collaboration with LAVARIS company, there were tested two high-speed mills LAV 400/1R with single rotor (used for a first milling) and LAV 300/2R with double rotors (used for a second milling), which were primarily designed for crushing of concrete, rubber and construction waste. The goal of the new technical solution was a disintegration of biomass on example of pine sawdust and miscanthus together with examination of simultaneous drying in order to achieve a desired fraction (particle size) and moisture content of biomass material. Experimental tests on high-speed mills have shown the following results: in case of pine sawdust about 98% of output particle size after passing through the first and second milling was smaller than 1.5 mm, and smaller than 1 mm for miscanthus (sieve analysis method was used for determination), i.e. significant reduction was achieved comparing to initial particle size. Moisture content of the materials after disintegration (first and second) decreased from 37.08% to 8.55% for pine sawdust and from 24.43% to 7.19% for miscanthus. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the mechanical disintegration of biomass by high-speed mills has a great potential to become an effective part of raw materials’ pre-treatment technology, not only in agriculture, but also in production of different types of biofuels.

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xxx O. Chernikova, Yu. Mazhayskiy and L. Ampleeva
Selenium in nanosized form as an alternative to microfertilizers
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Selenium in nanosized form as an alternative to microfertilizers

O. Chernikova¹, Yu. Mazhayskiy¹ and L. Ampleeva²

¹Academy of law management of the federal penal service of Russia, RU390036 Ryazan, Sennaya street 1, Russian Federation
²Ryazan State Agrotechnological University named after P.A. Kostychev, RU390044 Ryazan, Kostycheva street 1, Russian Federation
*Correspondence: chernikova_olga@inbox.ru

Abstract:

Nowadays, it is an obvious fact that it is necessary to look for new approaches to agriculture, which would ensure the maximum reduction in the dependence of the volumes and quality of the crop on external factors. The use of nanopreparations in crop production is the most promising. The development of new technologies and techniques using nanomaterials, which would ensure high yields and quality of potato products, is relevant and has great practical importance. The research in recent years has established the important role of selenium in the regulation of plant activity.The purpose of this work was to research the effect of selenium nanoparticles and selenium in the form of micronutrient fertilizers on early-maturing varieties of potatoes for table use: adaptive capacity and nutritional value. Selenium nanopowder in the form of a solution contained the optimum nanoselenium concentration applied–0.13 g per hectare seeding rate. The potato tubers were soaked in distilled water 30 minutes before seeding. The treatment of potato tubers with selenium micronutrient, the dose of which amounted to 400 g per 1 hectare, was also carried out before planting. The soil preparation and agrotechnology cultivation generally accepted in the Ryazan region.The research results showed that presowing treatment of potato tubers with selenium nanopreparation had the most favorable effect on the adaptive capacity of plants (heat resistance, water-holding properties), as well as on yield increase, than treatment of tubers with selenium in the form of microfertilizer. The use of Se nanoparticles leads to an increase in the protein and vitamin C content. The Udacha potato variety showed great responsiveness to the entering of various forms of selenium in comparison with others. The use of selenium in the form of microfertilizer leads to an increase in the accumulation of starch and dry matter. These figures were the highest in potato tubers of the Zhukovskiy Ranniy variety.

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xxx G. Falcone, T. Stillitano, F. Montemurro, A.I. De Luca, G. Gulisano and A. Strano
Environmental and economic assessment of sustainability in Mediterranean wheat production
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Environmental and economic assessment of sustainability in Mediterranean wheat production

G. Falcone¹, T. Stillitano¹, F. Montemurro², A.I. De Luca¹*, G. Gulisano¹ and A. Strano¹

¹Department of Agriculture, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, Feo di Vito, IT89100 Reggio Calabria, Italy
²Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria - Research Centre for Agriculture and Environment, Bari, Italy
*Correspondence: anna.deluca@unirc.it

Abstract:

This study proposes the application of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and economic evaluations conducted on different cereal production systems in semi-arid environments. Two different crop management systems of durum wheat were analysed by distinguishing Continuous Cropping (CC) and Crop Rotation (CR) with vetch, that are conducted through two different levels of crop intensification (in terms of tillage and fertilization strategies): Conventional (Conv) and Conservative (Cons). The resulting four scenarios were examined using LCA methodology to assess the environmental impacts, and the Production Cost (PC) analysis to estimate the economic results. Overall, the findings of this research provide an opportunity to identify sustainable crops management strategies.

