Volume 7 (2009)
  Number 1

Contents


Pages

3-10 M. Alaru, M. Noormets, H. Raave, R. Lauk, A. Selge and R. Viiralt
Farming systems and environmental impacts
Abstract |
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Farming systems and environmental impacts

M. Alaru, M. Noormets, H. Raave, R. Lauk, A. Selge and R. Viiralt

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1A; e-mail: maarika.alaru@emu.ee

Abstract:

Energy crop production in organic farming. A basic principle of organic farming is to „reduce the use of non-renewable resources (e.g. fossil fuels) to a minimum”. Biomass is a key resource for biogas or biofuel. The main objective of this study was to find out the species and the species mixtures which could produce a high amount of above ground biomass for energy production. In 2007/2008 productivity of different field crops and grasses was investigated in natural, mineral fertilizer, slurry and wastewater sludge treatments. For field crops and grasses the productivity was studied in the case of pure and mixture sowings. The biomass chemical composition including heavy metals was studied. The highest above ground biomass was obtained from experimental treatments with maize cultivars, followed by hemp cultivars fertilized with wastewater sludge. The highest yield from grasses was obtained from smooth brome grass on mineral fertilizer background which was followed by reed canary grass on sewage sludge background. The lowest yield was obtained from cocksfoot. To avoid the damage of soil texture the wastewater as renewable nitrogen (N) resource should be used only after 3 years.

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11-20 L. Kmitiene, A. Zebrauskiene and A. Kmitas
Comparison of biological characteristics and productivity of introduced cultivars of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.)
Abstract |
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Comparison of biological characteristics and productivity of introduced cultivars of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.)

L. Kmitiene, A. Zebrauskiene and A. Kmitas

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentu 11, Kaunas-Akademija LT-53067, Lithuania
e-mail: ns@lzuu.lt, kmitiene@one.lt

Abstract:

There is no wide range of cultivars of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) in Lithuania. Only two of them – ‘Mary Washington’ and ‘D’Argenteuili hative’ – have been investigated and are recommended for cultivation, however they do not meet the modern requirements for the cultivars. Therefore these cultivars must be renewed or replaced by the newly developed and more productive cultivars. The investigations of biomorphological characteristics of introduced cultivars of asparagus were carried out in the period from 2003-06 by the Department of Horticulture of the LUA. The biological characteristics of standard cultivars of asparagus ‘Mary Washington’ (control) and introduced cultivars ‘D’Argenteuil Primaticcio’, ‘Schwetzinger Meisterschub’, ‘Eposs’, ‘Schneekopf’, ‘Rambo’, ‘Gartner Saat’ and male cultivars ‘Ravel’, ‘Ramos’, ‘Ramada’, ‘Rally’, ‘Ranger’ were investigated. Harvest period, productivity, and chemical composition were established and the indicators of shoot quality were evaluated. The results of the research showed that vegetation of bushes of the male cultivars start later but their harvest period is longer (lasting 20 – 24 days on average). In 2004, the highest yield of shoots was formed by the bushes of the male cultivars ‘Ramos’ and ‘Ranger’, and in 2005, the highest yield was received from the bushes of standard cultivars such as ‘D’Argenteuil Primaticcio’, ‘Schwetzinger Meisterschub’, and ‘Eposs’. The highest yield of shoots of the cultivars under investigation was received in 2006 (third harvest year), ‘Ramos’ and ‘Ranger’; the bushes of standard cultivars ‘Schwetzinger Meistersschub’, ‘Rambo’ and male cultivars ‘Ravel’, ‘Ramos’ were the most productive. According to the average results of investigations, the most productive cultivars in the group of standard cultivars were ‘Schwetzinger Meisterschub’ and ‘Eposs’, and in the group of male cultivars – ‘Ravel’, ‘Ramos’ and ‘Ranger’. Shoot quality indicators (length, diameter, average mass) were in compliance with the standard quality requirements.

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21-32 R. Lauk and E. Lauk
Dual intercropping of common vetch and wheat or oats, effects on yields and interspecific competition
Abstract |
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Dual intercropping of common vetch and wheat or oats, effects on yields and interspecific competition

R. Lauk¹ and E. Lauk²

¹Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life
Sciences, Kreutzwaldi St. 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: ruth.lauk@emu.ee. 2
²Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life
Sciences, Kreutzwaldi St. 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: ervi.lauk@emu.ee.

