Volume 4 (2006)
  Number 2

Contents


Pages

483-492 L. Baležentienė and S. Mikulionienė
Chemical composition of galega mixtures silages
Abstract |
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Chemical composition of galega mixtures silages

L. Baležentienė and S. Mikulionienė

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentų 11, LT-4324, Akademija, Kaunas distr.,Lithuania; e-mail: ligita.balezentiene@ lzuu.lt

Abstract:

A b s t r a c t . According to the near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy data, the chemical composition of fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam.) is more valuable forage than traditional fodder plants such as the red clover and timothy at budding-early flowering stage. Due to the high concentration of total protein (231 g kg-1) and some amino acids (asp, glu, phenylala), galega fresh mass could be used as a substitute for the soybean cake for 1.4–2.9 kg equivalent amounts. The mean of asp, glu and phenylala content in galega DM constitutes 68.22–56.37 % of their concentration in soybean cake. The high total protein concentration of fodder galega which was determined indicated that this crop could be used for increasing the protein content of livestock rations and successfully replace soybean cake, which is imported and expensive.For supplying livestock with succulent forage during the year and for producing highquality silage, galega mixtures with grasses containing many water-soluble carbohydrates could be ensiled. Possibilities of ensiling mixtures of early flowering stage fodder galega (1:1) with orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), timothy (Phleum pratense L.), wheat grass (Elytrigia repens L.), milk stage maize and sugar beet leaves were studied at Research Station and Training Farm of Lithuanian University of Agriculture. The addition of 0.3% FPC to galega-maize silage had no significant influence on DM (225 and 214 g kg-1), mineral element concentration and pH value (4.7 and 4.4) as compared to galega-maize silage without preservatives. The results of ensiling indicate that the quality of pure galega and galega-wheat grass silage was poor quality due to an unbalanced ratio of protein and water-soluble carbohydrates. Fodder galega appears suitable for ensiling with a grass component (orchardgrass, timothy or maize) which accumulated not less than 30% DM.

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493-498 H.P. Beck, D. Kostova and B. Zhang
Determination of manganese with Methylene Blue in various vegetable crops
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Determination of manganese with Methylene Blue in various vegetable crops

H.P. Beck, D. Kostova and B. Zhang

Inst. Inorg. Anal. Chem. Radiochem.,Saarland Univ. Saarbrucken, D-66123, Germany

Abstract:

A study was made of the manganese content in the crop production of 28 vegetable species, using the most common cultivars within the species. The manganese content was determined by a new extraction – spectrophotometric method using Methylene Blue (MB). The ion – associate of Mn(VII) was completely removed in a single extraction of only 5 s, and the 1,2-dichloroethane layer remained constant for 2 days under the usual laboratory conditions. To compare results, manganese was determined by the atomic – absorption method. The results obtained showed that the manganese content varies significantly in the different vegetable species and cultivars. The manganese content in more widely used varieties of tomatoes, peppers, head cabbage, melons, and radishes was studied in order to establish differences with respect to the level of this element in their production.

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499-508 B. Gajic, G. Dugalic and N. Djurovic
Comparison of soil organic matter content, aggregate composition and water stability of gleyic fluvisol from adjacent forest and cultivated areas
Abstract |
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Comparison of soil organic matter content, aggregate composition and water stability of gleyic fluvisol from adjacent forest and cultivated areas

B. Gajic¹, G. Dugalic² and N. Djurovic¹

¹Institute of Land Management, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, Nemanjina 6,11080 Belgrade, Serbia; e-mail: bonna@agrifaculty.bg.ac.yu
²The Faculty of Agronomy, Cacak, Serbia

Abstract:

The paper includes the results of comparative investigation of soil organic matter (SOM) content, aggregate size distribution (ASD) and water-stability of structural aggregates (WSA) of humus horizon (0–30 cm) of non-carbonate silty clay gleyic fluvisol in the Kolubara river valley (West Serbia) under natural deciduous forest vegetation and the same gleyic fluvisol used for more than 100 years as arable soil.Long-term cultivation significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the SOM content in the ploughhorizon (0–20 cm). Due to long-term anthropogenization, the ASD and WSA in plough and sub-plough (20–30 cm) horizons of cultivated gleyic fluvisol are significantly degraded. In plough and sub-plough horizons, the content of the agronomically most valuable fraction (0.25–10 mm) is decreased about twice (from 67.7–74.0% to 37.1–39.2%), while the content of very coarse aggregates (> 10 mm) is increased to the same degree (from 22.8–31.2 % to 48.3–62.1%).The conversion of forest semigley to continuous cropping using conventional cultivationsignificantly (P < 0.05) decreased the water stability of soil aggregates in the plough horizon. The lowest water-stability is found in structure aggregates > 3 mm. Their content is 2–3 times lower in the plough horizon (12.6–15.6%) than in the same depth zone of forest gleyic fluvisol (31.9–42.3%). Due to anthropogenization, water-stability of micro-aggregates (< 0.25 mm) is decreased in the plough horizon. The content of these aggregates is about twice as high in this horizon (29.9–34.0%), as in the same depth zone of the forest gleyic fluvisol (16.7–17.2%).

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509-516 M. Gibczyńska, E. Meller, S. Stankowski and Cz. Wołoszyk
Metal content in soil fertilized with brown coal fly ash
Abstract |
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Metal content in soil fertilized with brown coal fly ash

M. Gibczyńska¹, E. Meller², S. Stankowski³ and Cz. Wołoszyk⁴

¹ General Chemistry Department, University of Agriculture, 71 434 Szczecin,ul Słowackiego 17, Poland; e-mail: margi@px.pl
² Department of Soil Science, University of Agriculture, 71 434 Szczecin, ul Słowackiego 17,Poland; e-mail: Edward.Meller@agro.ar.szczecin.pl
³ Soil, Plant Cultivation and Biometry Department, University of Agriculture, 71 434 Szczecin,ul Słowackiego 17, Poland; e-mail: mail sstankowski@hoga.pl
⁴ Department of Environmental Chemistry, University of Agriculture, 71 434 Szczecin,ul Słowackiego 17, Poland; e-mail: woloszyk@agro.ar.szczecin.pl

Abstract:

The aim of the studies was evaluation of brown coal ash produced by Power Plant Group Pątnów-Adamów-Konin for agricultural purposes. The subject matter was the estimation of the influence of fly ash applied to light soil on the metal content of soils (aluminium, iron, manganese, copper, nickel and cobalt). The field experiment was conducted on light soil at the area of the Agricultural Experimental Station in Lipnik, Poland. The experiment was set up by means of randomized complete blocks in 4 replications. The study consisted of testing 7 variants (controlburned lime (CaO) dolomite lime CaCO3⋅MgCO3, ash from 1st electrofilterzone, from 2nd electrofilter zone, from 3rd electrofilter zone and mixture of ashes from three electrofilter zones). Lime fertilizers and ashes were applied in a dose corresponding to 1.0 hydrolytic soil acidity expressed in cmol H+ kg-1 of soil. Brown coal fly ash produced by Power Plants ZE PAK S.A., used as soil fertilizer, did not contribute to changes of content of the following metals: iron, zinc, copper, nickel, lead and cobalt in the tested soil. Soil-incorporated brown coal fly ash significantly increased the content of manganese. However, the obtained results did not exceed the allowable standard. In the soil of all fertilizer variants, where brown coal ash was applied, the content of mobile aluminium diminished. When brown coal ash produced by Power Plants ZE PAK S.A. was applied in the experiment, soil reaction changed from acid to neutral and its hydrolytic acidity decreased by ca 50%.

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517-529 T. Łoboda and E. Wołejko
Effect of pH and Al3+ concentration on growth of spring brewer’s barley
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Effect of pH and Al3+ concentration on growth of spring brewer’s barley

T. Łoboda¹ and E. Wołejko²

¹ Sanitary Biology and Biotechnology Department, Bialystok Technical University, Wiejska45E, 15-351, Bialystok, Poland; e-mail: lobodat@vp.pl
² Institute of Agriculture, Suwalki Higher Vocational School, Noniewicza 10, 16-400 Suwalki,Poland; e-mail: elzbietawolejko@wp.pl