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xxx R. Imeri, E. Kullaj, E. Duhani and L. Millaku
Impact of rootstock on heavy metal bioaccumulation in apple plant grown near an industrial source in Obiliq, Kosovo
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Impact of rootstock on heavy metal bioaccumulation in apple plant grown near an industrial source in Obiliq, Kosovo

R. Imeri¹, E. Kullaj¹, E. Duhani² and L. Millaku³*

¹Agricultural University of Tirana, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Koder-Kamez, AL1029 Tirana, Republic of Albania
²University of Prishtina, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary, Department of Agriculture, George Bush, nr. 31, XK10000 Prishtine, Republic of Kosovo
³University of Prishtina, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Department of Biology, George Bush, nr. 31, XK10000 Prishtine, Republic of Kosovo
*Correspondence: lulzimmillaku@hotmail.com

Abstract:

Food exposure to heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, As, Zn, Cu and Fe is considered a risk to human health. This study analyzes the level of heavy metals in soil and delicious apple tissues (fruit, leaf, shoot) in three different rootstocks: mm106, m26 and m9 grown in the Obiliq region (considered as a polluted region). The data obtained from the Obiliq areas are compared with those grown in reference clear area. Individual soil samples were collected from each plant to assess metal content in the immediate plant environment. Samples of soil, fruit, leaf and shoot have been analyzed for heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, As, Zn, Cu, Cr and Fe) using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS).
The results indicated that the average concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni, As, Zn, Cu, Cr and Fe in soil of Obiliq areas were 2.03, 0.15, 6.99, 12.4, nd, 12.3, 4.68, 5.32 mg kg-1 d.w. respectively. The concentration of metals in the apple tissue increased with the increase of heavy metals in soil from polluted area. The accumulation ratios of heavy metals were calculated to assess the potential health risks. The mean concentrations of the heavy metals in the soil were in order of magnitude Ni > Zn > Cr > Cu > Fe > Pb > Cd > As while that in the fruits of apple were in order of magnitude Cr > Fe > Cu > Ni > Pb > Zn > Cd > As; in the leaves were Fe > Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cd > As; in shoots were Zn > Fe > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cr > Cd > As.
Mobility of heavy metals and potentially hazardous in studied lands threatens the quality of apple fruit consumption, with a real risk that these elements (Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr) can enter the food chain.

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xxx S. Kadyrov and M. Kharitonov
Productivity of corn hybrids in relation to the seeding rate
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Productivity of corn hybrids in relation to the seeding rate

S. Kadyrov and M. Kharitonov*

Voronezh State Agrarian University after Emperor Peter I, Department of Agriculture, Plant and Plant Protection, Michurina 1, RU394087 Voronezh, Russia
*Correspondence: mikh.xaritonoff@yandex.ru

Abstract:

Potential yield of corn hybrids with a different FAO number is limited by not only rainfall amount, average soil and air temperature throughout vegetation period, but also directly depends on plant density. The study and practical application of special agricultural techniques allows us to limit and mitigate the negative impact of these factors on the productivity of maize, depending on the indicators under study and the soil and climatic resources of the cultivation zone. Therefore, the study of the influence of the seeding rate on the growth and development of corn plants remains relevant. The results presented make it possible to choose optimal seeding rates for corn hybrids of early and middle groups of ripeness (FAO 180-280). Overcrowding from 61,000 to 93,000 seeds ha-1 leads to increase in interstage period ‘sprouting–wax ripeness’ of Rodnik 179SV hybrid for 4 days, of MAS 12R and AMELIOR hybrids–for 2 days, and of MAS 30K hybrid – for 3 days. Hybrids Rodnik 179SV and AMELIOR reached maximum height –217 cm and 214 cm respectively – at seeding rate of 73,000 seeds ha-1, while hybrids MAS 12R and MAS 30K grew up to their 213 cm and 223 cm respectively at seeding rate of 77,000 seeds ha-1. Decrease in seeding rate to less than 73,000 seeds ha-1 and, contrary to it, overcrowding of seeds of more than 77,000 seeds ha-1 leads to decrease in corn hybrid plant height. Agronomically, the most efficient for maximizing early ripe Rodnik 179SV and MAS 12R hybrids yields (6.39 and 6.73 t ha-1) and middle-early ripe AMELIOR hybrid yield (6.81 t ha-1) was the seeding rate of 73,000 seeds ha-1, while the highest yield of middle MAS 30K hybrid (7.21 t ha-1) was at the seeding rate of 77,000 seeds ha-1.

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xxx V. Karpenko, S. Pavlyshyn, R. Prytulіak and D. Naherniuk
Content of malondialdehyde and activity of enzyme glutathione-S-transferase in the leaves of emmer wheat under the action of herbicide and plant growth regulator
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Content of malondialdehyde and activity of enzyme glutathione-S-transferase in the leaves of emmer wheat under the action of herbicide and plant growth regulator

V. Karpenko¹*, S. Pavlyshyn¹, R. Prytulіak¹ and D. Naherniuk²

¹Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Horticulture, Ecology and Plants Protection, Department of Biology, Instytutska street, 1, UA20300 Uman, Ukraine
²Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Management, Department of Management, Instytutska street, 1, UA20300 Uman, Ukraine
*Correspondence: unuh1844@gmail.com

Abstract:

The article presents the results of vegetation experiment on the influence of different rates of herbicide Prima Forte 195 – 2-ethylhexyl ether 2.4-D + aminopyralid + florasulam (0.5; 0.6 and 0.7 L ha-1) under different application methods of plant growth regulator of a natural origin Wuxal BIO Vita (Ascophyllum nodosum extract + microelements) on the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) as an important indicator of the intensity of peroxide oxidation of lipids in plants and on the activity of enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the leaves of emmer wheat.
Experimental scheme included 16 experimental variants: 1 – without application of preparations and pre-sowing treatment of seeds (control); 2, 3, 4 – Prima Forte 195, applied to vegetative plants at the rates 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 L ha-1; 5 – Wuxal BIO Vita at the rate of 1.0 L ha-1, applied to vegetative plants; 6, 7, 8 – Prima Forte 195 at the rates of 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 L ha-1 in tank mixtures with Wuxal BIO Vita at the rate of 1.0 L ha-1, sprayed on vegetative plants; 9 – pre-sowing treatment of seeds with Wuxal BIO Vita at the rate of 1.0 L t-1 (background); 10, 11, 12 – Prima forte 195, applied to vegetative plants at the rates of 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 L ha-1 at the background of pre-sowing treatment of seeds with Wuxal BIO Vita at the rate of 1.0 L t-1; 13 – Wuxal BIO Vita at the rate of 1.0 L ha-1 (applied to vegetative plants, treated before sowing with Wuxal BIO Vita at the rate of 1.0 L t-1); 14, 15, 16 – Prima Forte 195 at the rates of 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 L ha-1 respectively, in tank mixture with Wuxal BІО Vita at the rate of 1.0 L ha -1 – spraying of plants and pre-sowing treatment of seeds with Wuxal BІО Vita 1.0 L t-1.
It has been found that under the application of Prima Forte 195 the redox state in the leaves of emmer wheat increased considerably in the direction of increasing the content of MDA. It has also been proved that herbicide Prima Forte 195 and its mixtures with plant growth regulator (PGR) Wuxal BIO Vita caused the changes in the activity of enzyme glutathione-S-transferase, which slightly increased in the initial period in the variants of integrated application of herbicide and plant growth regulator. However, later the GST activity in the variants of integrated application of herbicide and PGR decreased, which indicates stabilization and a positive influence of integrated application of preparations on the detoxification processes in the crops of emmer wheat.