Abstract:

A three-year field experiment was conducted in Estonia to determine a) which combinations of vetch (Vicia sativa L.) intercropped with either wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) or oats (Avena sativa L.) were most suitable for mixed cultivation and b) the effect of vetch on the yield potential of cereals in different weather conditions as compared to the respective sole crops of cereals. The vetch-wheat intercrops did not produce any greater yield than wheat sole crops but the yield of vetch-oats intercrops was higher as compared to oat sole crops and vetchwheat intercrops. The grain yield of vetch when intercropped was strongly correlated with seed density. In the years of normal precipitation and at higher vetch seed densities (over 60 seeds m- 2 ) the grain yield of intercrops was lower than that of the respective cereal sole crops. The yield of the cereal component was higher in sole crops and when increasing vetch seed density cereal grain yield decreased. The inter-specific competitiveness of wheat towards vetch increased when doubling the wheat seed density. Likewise the relatively dry growth period favored the growth of wheat as compared to vetch. Vetch-cereal intercrops produced considerably higher protein yields on the soil without any N-fertiliser than cereal sole crops and are regarded as highly suitable for organic farming.

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33-38 G. Mann, M. Schlegel, R. Schumann and A. Sakalauskas
Biogas-conditioning with microalgae
Abstract |
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Biogas-conditioning with microalgae

G. Mann¹, M. Schlegel¹, R. Schumann² and A. Sakalauskas³

¹ Institute for Farm Animals Sciences and Technology, Faculty for Agricultural and
Environmental Sciences, University of Rostock, Rostock, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 8, D-18059
Rostock,
² Institute for Biosciences, Faculty for Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of
Rostock, Albert-Einstein-Str. 3, D-18059 Rostock
³ Department of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Lithuanian
University of Agriculture, Student� 15A, LT-53361 Kaunas-Akademija, Lithuania,
e-mail: ZUM.katedra@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

To promote the expansion of feasible biogas production, an optimisation of the whole process chain is essential. In this context the optimisation of the biogas-conditioning process is of great importance. By improving this process, new fields of application, e.g. its usage as car fuel or natural gas substitute can be developed. Currently applied chemical/physical conditioning techniques are cost intensive and hinder a reasonable production for smaller biogas plants. At present a possible low-cost alternative by application of microalgae is being investigated at the University of Rostock. To determine their ability to reduce carbon dioxide from biogas, laboratory-scale photobioreactors with a culture volume of 0.45 l are deployed. In 2008 the microalgae Chlorella sp. was analysed in terms of conditioning biogas. As a result the biogas components CO2 and H2S could be reduced up to 97.07% and 100%, respectively. Also an increase of microalgae cell count could be documented, which provides interesting alternatives for the production of algae ingredients.

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39-46 A.Pozeliene and S.Lynikiene
The treatment of rape (Brassica napus L.) seeds with the help of electrical field
Abstract |
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The treatment of rape (Brassica napus L.) seeds with the help of electrical field

A.Pozeliene and S.Lynikiene

Institute of Agricultural Engineering of Lithuanian Agricultural University,
Instituto st. 20, Raudondvaris, LT-54132 Kauno r., Lithuania; e-mail: ausra@mei.lt,
stely@mei.lt

Abstract:

The paper presents data about the sorting and stimulation of germination of rape seeds with the help of corona discharge field (CDF). The seed- preparing machines used the electric field to sort seeds according to the unit of mechanical and electrical features and improve germination. A survey of literature discussing the methods of the increasing of seed germination of electro�physical nature and the duration of the various periods from the stimulation to sowing time has been viewed. The conveyer type electric separator designed in the institute was used for the seed processing. The 3�105 V m-1 field strength was used for seed sorting according to the biological value in the electric separator. The change of the germination stimulation effect during the onemonth seed storage period was determined for the seeds with conditional moisture content but two different initial germination rates. The same strength of corona discharge field was used in research of the germination dynamics. The duration of seed treating in the field was 2 s. During the research the following facts were established: that by the sorting of non – conditional rape seeds it is possible to get 80% of seed to correspond to the requirements of the standard; CDF has positive influence on germination dynamics of treated seeds; density function of the seeds treated with CDF is described by lognormal distribution and that of untreated seeds, by normal distribution; the average increase of the germination of stimulated seeds has been reliable during the one-month period from stimulation to sowing. Statistical processing of the test data shows that the increase in germination of the seeds treated with CDF is reliable in comparison with the control.

