Volume 6 (2008)
  Number 2

Contents


Pages

435-444 W. Bres and M. Jerzy
Changes of nutrient concentration in chrysanthemum leaves under influence of solar radiation
Abstract |
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Changes of nutrient concentration in chrysanthemum leaves under influence of solar radiation

W. Bres¹ and M. Jerzy²

¹Department of Horticultural Plant Nutrition , Poznan University of Life Sciences, Zgorzelecka4, 60-198 Poznań, Poland; e-mail: wbnaw@au.poznan.pl
²Department of Ornamental Plants, Poznan University of Life Sciences,Dabrowskiego 159, 60-594 Poznań, Poland

Abstract:

Eleven pot cultivars of the chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum x grandiflorum /Ramat./ Kitam.) were grown in 12 year-round cycles. Starting with 2 January 2002, on the second day of each successive month, rooted cuttings of all the chrysanthemum cultivars were planted into pots 14 cm in diameter, 5 cuttings per pot. From the day of potting, the plants were exposed to short-day treatment. In periods of naturally long days, the day was shortened to 10.5 hours. From November till mid-February (days under 10 hours), no supplementary assimilation light was used to improve the light conditions in the period of insolation deficit. Depending on weather conditions, the electrolytical conductivity of the nutrient solution used for plant feeding varied between 1.8 mS cm-1 (in summer) and 2.2 mS cm-1 (in winter). To prepare the nutrient solution rainwater was used. When 30% of inflorescences were in flower, for chemical analysis well-developed leaves from plants were sampled. The total concentrations of macro- and microelements in plant tissue were determined. To find the relationship between nutrient concentration in plant tissue and radiation, data were analysed using simple linear regression models. Radiation had an effect on nutrient concentration in chrysanthemum leaves. The highest determination coefficient R2 for P and Ca, the lowest for N and K were calculated.

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445-458 A. M. Ciccotti, C. Bisognin, I. Battocletti, A. Salvadori,M. Herdemertens and W. Jarausch
Micropropagation of apple proliferation-resistant apomictic Malus sieboldii genotypes
Abstract |

Micropropagation of apple proliferation-resistant apomictic Malus sieboldii genotypes

A. M. Ciccotti¹, C. Bisognin¹⋅², I. Battocletti¹, A. Salvadori¹,M. Herdemertens² and W. Jarausch²⋅*

¹ IASMA Research Centre - Plant Protection Department, Via E.Mach,I-38010 San Michele all’Adige (TN) – Italy
² AlPlanta – Institute for Plant Research, RLP AgroScience, Breitenweg 71,D-67435 Neustadt/W. – Germany,
*corresponding author: wolfgang.jarausch@agroscience.rlp.de

Abstract:

Apple proliferation (AP) is a serious disease of apple in Europe. Natural resistance was found in apomictic Malus sieboldii-derived genotypes which can be used as rootstocks and whose agronomic value is actually improved in ongoing breeding programs. As these genotypes are difficult to propagate by standard procedures micropropagation was established and validated in this study to multiply the material in larger scale. A propagation protocol was developed for in vitro establishment, multiplication and rooting of eleven interesting AP-resistant genotypes. For the optimisation of the multiplication medium, four different macro and micro element formulations were tested: MS, QL, WPM and DKW. Phytohormones (0.25 µM IBA, 4.44 µM BAP and 0.28 µM GA3) and vitamins (MS modified for thiamine at 2.96 µM), established for the propagation of M. domestica, were also suitable for the propagation of M. sieboldii-genotypes. The MS medium yielded in general the highest proliferation rates and the best shoot growth. Significantly better growth with the MS medium was also favoured by replacing Fe-EDTA by Fe-EDDHA as the iron source. By comparing four different rooting treatments a significantly higher percentage of rooting was observed when the induction was carried out in the dark with 25 µM IBA either in liquid or agarised medium. The time required for root formation on hormone-free medium varied among the different genotypes and three classes, low, medium and high rooting efficiency could be defined. The acclimatisation method adopted for the ex vitro plants in the greenhouse yielded survival rates between 90-100% for most of the genotypes.