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xxx S. Palisoc, Y.A. Malabuyo, R.C. Pereja and M. Natividad
Determination of heavy metals in root crops using bismuth nanoparticles modified graphene paste electrode
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Determination of heavy metals in root crops using bismuth nanoparticles modified graphene paste electrode

S. Palisoc¹², Y.A. Malabuyo¹, R.C. Pereja¹ and M. Natividad¹²*

¹De La Salle University, Condensed Matter Research Laboratory, Physics Department, 2401 Taft Avenue, PH 922 Manila, Philippines
²De La Salle University, Condensed Matter Research Unit, CENSER, 2401 Taft Avenue, PH 922 Manila, Philippines
*Correspondence: michelle.natividad@dlsu.edu.ph

Abstract:

Electrochemical detection of lead (Pb2+) and cadmium (Cd2+) was accomplished via anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) using bismuth nanoparticle (BiNP) modified graphene paste electrode (GPE). The electrode was fabricated by mixing bismuth nanoparticles, graphene, and mineral oil and the mixture was packed in a Teflon syringe. The best electrode was determined by varying the amount of BiNP while the amount of graphene and mineral oil were kept constant at 0.21 g and 0.80 μL, respectively. The highest peak currents were obtained using 1.5 mg BiNP modified GPE. The ASV parameters, namely accumulation time, deposition time, and accumulation potential, were optimized. The calibration curve, analytical sensitivity, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of the optimized electrode were determined. The correlation values for Pb2+ (R2 = 0.9409) and Cd2+ (R2 = 0.9086) in the calibration curves showed a positive linear relationship between the anodic peak current and heavy metal concentration. The LOD for both Pb2+ and Cd2+ is found to be 100 ppb. The application of the modified electrode on real sample analysis was performed using root crops purchased from local supermarkets. According to ASV and AAS analyses, most of the samples contained Cd2+ while only a few contained Pb2+. Other metals, such as Fe2+ and Cu2+, were also detected via ASV.

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xxx K. Tihomirova, V. Denisova, K. Golovko, O. Kirilina–Gutmane, L. Mezule and T. Juhna
Management of wastewater from landfill of inorganic fiberglass
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Management of wastewater from landfill of inorganic fiberglass

K. Tihomirova¹²*, V. Denisova¹, K. Golovko¹, O. Kirilina–Gutmane², L. Mezule¹ and T. Juhna¹

¹Riga Technical University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Research Centre for Civil Engineering, Water Research Laboratory, Kipsalas 6a–263, LV–1048 Riga, Latvia
²The Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment ‘BIOR’ Elemental analysis division, Lejupes street 3, LV–1076 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: kristina.tihomirova@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Sustainability is one of the key factors in smart environment management and include the reduction of environment footprint. The waste and wastewater management plans are aimed on actions to reduce the amount of waste and environmental pollution. This includes collection of waste, logistics, storage, processing or valorisation and also treatment. The aim of this research was to evaluate environmental pollution risk and to demonstrate one of the wastewater management schemes to reduce the pollution level.
Evaluation of the better management scheme was performed in one of the landfills in Latvia, where fiberglass waste and other inorganic waste is stored. Onsite evaluation results demonstrated the need to develop a better wastewater management scheme of inorganic fiberglass landfill. After that, laboratory–scale experiments for conventional coagulation and biodegradation tests have been performed for efficient management.