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to check reaction of spring brewer’s barley seedlings to the pH and aluminium concentration of the growing medium. Seedlings of four cultivars of barley (Madonna, Orthega, Philadelphia and Rasbet) were grown at 4 levels of pH (3, 4, 5 and 6) and under 3 doses of Al3+ (0, 150 and 300 µmol dm-3). Significant differences in dry matter of roots and shoots were found for the studied cultivars and plants grown at different pH and concentrations of Al3+. Cv. Madonna had the highest tolerance to aluminium ions at low pH (3 and 4) of the medium and also the highest chlorophyll content in the leaves among those studied. With an increase of aluminium concentration, phosphorus content in dry matter of the leaves decreased from 0.66% in control plants to 0.52% under 300 μmol Al3+ dm-3 and the magnesium content decreased from 0.16% in control to 0.12% under 150 μmol Al3+ dm-3 and 0.10% under 300 μmol Al3+ dm-3.

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531-542 T. Meysner, L. Szajdak and J. Kuś
Impact of the farming systems on the content of biologically active substances and the forms of nitrogen in the soils
Abstract |
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Impact of the farming systems on the content of biologically active substances and the forms of nitrogen in the soils

T. Meysner¹, L. Szajdak¹ and J. Kuś²

¹Research Center for Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences,Bukowska 19, 60-809 Poznań, Poland; e-mail: szajlech@man.poznan.pl
²Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation, Czartoryskich 8, 24-100 Puławy, Poland;e-mail: jankus@iung.pulawy.pl

Abstract:

Investigations were carried out in 2000 and 2001 to assess the impact of four farming systems on the content of biologically active substances and different forms of nitrogen in the soils. The transformation of bound amino acids and the total amount of free phenolic acids, urease activity as well as the total nitrogen, concentration of ammonium, nitrate, organic carbon, and humus in the soils were related to the choice of the farming systems. The highest concentration of bound amino acids, lysine and β–alanine, the total nitrogen, organic carbon, and humus in soils was found in ecological and conventional systems. It was confirmed that the increase of free phenolic acids in the soils of continuous cropping of winter wheat was followed by the decrease of the yearly mean concentrations of urease activity, the total amount of bound amino acids, the total nitrogen and grain yields, weight of 1000 grains, and number of ears m-2. The conventional system affects the increase of the yearly mean concentrations of the total amount of bound amino acids, the ammonium ions, and the grain yield, weight of 1000 grains, number of ears m-2 and the decrease of the total amount of free phenolic acids in the soils.

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543-548 U. Moor, M. Toome and A. Luik
Effect of different calcium compounds on postharvest quality of apples
Abstract |
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Effect of different calcium compounds on postharvest quality of apples

U. Moor, M. Toome and A. Luik

Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences,Kreutzwaldi St. 64, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia, e-mail: ulvimoor@emu.ee

Abstract:

The research was conducted with apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars ‘Antei’ and ‘Talvenauding’ in the Rõhu Research Centre and the Estonian University of Life Sciences in 2005–2006. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of different Ca compounds (CaCl2, Ca(NO3)2 and Boramin Ca) used as preharvest sprays on the mineral content of appleleaves and fruits and apple postharvest quality. Apples were stored in normal atmosphere at 2–5ºC and 80–85% RH. The storage time for ‘Talvenauding’ was 5 months and for ‘Antei’ 6 months. The percentage of spoiled apples was calculated monthly. The content of Ca, N, P, K and Mg from apple leaves was determined at the end of August and from fruits after the harvest. The average effect of calcium treatment was significant only in the variant where Ca (NO3)2 +CaCl2 were used: the percentage of spoiled fruits was 25% compared to 39% in the controlvariant. Correlation analysis showed that the amount of spoiled fruits in January and at the end of storage had negative correlations with content of Ca in leaves and content of Mg in fruits. At the same time positive correlations were found between N-, P-, K- and Ca content of fruits and spoilage. Only the increasing fruit Mg had a positive effect on apple fruit quality in the present experiment. The content of mineral elements in leaves had no positive correlation with the content of mineral elements in fruits.