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459-469 M. Järvan, L. Edesi, A. Adamson, L. Lukme and A. Akk
The effect of sulphur fertilization on yield, quality of protein and baking properties of winter wheat
Abstract |
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The effect of sulphur fertilization on yield, quality of protein and baking properties of winter wheat

M. Järvan¹, L. Edesi¹, A. Adamson¹, L. Lukme² and A. Akk²

¹Department of Plant Sciences, Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse St. 13,EE75501 Saku, Estonia; e-mail: malle.jarvan@eria.ee
²Agricultural Research Centre, Teaduse St. 4/6, EE75501 Saku, Estonia

Abstract:

The present paper is based on the data of field and production trials conducted in the years 2004–2007. The trials were carried out in North-Estonia (59° 18’ N, 24° 39’ E) on break-stony soil and in South-Estonia (58° 27’ N, 25° 36’ E) on pseudopodzolic soil. The aim was to identify the effect of sulphur fertilization on the yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on some of the quality indices of yield and protein quality, including the content of non-replaceable amino acids, and on the baking properties of flour. In the field trials the effect of N and NS fertilization was compared on the nitrogen background of N60 + N40 kg ha-1. Due tosulphur (in two top dressings in total S10 kg ha-1) the yield of winter wheat ‘Lars’ increased,depending on the weather and soil conditions, in field trials 0.47–1.48 t ha-1, i.e. 7.7–43.0% and in production trials 1.35–2.44 t ha-1, i.e. 39.8–45.5%. The effect of sulphur on the protein and wet gluten contents of wheat grain was not always one-directional, but in all trials the gluten index increased and the quality of protein improved under the influence of sulphur. Sulphur fertilization increased the content of amino acids in the protein of winter wheat in field trials on the average as following: cysteine – 24.5%, methionine – 35.3%, threonine – 14.4% and lysine – 7.7%. In production conditions the fertilization with sulphur increased both the contents of protein and wet gluten and that of major amino acids. Due to sulphur fertilization all major parameters of winter wheat’s baking quality improved: stability and quality number of dough, loaf volume and specific volume and round loaf’s height to diameter ratio.

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471-476 Jolanta Korzeniowska
Response of ten winter wheat cultivars to boron foliar application in a temperate climate (South-West Poland)
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Response of ten winter wheat cultivars to boron foliar application in a temperate climate (South-West Poland)

Jolanta Korzeniowska

Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - National Research Institute in Pulawy,Department of Weed Science and Tillage Systems in Wroclaw, Orzechowa 61,50-540 Wroclaw, Poland, email: j.korzeniowska@iung.wroclaw.pl

Abstract:

Three strict field trials were conducted in 2003, 2004 and 2006, involving foliar application of boron to ten cultivars of winter wheat commonly grown in Poland. Boron was applied as 175 g.ha-1 of boracic acid. Foliar fertilization treatments caused a significant grain yield increase of four (Zyta, Kobra, Mewa and Pegassos) out of ten winter wheat cultivars. The average yield increment ranged between 9 and 15%. The cultivars which responded positively to the fertilization were the ones which produced the lowest yields on the control plots without boron. The nutritional demands of the cultivars Korweta, Kris, Soraja, Jawa, Symfonia and Sakwa for boron were much lower than those of the other cultivars. Although the foliar fertilisation with boron increased the concentration of this element in the shoots of these 6 cultivars, they did not respond with higher yield to the application of this element.

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477-488 D. Kostova, V. Kanazirska and M. Kamburova
A comparative analysis of different vegetable crops for content of manganese and molybdenum
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A comparative analysis of different vegetable crops for content of manganese and molybdenum

D. Kostova¹, V. Kanazirska² and M. Kamburova¹

¹Agricultural University – Plovdiv12, Mendeleev Str., 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria;e-mail: deny_kostova@yahoo.com
²Vegetable Crops Research Institute, Plovdiv, Bulgaria

Abstract:

The microelements manganese and molybdenum are actively absorbed by plants. The manganese and molybdenum content in 12 widely used vegetable species of the families Fabaceae, Malvaceae, Brassicaceae, Cruciferae were studied to establish the different levels of these elements in their production.Under the influence of nitrogen fertilization (400 mg N / 1000 g soil), different plantspecies, grown under the same soil-climatic conditions, accumulate different quantities of manganese and molybdenum from the nutrient medium. The resulting content varies considerably.Lentils are described with the highest content of manganese, 120.83 mg kg-1 dry matter(family Fabaceae). The concentration of molybdenum is highest in broccoli, 29.53 mg kg-1 dry matter (family Brassicaceae). Brussels sprouts and okra accumulate the least manganese and molybdenum – brussels sprouts, 5.50 mg kg-1 Мn dry matter, оkra, 5.23 mg kg-1 Мо dry matter.The manganese and molybdenum content in the vegetable species were determined by anew extraction-photometric method with Toluidine Blue and Tetrazolium Violet.Manganese and molybdenum has also been determined by atomic-absorption method, inorder to compare the results.