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xxx S.A. Lasmini, I. Wahyudi, R. Rosmini, B. Nasir and N. Edy
Combined application of mulches and organic fertilizers enhance shallot production in dryland
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Combined application of mulches and organic fertilizers enhance shallot production in dryland

S.A. Lasmini*, I. Wahyudi, R. Rosmini, B. Nasir and N. Edy

Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tadulako University, Jl. Soekarno-Hatta Km 9, ID 94118 Palu, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia
*Correspondence: srianjarlasmini@gmail.com

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine the type of mulch and organic fertilizer that can induce suitable changes in the microclimate and chemical properties of soil for the promotion of growth and yield of shallot on dryland. A factorial randomized block design experiment with two factors and three replications was constructed. The first factor was mulches consisting of rice straw, coconut husk, silver-black plastic mulch, and without mulch. The second factor was the organic fertilizers composed of either composted cow manure, Gliricidia leaf compost (each applied at 5 t ha-1), and no organic fertilizer. Among all treatments tested, straw mulch with 5 t ha-1 cow manure (L1P1) decreased the soil temperature from 36 °C to 30 °C and increasing the soil moisture from 7% to 37%. This, in turn, increased the cation exchange capacity by 24.32 meq 100 g-1, pH by 6.83, C organic from 0.74 to 2.72%, C/N ratio by 13.27%, total N by 0.29%, total P from 20.02 to 28.86 mg 100 g-1 and K2O by 39.16 mg 100 g-1. In addition, the growth and yield of shallot were positively affected, as assessed by plant height, leaf number, root length, root dry weight, total leaf area, number of bulbs per hill, bulb diameter, weight of fresh bulbs, and bulb yield. The yield of bulbs increased from 4.27 to 10.22 t ha-1 after L1P1 treatment. This study demonstrates the application of straw mulch and 5 t ha-1 cow manure could enhance the yield of shallot cultivation on drylands.

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xxx V.A. Grokhovsky, V. Volchenko, L.K. Kuranova and O.N. Krasulya
Developing functional sterilised products technology using microwave-cooked semi-finished cod liver products
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Developing functional sterilised products technology using microwave-cooked semi-finished cod liver products

V.A. Grokhovsky¹*, V. Volchenko¹, L.K. Kuranova¹ and O.N. Krasulya²

¹Murmansk State Technical University, Institute of Natural Science and Technology, Department of Food Production Technology, Sportivnaya 13, RU183010 Murmansk, Russia
²Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Technology of Animal Products Storage and Processing, Timiryazevskaya street 49, RU127550 Moscow, Russia
*Correspondence: v.grokhovsky@mail.ru

Abstract:

Cod liver which is extracted in significant amounts from fish during the process of gutting and harvesting by fishing vessels in the North Atlantic and Barents Sea is a very valuable raw material for producing ‘natural’ tinned foods that have not undergone any additional treatment and which do not have any additional ingredients, but its use is limited due to lipid instability in long-term storage in a frozen state. The authors advise that the production and use of pre-treated semi-finished products which are based on the use of cod liver is managed by means of a microwave-cooking process which results in a product that is more stable for frozen storage. Any semi-finished fish oil product that is extracted during microwave processing can also be used in food production.
The variants that can be included in using these semi-finished products are discussed here when it comes to the technology that is involved in functional multicomponent products (such as natural and paste tinned foods with the addition of sauces, vegetables, mushrooms, meat, and fish protein isolate).

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xxx M. Jemeljanova, R. Ozola and M. Klavins
Physical-chemical properties and possible applications of clay minerals and humic acid composite materials
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Physical-chemical properties and possible applications of clay minerals and humic acid composite materials

M. Jemeljanova*, R. Ozola and M. Klavins

Department of Environmental Science, University of Latvia, Raina Blvd. 19, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: marta.jemeljanova@gmail.com

Abstract:

Pollution caused by pharmaceuticals has become an increasingly serious issue, therefore innovative and cost – effective methods of pharmaceutical’s removal must be studied. Clay – humic acid composite materials can be considered as prospective and low cost sorbents for contaminants. The aim of this study is to develop clay mineral and humic acid composite materials and to characterise their possible applications. For this research, three types of clay minerals (montmorillonite, kaolinite and bentonite) were modified with three types of humic substances: technical humic acid from lignite, humic substances extracted from raised bog peat and technical K humate from lignite. The sorption was characterised according to the chosen clay mineral and humic acid type and concentration. The obtained material was characterised by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and Scanning Electron microscopy. The composite materials were tested for sorption of pharmaceuticals (chloropromazine hydrochloride). The obtained results characterise clay mineral and humic acid composite materials’ possible applications as sorbents for removal of pharmacologically active substances.