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47-58 V. Razmaite, S. Kerziene, V. Jatkauskiene, R. Nainiene and D. Urbšiene
Pork quality of male hybrids from Lithuanian Wattle pigs and wild boar intercross
Abstract |
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Pork quality of male hybrids from Lithuanian Wattle pigs and wild boar intercross

V. Razmaite¹*, S. Kerziene², V. Jatkauskiene¹, R. Nainiene¹ and D. Urbšiene¹

¹Institute of Animal Science of Lithuanian Veterinary Academy, Baisogala, Lithuania
²Lithuanian Veterinary Academy, Kaunas, Lithuania
Dr. Violeta Razmait�, Institute of Animal Science of Lithuanian Veterinary Academy,
R. Žebenkos 12, LT 82317,Baisogala, Radviliškis district, Lithuania
E-mail: razmusv@one.lt

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to compare the quality of meat from hybrid (Lithuanian indigenous wattle pigs x wild boar intercross) intact and castrated males. A total of 39 intact and castrated male hybrids from 1/4 and 1/2 wild boar genotype were included in the study. The hybrids from 1/4 wild boar genotype had lower eye loin area (P<0.05) and carcass cooling loss (P<0.001) than those from 1/2 wild boar genotype. Intact boars had lower carcass dressing percentage (P<0.05), backfat thickness (P<0.001) and higher loin area (P<0.001) than castrates. No differences were found as regards technological meat quality, but the taste panel study showed higher acceptability of pork from 1/4 wild boar genotype and castrates than that from 1/2 wild boar genotype and intact boars. A significant correlation was found between the age of intact boars and odour and juiciness (P<0.05). The concentration of testosterone in plasma was correlated with pork and fat odour

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59-72 A. Razukas, Z. Jankauskiene, J. Jundulas and R. Asakaviciute
Research of technical crops (potato and flax) genetic resources in Lithuania
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Research of technical crops (potato and flax) genetic resources in Lithuania

A. Razukas¹, Z. Jankauskiene, J. Jundulas¹ and R. Asakaviciute¹*

¹ Voke Branch of Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Zalioji a. 2, Vilnius, Lithuania.
² Upyte Research Station of Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Linininku 3, Upyte, Panevezys distr., Lithuania.
* Corresponding author; e-mail: rita.asakaviciute@voke.lzi.lt

Abstract:

The research of potato accessions preserved in Lithuanian potato gene bank genetic diversity research was carried out at the Voke branch of Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in years 1990–2006. Research was provided with potato collection covering 200 varieties and hybrids from the main potato origin and growing regions and selection material bred in Lithuania. Potato varieties varied in accordance of morphologic, physiologic, immunologic and farming features in the different maturity groups and between groups. Using transgenic hybridization method and working with genetic material of local potato collection were selected potato varieties of Lithuanian origin. The key objective was to select the varieties immune to wart disease, cyst nematodes, with high resistance to other diseases, with excellent agronomic and cooking qualities, suitable for the processing industry. Over 1966–2006 years the collection of more than 350 flax breeding lines and varieties from different countries were investigated at the Upyte Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture. Therefore it is desirable for the new flax varieties to be highly adaptable, stabile yielding and high fiber quality under different growing conditions. The collection serves as a base while selecting flax varieties for hybridization. There have been chosen the varieties and breeding lines having the complex of qualities and positive characters. The varieties and breeding lines with positive characters were involved into the program of fiber flax breeding.

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73-86 K. Romaneckas, R. Romaneckiene, E. Šarauskis, V. Pilipavicius and A. Sakalauskas
The effect of conservation primary and zero tillage on soil bulk density, water content, sugar beet growth and weed infestation
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The effect of conservation primary and zero tillage on soil bulk density, water content, sugar beet growth and weed infestation

K. Romaneckas¹, R. Romaneckiene¹, E. Šarauskis, V. Pilipavicius¹ and A. Sakalauskas

¹Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Dept. of Soil Management, Studentu 11, LT-53067
Akademija, Kaunas r., Lithuania; e-mail:
kestas.romaneckas@lzuu.lt, romanr@one.lt, vytautas.pilipavicius@lzuu.lt
²Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Dept. of Agricultural Machinery, Studentu 11, LT-53067
Akademija, Kaunas r., Lithuania; e-mail: egidijus.sarauskis@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