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489-498 Z. Kriauciuniene, R. Velicka, S. Raudonius and M. Rimkeviciene
Changes of lignin concentration and C:N in oilseed rape, wheat and clover residues during their decomposition in the soil
Abstract |

Changes of lignin concentration and C:N in oilseed rape, wheat and clover residues during their decomposition in the soil

Z. Kriauciuniene², R. Velicka¹, S. Raudonius¹ and M. Rimkeviciene²

¹Department of Soil Management, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentu 11,Akademija, LT-53361 Kaunas dist., Lithuania, e-mail: rimantas.velicka@lzuu.lt
²Experimental Station of Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Noreikiskės,LT-53363 Kaunas dist., Lithuania, e-mail: zita.kriauciuniene@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

Field experiments were conducted in 2003–2005 at the Experimental Station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture to study the changes of lignin concentration and C:N in roots and top residues of winter and spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) after 14, 33, 63, 85 and 116 weeks of decomposition in the soil. Correlation between lignin concentration and amount of dry matter as well as the ratio of carbon and nitrogen in investigated crop residues were estimated.Investigation of crop residue decomposition during the period of 116 weeks showed thatstubble and roots of winter and spring oilseed rape decompose more slowly than their threshing remains, or stubble, and roots of winter wheat and red clover. Dry matter and lignin decomposed and the ratio of carbon and nitrogen in winter oilseed rape residues decreased more slowly than that of spring oilseed rape residues.The ratio of carbon and nitrogen in the decomposing crop residues decreased mostintensively during the 33–63 week period. After that, the concentration of lignin started to decrease, but its significant decline in all investigated crop residues was estimated after 116 weeks of decomposition. Lignin was most decomposed from its concentration peak in the stubble of red clover (37.9%) and least in winter oilseed rape roots (12.8%).Negative correlation between lignin concentration and dry matter amount and betweenlignin concentration and C:N was established in winter and spring oilseed rape, winter wheat and red clover top and root residues decomposing in the soil.

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499-509 D. Kumar, R. Seth, S. Natarajan, G.K. Dwivedi and Y.S. Shivay
Seed yield response of marvel grass (Dichanthium annulatum) to cutting management and nitrogen fertilisation in central India
Abstract |

Seed yield response of marvel grass (Dichanthium annulatum) to cutting management and nitrogen fertilisation in central India

D. Kumar¹*, R. Seth¹, S. Natarajan¹, G.K. Dwivedi¹ and Y.S. Shivay²

¹Division of Seed Technology, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi (UP-284003), India; e-mail: dineshctt@yahoo.com
*2Present Address: Division of Agronomy, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, NewDelhi-110 012, India

Abstract:

A three-year field trial (1997–2000) was conducted to determine the most suitable cutting management practice and nitrogen level for enhanced seed production in Dichanthium annulatum grass under central Indian conditions. The trial was arranged in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications, comprising all combinations of 3 cutting management practices (clipping, one cut and uncut) and 4 nitrogen levels (0, 20, 40 and 60 kg N ha-1). In general, cutting and clipping did not favour seed production in marvel grass in this experiment. The uncut treatment produced significantly more seed (mean 68.6 kg ha-1) than clipping (mean 58.9 kg ha-1) and one-cut (mean 52.4 kg ha-1) treatments at all the seed harvests, except during April 1999 and April 2000. During Nov. 1997, Nov. 1998, and Nov. 1999 seed harvests, N levels 20, 40 and 60 kg ha-1 did not differ significantly with respect to seed yield. However, in April 1999 and April 2000 seed harvests, the seed yield increased significantly up to 40 kg N ha-1. The average seed yields obtained during April 1999 and 2000 at 0, 20, 40 and 60 kg N ha-1 were 70.7, 75.6, 84.2 and 84.9 kg ha-1, respectively.