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xxx O.L. Akangbe, J. Blahovec, R. Adamovský, M. Linda and M. Hromasova
Effects of selected process parameters on the compaction of carob powder
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Effects of selected process parameters on the compaction of carob powder

O.L. Akangbe¹*, J. Blahovec², R. Adamovský¹, M. Linda³ and M. Hromasova³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kamycka 129, CZ16521 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Physics, Kamycka 129, CZ16521 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Prague, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering, Kamycka 129, CZ16521 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: akangbe@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The effects of important process parameters on mechanical response during the densification of an industrial food powder were investigated and important phenomena described using the power rule. The factors studied had highly significant effects on mechanical response. The effects of the models in predicting the behaviour of the system were also highly significant. The findings are of relevance to processing and handling of food powders.

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xxx V. Liška
The energy intensity of the briquetting process in terms of profitability of waste treatment
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The energy intensity of the briquetting process in terms of profitability of waste treatment

V. Liška

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
E-mail: vliska@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Modern agricultural industry is a source of a considerable amount of waste, which can come in various forms and states. Such waste, and not just agricultural waste in the form biomass, is highly desirable for further processing, depositing or utilising its energy potential. Briquetting technology is suitable for all these purposes. The briquetting press for industrial use is complex technical equipment. The economy of its operation has a major impact on the profitability of the produced briquettes and hence on the efficiency of waste and biomass processing as such. The paper deals with the energy demands of briquetting in terms of waste treatment and economic profitability of production in the whole context of waste processing as a whole.

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xxx K.K. Singh, A. Meshram, D. Gautam and A. Jain
Hydrogen production using waste aluminium dross: from industrial waste to next-generation fuel
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Hydrogen production using waste aluminium dross: from industrial waste to next-generation fuel

K.K. Singh*, A. Meshram, D. Gautam and A. Jain

Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, IN221005 Varanasi India
*Correspondence: kksingh.met@iitbhu.ac.in

Abstract:

This article describes the production of hydrogen from white aluminium dross, an industrial waste generated in the aluminium smelter plants. Hydrogen is generated by metal-water reaction between aluminium and water in presence of alkalis like sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide. Aluminium dross is described as a heterogeneous material with its major constituents being metallic aluminium, alumina and other salt fluxes like NaCl and KCl. Utilizing the metallic aluminium content entrapped in the matrix of alumina for the metal-water reaction has been the driving force for the waste recycling and simultaneous hydrogen production. Bulk aluminium dross was crushed and downsized. The finer fraction of the powdered aluminium dross is used for the experiments. The effects of dross in the alkaline solution, temperature of the solution and the time of the reaction were studied to understand the generation of hydrogen. The alkaline solution breaks the protective layer of alumina and exposes the entrapped aluminium content to water, thereby commencing the hydrogen liberation.

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xxx M.M. Marenych, V.V. Hanhur, O.I. Len, Yu.M. Hangur, I.I. Zhornyk and A.V. Kalinichenko
The efficiency of humic growth stimulators in pre-sowing seed treatment and foliar additional fertilizing of sown areas of grain and industrial crops
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The efficiency of humic growth stimulators in pre-sowing seed treatment and foliar additional fertilizing of sown areas of grain and industrial crops

M.M. Marenych¹, V.V. Hanhur², O.I. Len³, Yu.M. Hangur³, I.I. Zhornyk¹ and A.V. Kalinichenko⁴*

¹Poltava State Agrarian Academy, Faculty of Agro-Technology and Ecology, Department of Selection, Seed Growing and Genetics, 1/3 Skovorody street, UA36003 Poltava, Ukraine
²The Institute of Pig-Breeding and Agro-Industrial Production of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Shvedska mohyla street, UA36013 Poltava, Ukraine
³Poltava M.I. Vavilova State Agricultural Experimental Station of the Institute of Pig-Breeding and Agro-Industrial Production of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 86 Shvedska mohyla street, UA36014 Poltava, Ukraine
⁴University of Opole, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Technology, Institute of Technical Sciences, Dmowskiego street 7–9, PL45–759 Opole, Poland
*Correspondence: akalinichenko@uni.opole.pl