The effect of different conservation primary soil tillage on sugar beet was investigated at the Experimental Station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture in a silty loam Luvisol during the period of 2001 – 2006. The aim of the trial was to establish the influence of reduced soil tillage intensity on some soil physical properties, sugar beet yield and quality, and weed infestation. Treatments of the trial: 1. conventional (22–25 cm) ploughing with a mouldboard plough (CP); 2. shallow (12–15 cm) ploughing with a mouldboard plough (SP); 3.deep (25–30 cm) cultivation with a chisel cultivator (DC); 4. shallow (10–12 cm) loosening with a disc harrow (SL); 5. zero tillage (ZT). Reduction of primary soil tillage intensity increased the amount of moisture and level of soil bulk density in the soil upper layer (0-10 cm). According to the average data of 2001-2006, the highest amounts of moisture and soil bulk density were observed in no tilled soil (ZT) before pre-sowing soil tillage (25.8% and 1.40 Mg m-3) and after sowing until sugar beet germination (23.6% and 1.40 Mg m-3). Soil tillage intensity had no significant influence on soil moisture content and bulk density in a deeper (10-20 cm) layer. Sugar beet seed germination in shallow loosened soil (SL) was higher in comparison with control treatment (CP) fourfold per 6 years; this influence was significant in two experimental years. Average data showed that germination of directly sowed seeds was less by 37% in comparison with conventional ploughing (CP). Reducing of soil tillage intensity to zero tillage had no significant influence on sugar beet yield, ramification and sucrose content of root-crop. The reduction of soil tillage intensity and refusal to use full-scale herbicides had negative, but not significant influence on weed infestation in the sugar beet crop, except in the no-tillage pattern. The data of the beginning of the second rotation showed a significantly higher number of annual (32%) and all (29%) weeds in no-tilled (ZT) soil in comparison with conventional ploughing (CP). Generally, the number of weed species increased from 22 to 26. The number of Chenopodium album increased from 11.3 to 22.1, Poa annua – from 5.6 to 14.2, Taraxacum officinalis – from 0.66 to 6.1 plants per m2 . Elytrigia repens became a widespread weed.

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87-96 D. Romanovskaja and E. Bakšiene
Influence of climate warming on beginning of flowering of apple tree (Malus domestica Borkh.) in Lithuania
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Influence of climate warming on beginning of flowering of apple tree (Malus domestica Borkh.) in Lithuania

D. Romanovskaja and E. Bakšiene

Vok� Branch of Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Žalioji a. 2, LT – 02232 Vilnius; e-mail:
danuta.romanovskaja@voke.lzi.lt

Abstract:

The paper presents summarized data of longtime (the period of 1961–2006) phenological observations of apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) in Lithuania. It has been determined that in different localities of the country apple trees start flowering on May 11–17 (± 3–5 days); the average in Lithuania is May 16. Evaluation of the changes in the dates of the beginning of apple tree flowering revealed that, due to climate warming during the last decade, apple trees start flowering 4–5 days earlier than the longtime average. The thermal regime of April strongly influences the annual changes in the dates of the beginning of apple tree flowering: the correlation coefficient between the mean monthly air temperature and dates of the beginning of apple tree flowering is -0.48 – (-0.80). The possibility to forecast the dates of the beginning of apple tree flowering based on the dates of the beginning of the flowering of European hazel (Corylus avellana L.) and European bird cherry (Padus avium Mill.) was investigated. It has been ascertained that the date of the beginning of the European bird cherry flowering is suitable for forecasting the date of the beginning of the apple tree flowering because that date significantly correlates with the beginning of the European bird cherry flowering, which is an indicator of true spring.

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97-102 K.K. Sabu , M.Z. Abdullah, L.S. Lim and R. Wickneswari
Analysis of heritability and genetic variability of agronomically important traits in Oryza sativa x O. rufipogon cross
Abstract |
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Analysis of heritability and genetic variability of agronomically important traits in Oryza sativa x O. rufipogon cross

K.K. Sabu ¹*, M.Z. Abdullah², L.S. Lim¹ and R. Wickneswari¹

¹ School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology,
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
² Gene Bank, MARDI Seberang Perai, PO Box 203, 13200 Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang,
Malaysia.
* Corresponding author; Present address: Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute,
Thiruvananthapuram 695562, India. Email: krishnan.sabu@gmail.com

Abstract:

Heritability is a measure of possible genetic advancement under selection. Estimation of variance components could imply partitioning of genetic variability over different sources of variation. This article describes statistical methods applied and some of the observations made on results of heritability and analysis of environmental variances of grain yield and related traits of progenies derived from a cross between wild and cultivated rice. The study shed light on the genetic information of grain yield and related traits such as their heritability, genetic and environmental effects in the F1 progenies of a cross between O. sativa and O. rufipogon. A considerable amount of additive genetic variation was found in these families. The traits with high heritability, considerable phenotypic correlation and low seasonal variability can be used in further improvement of the F1 progenies. The results obtained were highly promising and can be utilized to develop new rice cultivars.