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549-562 Y. Tomason and P.T. Gibson
Fungal characteristics and varietal reactions of powdery mildew species on cucurbits in the steppes of Ukraine
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Fungal characteristics and varietal reactions of powdery mildew species on cucurbits in the steppes of Ukraine

Y. Tomason¹ and P.T. Gibson²

¹Department of Selection and Seed Production, Dnepropetrovsk State Agrarian University,Voroshilov 25, 49600 Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine; e-mail: yantomason75@mail.ru
² Department of Plant, Soil and Agriculture Systems, Southern Illinois University, 62901,Carbondale, IL, USA; e-mail: pgibson@siu.edu

Abstract:

Powdery mildew caused by fungal species Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlect ex. Fr.) Poll. [syn. Podosphaera xanthii (sect. Sphaerotheca) xanthii (Castag.) U. Braun & N. Shish. Comb. nov.] and Erysiphe cichoracearum D.C. [syn. Golovinomyces cichoracearum (D.C.) Huleta] is the most frequent cucurbit (Cucurbitaceae) crop disease in the northern steppes of Ukraine. Species commonly cultivated in Ukraine (melon, watermelon, squash) were colonized by both species. Ash gourd (Benincasa hispida Cogn.) and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) were colonized only by E. cichoracearum. Sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica M.J. Roem) and fig-leaved gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia L.) were not colonized by either of these fungi. Varieties within species varied from resistant to highly susceptible. Four melon varieties were agronomically elite and had resistance to both species. Those two species were consistently differentiated by the location on the conidia where germination occurred, and by the ratio of conidial length to width. Indicator host species and varieties can provide a tentative identification of which powdery mildew species are present in the field.Varietal differentials suggested that races 1 & 2 of S. fuliginea were present onwatermelon, and that race 1 and at least one other race were present on melon.

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563-575 M. A. Zaidi, M. Narayanan, R. Sardana, I. Taga,, S. Postel, R. Johns,M. McNulty, Y. Mottiar, J. Mao, E. Loit, I. Altosaar,
Optimizing tissue culture media for efficient transformation of different indica rice genotypes
Abstract |
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Optimizing tissue culture media for efficient transformation of different indica rice genotypes

M. A. Zaidi¹, M. Narayanan¹⋅², R. Sardana¹, I. Taga¹,³, S. Postel¹, R. Johns¹,M. McNulty¹, Y. Mottiar¹, J. Mao¹, E. Loit¹, I. Altosaar¹,*

¹ Agricultural Biotechnology Laboratories, Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology andImmunology, University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Rd. Ottawa, ON., K1H 8M5, Canada
² Present address: Department of Agricultural Entomology, Agricultural College and ResearchInstitute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai-625 104, India
³ Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition Unit, Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, P OBox 24157, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon
* Corresponding author: altosaar@uottawa.ca Tel: +1(613) 562-5846, Fax: +1 (613) 562-5440

Abstract:

This article is dedicated to the rye breeder Count Friedrich Georg Magnus von Berg, celebratingthe 160th year of his birth. An efficient system was established for high frequency embryogenesis and regeneration of indica rice, Oryza sativa L. cv. MDU 5. Basic media, carbohydrate sources and concentrations, agar concentrations, amino acids, cytokinins and auxins were evaluated in callus induction and regeneration media to establish the most efficient regeneration protocol for MDU 5 indica rice. The optimized callus induction and regeneration media consisted of the basic MS salt mixtures and vitamin solutions supplemented with 4% maltose, 1g/L casein hydrolysate and 50 mg/L tryptophan, solidified with 1% agar. The callus induction medium was supplemented with 2,4−D 2 mg/L, kinetin 0.5 mg/L, indole acetic acid 1 mg/L, and 6−benzyl aminopurine 0.5 mg/L whereas the media for regeneration phase comprised kinetin 2 mg/L, indole acetic acid 1 mg/L and 6−benzyl aminopurine 2 mg/L. The media optimized for MDU 5 was analyzed for response of 73 other indica genotypes. Of these indica varieties 64 genotypes yielded 98.5% callus induction within eight days, 59% embryogenic calli formation, initiation of multiple green buds within eight days and a regeneration rate of 90%. The embryogenic calli derived were used for transformation with Agrobacterium tumifaciens (LBA 4404 or EHA 101 strains). Two binary vectors (pKHG4 and pIG121Hm) containing hph and GUS genes were used in these transformation studies. Fifty-one genotypes responded to the optimized media by producing hygromycin−resistant calli. The -histochemical test for ß−glucuronidase activity was positive from 32 genotypes with the transformation efficiencies ranging between 7.0% and 8.3%.

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