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511-516 D. Kviklys, J. Lanauskas, J. Sakalauskaitė, N. Kviklienė and N. Uselis
Soil exhaustion and rootstock effect on the growth of apple planting material
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Soil exhaustion and rootstock effect on the growth of apple planting material

D. Kviklys, J. Lanauskas, J. Sakalauskaitė, N. Kviklienė and N. Uselis

Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Kauno 30, LT–54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr., Lithuania,e-mail: d.kviklys@lsdi.lt

Abstract:

Apple rootstocks P 59, P 22, P 2, P 60, M.9, M.26, MM.106, B.118 (54–118), B.396 (62–396) and ‘Antonowka‘ seedlings were tested at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture in fresh soil and in soil previously used for an apple nursery. Replanting had a negative effect on the development of apple tree propagation material in the nursery. Bud survival of cv. ‘Sampion’ decreased by 24% compared to those in fresh soil. Other tree growth parameters were suppressed as well: tree height by 29%, trunk diameter by 24%, average leaf area by 28%, and absolutely dry leaf weight by 33%. Combining all parameters it could be concluded that apple trees of cv. ‘Sampion’ on P 59 and P 60 rootstocks are the most sensitive to soil exhaustion, whereas trees on P 2 and B.396 rootstocks show tolerance to replanting.

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517-529 I. Małecka and A. Blecharczyk
Effect of tillage systems, mulches and nitrogen fertilization on spring barley (Hordeum vulgare)
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Effect of tillage systems, mulches and nitrogen fertilization on spring barley (Hordeum vulgare)

I. Małecka¹ and A. Blecharczyk²

¹ Poznan University of Life Sciences, Plant and Soil Cultivation Department, Mazowiecka45/46, 60-623 Poznan, Poland; e-mail: malecka@up.poznan.pl
² Poznan University of Life Sciences, Plant and Soil Cultivation Department, Mazowiecka45/46, 60-623 Poznan, Poland; e-mail: blechar@up.poznan.pl

Abstract:

Yield, N uptake, weeds and diseases of spring barley were examined under five mulching practices (white mustard, phacelia, oat-pea mixture, straw mulch, and no mulch), three tillage systems (conventional, reduced and no-tillage) and three doses of nitrogen fertilization (0, 50 and 100 kg N ha-1). In general the grain yield of spring barley for cover crops was 10-31% higher compared with the no-mulch treatment. A mulch of straw provided a smaller barley grain yield than the no-mulch treatment. Compared to conventional tillage, grain yield under reduced tillage and no-tillage were 7 and 12% less, respectively. Spring barley sowing after a mixture of oat-pea led to decreased a negative response of reduced and no-tillage. Grain yield after treatment with legume cover crops and without N fertilization was similar compared as the rates 50 kg N ha-1 after white mustard or phacelia and as the rate 100 kg N ha-1 without mulches. There was no evidence of tillage x N fertilization interaction on grain yield, dry matter production and plant-N uptake. Cover crops and straw mulch significantly decreased total weed populations compared with the treatment without mulch. Total weed density increased from 108 plants per m2 in the no-tillage to 322 plants per m2 for reduced tillage, and to 416 plants per m2 for the conventional tillage over mulch. Higher infestation of spring barley with stem base and root diseases was observed in reduced and no-tillage in comparison with the conventional soil tillage and after straw mulch and no-mulch than after cover crops.

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531-541 R. Petrokas and V. Stanys
Leaf peroxidase isozyme polymorphism of wild apple
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Leaf peroxidase isozyme polymorphism of wild apple

R. Petrokas¹ and V. Stanys²

¹ Department of Genetics and Breeding, Lithuanian Forest Research Institute, Liepų 1, LT-53101 Girionys, Kaunas distr., Lithuania; e-mail: rpetrokas@yahoo.co.uk
² Department of Genetics and Biotechnology of Orchard Plants, Lithuanian Institute ofHorticulture, LT-54333, Babtai, Kaunas distr., Lithuania

Abstract:

The main aims of the study were to reveal the isozyme resemblances in the leaf peroxidase of wild apple and to define the traits related to the identification of Malus sylvestris Mill. The results of the study are based on leaf isozyme analysis of seven progenies selected according to the specific features of mother trees at their natural sites from the mixed forests of south-western and central Lithuania. The patterns of peroxidase isozymes were obtained by electrophoresis. The presence or absence of isoforms has been applied to compare peroxidase patterns of progenies. Species-specific peroxidase markers of Malus sylvestris Mill. were found. The progenies of crab apple trees had the higher proportion of identical siblings in comparison to the progenies of non-crab apple trees; autogamy or even apomixis might be the factor in wild apple if considering the resemblance of some siblings in the progenies confirmed by the simultaneous comparison of their peroxidase isozyme patterns. The phenotypic characterization of rapidly growing reproductive structures (e.g. fruit characters) may be useful for the identification of Malus sylvestris Mill. independent of the remaining characters of wild apple trees.