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103-112 E. Stasinskis
Effect of preceding crop, soil tillage and herbicide application on weed and winter wheat yield
Abstract |
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Effect of preceding crop, soil tillage and herbicide application on weed and winter wheat yield

E. Stasinskis

LLU, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Management, Liela iela 2, Jelgava, LV-
3001, Latvia, e-mail: eriks@dobeleagra.lv

Abstract:

This article describes results obtained in three years of experiments (2001–2003) carried out at farm Dobele Agra SIA located in the Dobele region of Latvia. Trials were established in two different crop rotations (Factor A): 1. winter wheat sown after winter wheat, 2. winter wheat sown after winter rape. Three different soil tillage and sowing methods were compared (Factor B): 1. – minimal conservation soil tillage in 10–15 cm deep with mixing of soil; 2. – direct sowing into stubble without any previous soil cultivation; 3. – traditional soil tillage with ploughing on 25 cm with cultivation before sowing. Additionally we compared the impact of those soil tillage methods on weed infestation in winter wheat (Factor C): 1. – using herbicide Secator 0.3 kg ha-1, 2. – without herbicide treatment. A significantly smaller total number of weeds was observed in treatments where winter wheat was grown in recurrent sowing, primarily caused by differences in numbers of oil seed rape in this treatment. A significantly smaller number of weeds was also observed after traditional soil tillage with ploughing. Data analysis shows significant linear negative correlation between winter wheat yield and the number of total weed infestation and several weed species – Stellaria media (L.) Vill., Sinapis arvensis L., Matricaria perforata Merat. and Lamium purpureum L. The highest impact on changes of winter wheat grain yield was made by herbicide use – 64.1%

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113-124 K. Sty�a and A. Sawicka
Seasonal changes in biochemical and microbiological activity of soil against the background of differentiated irrigation in an apple tree orchard after replantation
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Seasonal changes in biochemical and microbiological activity of soil against the background of differentiated irrigation in an apple tree orchard after replantation

K. Sty�a¹ and A. Sawicka²

¹Research Center for Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Science,
60-809 Pozna�, Poland; e-mail: styla.katarzyna@gmail.com
²Department of Agricultural Microbiology, University of Life Science, Pozna�, 60-656,
Pozna�, Poland

Abstract:

The objective of the studies included seasonal changes in the activity of enzymes, emission CO2 and microbiological activity of soil against the background of differentiated irrigation in an apple tree (Malus domestica) orchard after replantation. The most important activity of enzymes and the number of microorganisms were confirmed in the seasons of spring and autumn, while the lowest activity was observed in summer. The highest dehydrogenase activity was found in the last year (from 0.43 to 2.42 cm3 kg-1) and the lowest the in second year (from 0.19 to 0.58 cm3 kg-1). A high protease activity was recorded in the last year (from 1.25 to 12.08 mg kg-1) and low in the second year (from 1.65 to 3.47 mg kg-1). The highest urease activity was observed in the first year (from 1.17 to 6.42 �mol g-1) and the lowest in the second year (from 0.74 to 2.82 �mol g-1). High intensity of emission CO2 was noted in summer. The highest CO2 emission was found in the last year (from 29.32 to 46.86 mg kg-1) and the lowest in the second year (from 15.35 to 27.95 mg kg-1). The highest number of fungi was found in the soil of the combination without irrigation – W0. A high number of Azotobacter, actinomycetes, proteolytic bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, enzymes activity and CO2 emission almost always were observed in the soil in the irrigation combination – W1 or W2.

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125-132 L. Talgre, E. Lauringson, H. Roostalu and A. Astover
The effects of green manures on yields and yield quality of spring wheat
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The effects of green manures on yields and yield quality of spring wheat

L. Talgre¹, E. Lauringson¹, H. Roostalu² and A. Astover²

¹Department of Field Crops and Grasslands, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental
Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia
²Department of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental
Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia
E-mail: liina.talgre@emu.ee

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted in the period of 2004–2006 to investigate the effect of green manure treatments on the yield and yield quality of spring wheat. In the experiment, different green manure crops were compared for amounts of N, C and organic matter applied into soil and their effect on the yield and yield quality of succeeding cereals. The amount of organic matter applied into soil was dependent on the cultivated crop. The highest amount of organic matter was applied with hybrid lucerne, the lowest, with unfertilised oats. With sowings of red clover, lucerne and hybrid lucerne, 4.91–7.70 Mg C ha-1 and 341.9–379.1 kg N ha-1 were added to soil with green material and roots. The yield of spring wheat on unfertilised soil was 2.12 Mg ha-1, but the treatment with hybrid lucerne as a preceding crop gave an extra yield of 1.45 Mg ha-1. Green manure crops did not have a unilateral effect on the quality of spring wheat. Grain yield grew with the increased norm of mineral nitrogen, but there was no significant improvement in quality indicators.

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