Volume 5 (2007)
  Number 2

Contents


Pages

97-107 E. Bakšienė, A. Ražukas, T.L. Nedzinskienė,O. Salina and J. Repečkienė
Influence of various farming systems on agrochemical indices and amount of microorganisms in Haplic Luvisol
Abstract |
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Influence of various farming systems on agrochemical indices and amount of microorganisms in Haplic Luvisol

E. Bakšienė¹, A. Ražukas¹, T.L. Nedzinskienė¹,O. Salina² and J. Repečkienė²

¹Voke Branch of Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Žalioji a. 2, Trakų Vokė,LT-02232 Vilnius; e-mail: eugenija.baksiene@voke.lzi.lt
²Institute of Botany, Žaliųjų Ežerų 49, LT-08406, Vilnius;e-mail: olga.salina@botanika.lt

Abstract:

The article presents data from a study comparing the influence on plant productivity of three different farming systems – ecological, sustainable and chemical – and the use of various plants grown for green manure. Crops were lupine, white mustard and red clover. Calculations of the nutritional content of the soil in the experiments show that various crop rotations (treatments) affect the phosphorus and potassium balance.The data indicate that productivity of plant rotations depends on the plants cultivated andthe applied farming system. In all farming systems, the highest yield was achieved cultivating plants after fertilization with green manure (lupines and white mustard). The results of the experiments show that crop rotations result in negative nitrogen, phosphorus (except in sustainable and chemical farming systems) and potassium balance in the soil.Crop rotations had no effect on the soil acidity and increased total nitrogen and organiccarbon content in the soil. The amount of phosphorus in the soil increased in all farming systems; potassium increased only in the sustainable and chemical farming systems.Data indicating the number of micromycetes, organic and mineral nitrogen assimilatingbacteria in the rizosphere soil of various grown plants are also presented.

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109-122 R. Kõlli, T. Köster and K. Kauer
Organic matter of Estonian grassland soils
Abstract |
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Organic matter of Estonian grassland soils

R. Kõlli, T. Köster and K. Kauer

Department of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Estonian University of Life Sciences,Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014, Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: raimo.kolli@emu.ee

Abstract:

Soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil organic matter (SOM) contents of Estonian grassland soils are analysed in 20 soil groups using data from the database PEDON and CATENA. The SOC and SOM concentrations (g kg-1) and pools (Mg ha-1) for upland mineral soils (Leptosols, Cambisols, Luvisols, Albeluvisols, Regosols; total 9 groups), lowland mineral soils (Gleysols, Fluvisols; 9 groups) and wetland organic soils (Histosols; 2 groups) are given separately for humus cover (HC) and soil cover (SC). The SOC and SOM pools for the entire Estonian grasslands were calculated on the basis of different soil types, morphological characteristics and distribution superficies. It was concluded that in Estonian grasslands SC 39.9±8.0 Tg of organic carbon is sequestered, 76.2% of which is found in HC and 23.8% in subsoils. Grassland SOC is sequestered in 69.1±12.6 Tg of SOM. A quality analysis of humus covers of grassland soils (evaluated from the pedo-ecological perspective) distinguished 5 quality groups and 15 subdivisions.

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123-133 A. Mašauskiene, V. Mašauskas and J. Peltonen
The impact of phosphorus seed coating on winter wheat at different fertilisation practices
Abstract |
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The impact of phosphorus seed coating on winter wheat at different fertilisation practices

A. Mašauskiene¹, V. Mašauskas² and J. Peltonen²

¹Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto aleja 1, LT 58344, Akademija, Kedainiai distr.,Lithuania; e-mail: audrone.masauskiene@lzi.lt
¹Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto alėja 1, LT 58344, Akademija, Kedainiai distr.,Lithuania; e-mail: vytas.masauskas@lzi.lt
²Kemira GrowHow Oyj., Finland; e-mail: Jari.Peltonen@kemira-growhow.com

Abstract:

Experiments with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were conducted during 2001/2002, 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 in Central Lithuania, Dotnuva site. The effect of P seed coating at control (without mineral fertilization), (N17P35K87) N130 and (N14P70K70) N130fertilisation practices on a light loam soil testing low/moderate in available phosphorus was examined. P seed coating resulted in alteration to plant stand structure traits. Despite the fact that seedling emergence of P coated seed decreased, the number of total and productive stems and the number of grain per ear was identical to that of control. Significant changes in Zeleny sedimentation, wet and dry gluten, gluten index and falling number values resulting from P seed coating were obtained in the year with unfavourable wintering conditions. Although P seed coating exerted a positive effect on winter wheat early growth and influenced grain quality, it did not prove to be a method resulting in higher economic yield. The new hypothesis how to reduce phosphorus rate in conventional mineral fertilisation practice involving P seed coating needs further testing.

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135-144 A. Sakalauskas, E. Šarauskis, A. Jasinskas,K. Romaneckas and E. Vaiciukevičius
Trials of sugar beet seed pressing with various pressure rollers
Abstract |
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Trials of sugar beet seed pressing with various pressure rollers

A. Sakalauskas¹, E. Šarauskis¹, A. Jasinskas¹,K. Romaneckas² and E. Vaiciukevičius¹

¹Department of Agricultural Machinery, Lithuanian University of Agriculture,Studentu St. 15A, LT-53361 Kauno r., Lithuania; e-mail: ZUM.katedra@lzuu.lt
²Department of Soil Management, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentu St. 11,LT-53361 Kauno r., Lithuania; e-mail: Kestas.romaneckas@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

This paper presents the investigation of the technological process of operation of special type sugar beet seed pressure rollers and the experimental trial results of tests carried out in various soils at Hohenheim University. Pressure rollers are mounted behind the seeder coulters, improving the contact between sugar beet seeds and the soil and, in addition, improving seed germination ability. But pressure rollers of conventional sugar beet seeders used for sowing tilled and cultivated soils cannot always be used for seed pressing in non-ploughed and uncultivated soils. The main design parameters of the pressure rollers of sugar beet seeds are diameter, width, the number of rollers and fingers, mass, etc. The even pressing of seed, furrow bed profile, its hardness, seed damage and gravity, etc. depend on the above mentioned parameters.The theoretical investigations proved that the pressure rollers should be mounted on theseeder unit with the help of hinges. As a result, when the sugar beet seeds were sown in non-ploughed soils, the pressure force onto the soil would depend on the gravitational force The diameter of the pressure rollers should be not less than 180 mm in order to press the seeds into the soil to a depth of about 3 mm and ensure their good contact with the soil.The experimental trials revealed that the narrow disk pressure roller of 220 mm diameterand 15 mm width introduces the seeds of sugar beet into the hard soil of 0.4 and 0.9 MPa and satisfies the conditions of good seed and soil contact. The disk pressure roller with fingers is made of two disks; each 17-finger disk introduces sugar beet seeds by 2 mm shallower than the narrow one and forms waves in the furrow bottom. When the finger-type pressure roller has been pulled through 0.4 – 0.9 MPa hardness soil the recommended force should be from 0.004 to 0.011 kN greater than using the narrow pressure roller.

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