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543-554 A. Slepetiene, J. Slepetys and I. Liaudanskiene
Standard and modified methods for soil organic carbon determination in agricultural soils
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Standard and modified methods for soil organic carbon determination in agricultural soils

A. Slepetiene¹, J. Slepetys¹ and I. Liaudanskiene¹

¹Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto al.1, LT 58344, Dotnuva, Akademija, KedainiaiDistrict, Lithuania; e-mail: alvyra@lzi.lt
¹Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto al.1, LT 58344, Dotnuva, Akademija, KedainiaiDistrict, Lithuania; e-mail: jonas.slepetys@lzi.lt
¹Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto al.1, LT 58344, Dotnuva, Akademija, KedainiaiDistrict, Lithuania; e-mail: inga@lzi.lt

Abstract:

The presented study demonstrates the benefits of using modified vertical photometry methods for rapid, reliable and accurate soil organic carbon determination in agricultural soils. For tests we selected and analysed 25 arable (Ap horizon) topsoil (Cambisol) samples, so that the determined values cover as wide a range as possible. In the proposed method soil organic carbon is determined using 0.2 M potassium dichromate solution in diluted (1:1) sulphuric acid. The data obtained using the proposed method correlated strongly with the data obtained by Vario EL and titration methods. The new modification safeguards the objectivity of results, since it gives strong correlation coefficients (r = 0.989–0.990, P < 0.001, n = 25) with the dry combustion method data. The findings suggest that different photometers did not significantly affect results. However, comparison of conventional photometry and photometric determination using Multiskan MS equipped with the Genesis Lite microplate software revealed the following advantages of the latter technique: higher measurement accuracy, the facility to edit and save calibration graphs, the possibility of optimized and multiple replications, higher labour efficiency; improved safety for research personnel and lower reagent consumption. Strong and highly significant (P < 0.001) correlations were determined between the data obtained using different methods, and respective linear regression equations for the re-calculation of SOC values were developed.

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555-561 T. Tranavičienė, A. Urbonavičiūtė, G.Samuolienė, P. Duchovskis,I. Vagusevičienė and A. Sliesaravičius
The effect of differential nitrogen fertilization on photosynthetic pigment and carbohydrate contents in the two winter wheat varieties
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The effect of differential nitrogen fertilization on photosynthetic pigment and carbohydrate contents in the two winter wheat varieties

T. Tranavičienė¹, A. Urbonavičiūtė²⋅³, G.Samuolienė²⋅³, P. Duchovskis¹⋅²,I. Vagusevičienė¹ and A. Sliesaravičius¹

¹ Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Department of Crop Science and Animal Husbandry,53067 Akademija, Kaunas distr., Lithuania; e-mail: kokybe@kauno-grudai.lt
² Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Kauno g. 30, 54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr., Lithuania
³ Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Department of Botany

Abstract:

The effect of nitrogen fertilizers on photosynthetic indices in two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties ‘Ada’ and ‘Seda’ was investigated in the experimental station of Lithuanian University of Agriculture during 2005–2006 and 2006–2007. The rates of fertilizers during wheat vegetation were as follows: N90, N120 and N150. In sowing time bothvarieties were fertilized with N30P80K120. In tillering stage plants were fed with calcium-ammonium nitrate N60 and N80. In stem elongation stage they were fertilized through leaves withcarbamide solution N30 and N40. Wheat photosynthetic pigment and carbohydrate contents weredetermined in flowering and seed growth stages. The results of analysis show that photosynthetic pigment and carbohydrate status are suitable indicators of the activity of the winter wheat photosynthetic system. Suitably selected nitrogen fertilization design may delay the natural senescence processes. However, the emergence of the indices of senescence is also dependent on environmental conditions. Nitrogen remobilization and photosynthetic activity during natural senescence is cultivar specific. The photosynthetic system of ‘Ada’ wheat variety is more sensitive to the evocative factors than ‘Seda’ wheat. The soluble sugars also participate in senescence launching: the lower hexoses/sucrose ratio corresponds to decline in photosynthetic pigment degradation. Earlier photosynthetic senescence corresponds to reduced wheat grain yields.

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