Abstract:

The aim of the research was to establish the effectiveness of preparations, made on the basis of humic and fulvic acids on the yields of crops in case of different methods and amounts used. The experiments were held with varieties and hybrids of winter wheat, soya, corn, and sunflower. Based on the obtained results of investigation during the period of 2015–2017, the positive impact of foliar additional fertilizing with 4R Foliar Concentrate growth stimulator on the basis of humic and fulvic acids on the formation of productivity of the main crops sown areas was established.
Proceeding from the results of the research, the using of growth stimulators based on humic and fulvic acids, which contain high concentrations of these substances, can be recommended as an expedient and efficient measure of raising the productivity and improving qualitative indicators of corn, sunflower, soya, and winter wheat yields.

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xxx V.A. Mazur, H.V. Pantsyreva, K.V. Mazur and I.M. Didur
Influence of the assimilation apparatus and productivity of white lupine plants
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Influence of the assimilation apparatus and productivity of white lupine plants

V.A. Mazur, H.V. Pantsyreva*, K.V. Mazur and I.M. Didur

Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, Soniachna street 3, UA21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine,
*Correspondence: pantsyreva@vsau.vin.ua

Abstract:

Artificial regulation of the growth and development of cultivated plants aimed to increase biological productivity and improve the quality of eco-friendly products is an important goal of modern agricultural production. Application of the natural growth stimulators and bacterial agents is quite relevant and effective. The field research was conducted on the basis of the research farm ‘Agronomichne’ of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, village Agronomichne, Vinnytsa district, Vinnytsia region, Ukraine. Features of the growth and development of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) plants are examined. There has been established a positive effect of the combination of inoculation with the bacterial agent and growth stimulator on the productivity of white lupine, which is important for the formation of high and stable yields. The papers presents the results of studies on the effect of pre-sowing seed treatment and foliar nutrion under conditions of the right-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine on the assimilation apparatus of white lupine plants. It has been established that bacterial agents and growth stimulators increase white lupine productivity due to optimization of the studied technological methods of cultivation. The optimal leaf surface area that provided maximum grain yield has been determined. The research has established a positive effect of pre-sowing seed treatment with the bacterial agent Rhizohumin and the growth stimulator Emistym C and foliar nutrition with Emistym C on the chlorophyll content in the white lupine leaves. The influence of the investigated technological methods on the formation of the assimilation surface area and chlorophyll synthesis in the leaves of white lupine has been proved. The preparations studied induce intensive development of the photosynthetic apparatus, yield increase, improvement of the yield structure and they improve grain quality under conditions of right-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. The issue of seed bacterization and application of growth stimulators requires a more detailed study. Therefore, such researches are relevant and significance in terms of both practical and scientific value.

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xxx O.A. Vysokova, T.A. Kalinina, T.V. Glukhareva, A.A. Kochubei and O.A. Cherepanova
The effect of the 1,2,3-triazolo[5,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazines on Solanum lycopersicum L. seed germination
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The effect of the 1,2,3-triazolo[5,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazines on Solanum lycopersicum L. seed germination

O.A. Vysokova¹, T.A. Kalinina¹, T.V. Glukhareva¹²*, A.A. Kochubei³ and O.A. Cherepanova³

¹Ural Federal University, Mira street 19, RU620002 Ekaterinburg, Russia
²Postovsky Institute of Organic Synthesis, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Sofia Kovalevskaya street 22, RU 620990, Ekaterinburg, Russia
³Botanical Garden UB RAS, 8 Marta street 202a, RU620144 Ekaterinburg, Russia
*Correspondence: taniagluhareva@yandex.ru

Abstract:

In recent years chemical pesticides are being replaced by environmentally friendly and universal means of plant protection that are able to exert a complex effect on the plant (stimulate growth and development, improve metabolic processes, develop resistance to pathogens, etc.). The effect of new synthetic growth regulators of the 1,2,3-triazolo[5,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazine class and trade phytohormones (6-BAP, GA and TDZ) on the growth processes, growth energy and vitality of tomato seeds, as well as morphological parameters of seedlings was researched in this article. It was revealed that the effect of synthesized compounds on seed vigor and viability of seedlings are superior to commercial phytohormones. In the early stages of germination the seed vigor of tomato seeds treated with the compounds TT1-TT5 were superior to one in treatments with phytohormones and in control experiment. As a result of the experiment, the most viable seedlings were formed into the treatments TT1, TT2 and TT3 (in all studied concentrations). Tomato seedlings treated with 6-BAP and GA at a concentration of 5 mg L-1 produced the worst results.

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xxx I. Szabó, M. Hushki, Z. Bártfai and L. Kátai
Modelling of operator’s focusing scheme along working hours: harvesting operation
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Modelling of operator’s focusing scheme along working hours: harvesting operation

I. Szabó, M. Hushki, Z. Bártfai and L. Kátai*

Szent István University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Mechanics and Machinery, Páter K. street 1, HU2100 Gödöllő, Hungary
*Correspondence: katai.laszlo@gek.szie.hu

Abstract:

In consistent with the growing research activities regarding the Farm 4.0 concept, it is valuable to consider each possible chance of enhancement which is expected to contribute positively to the productivity and the safety of planned operations. Human centred design concept is becoming essential for the multitasking vehicles market, which promotes the research experiments aiming to understand the human behaviour inside the vehicle cabins to proceed with upgrading the design, planning and production procedures based on validated inputs leading to introducing reliable solutions for more productive and safety conduct of operations. The accurate and deep analysis of the operator behaviour inside the cabin will lead to a better understanding for the problems and issues need to be resolved in new designs in addition to providing the production planning (i.e. manpower planning and working shift period) with the necessary data to ensure achieving the maximum efficiency and effectiveness. In this research, the operator’s glance behaviour inside the tractor cabin is studied during the harvesting operation to develop a model for the change of operator’s focusing scheme along working hours.

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xxx L.M. Abenavoli, G. Zimbalatti, A. De Rossi, S. Papandrea and A.R. Proto
The environmental noise level in the rejuvenation pruning on centuries-old olive tree
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The environmental noise level in the rejuvenation pruning on centuries-old olive tree

L.M. Abenavoli*, G. Zimbalatti, A. De Rossi, S. Papandrea and A.R. Proto

University of the Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria - Department of AGRARIA, Feo di Vito, IT89123 Reggio Calabria, Italy
*Correspondence: laben@unirc.it

Abstract:

In the Italian agricultural economy, olive cultivation plays a fundamental role, and this is especially true for the southern regions where almost all cultivation is spread. In Calabria, in particular, olive cultivation has seen over the last few decades significantly improve the quality of production also as a result of investments aimed at the creation of new mechanizable plants and/or the modernization of existing ones; today some areas have got both PDO and PGI certification.
In the ‘Piana di Gioia Tauro’, located north-west of the Reggio Calabria metropolitan area, olive growing extends over 20,000 hectares and the presence of centuries-old olive tree is still widespread. The olive varieties mainly belong to the local cultivars of ‘Sinopolese’ and ‘Ottobratica’, characterized by a remarkable rusticity and high development, perhaps unique in the world; they reach 20–25 meters high, forming what is called a ‘forest of olive trees’.
The pruning operations are carried out by means of chainsaws of different power and size whereby, in addition to the previously described difficulties, operators are exposed to prolonged periods of noise levels. The purpose of this study is precisely to assess the exposure of operators to this particular olive grove. The aim is to identify the acoustic levels generated by the two pruning and cross-cutting activities, the risk thresholds and the exposure to which the individual workers of the two work sites are subjected, giving indications on the appropriate safety distances to maintain (according to current regulations) compared to noise sources.

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