Volume 7 (2009)
  Number 2

Contents


Pages

785-792 E. Demjanová, M. Macák, I. Dalovic, F Majerník, Š. Týr, J. Smatana
Effects of tillage systems and crop rotation on weed density, weed species composition and weed biomass in maize
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Effects of tillage systems and crop rotation on weed density, weed species composition and weed biomass in maize

E. Demjanová¹, M. Macák¹, I. Dalovic,² F Majerník¹, Š. Týr¹, J. Smatana¹

¹Department of Sustainable Agriculture and Herbology, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food
Resources, Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, Tr. A.Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra,
Slovak Republic, milan.macak@uniag.sk 2Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia, maizescience@yahoo.com Department of Sustainable Agriculture and Herbology, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food
Resources, Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, Tr. A.Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra,
Slovak Republic, milan.macak@uniag.sk
²Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia, maizescience@yahoo.com

Abstract:

The field study was conducted over seven years in south-western Slovakia to investigate the effects of different soil tillage intensities and crop rotation on weed density, weed diversity and weed dry biomass in maize. Three basic tillage treatments were the following: mouldboard ploughing to a depth of 0.30 m (conventional tillage); offset disc ploughing to a depth of 0.15 m followed by combined cultivator; twice shallow loosening to a depth of 0.10 m (both reduced tillage). Annual broadleaf weeds (17 species) were clearly the dominant weed group under all soil tillage treatments, compared to perennial weeds (6 species) and annual grassy weeds (4 species). Dominant weed species were Amaranthus retroflexus and A. powelli, Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus–galli, Convolvulus arvensis and Cirsium arvense. The number of species of the annual broadleaf and grassy weeds group was insignificant in conventional tillage and reduced tillage systems. Total weed density was significantly lower under the conventional tillage than the other reduced tillage systems. The main benefit of conventional tillage is a highly significant decline of perennial weeds. Only 2.6 perennial weed plants per quadrant in conventional tillage as compared to 7.5–9.0 in reduced tillage treatments were noted. Significantly less weed dry biomass was found in conventional treatment under mouldboard ploughing as compared to reduced tillage. Crop rotation did not have a significant influence on variability of species richness expressed according to Margalef’s index in maize. Tillage system was more influential than crop rotations on the weed density and diversity and weed biomass.

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793-800 H. Kaldmäe, O. Kärt, A. Olt, A. Selge. I. Keres
Inoculant effects on red clover silage fermentation products and nutritive value
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Inoculant effects on red clover silage fermentation products and nutritive value

H. Kaldmäe¹, O. Kärt¹, A. Olt, A¹. Selge². I. Keres²

¹Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences,
²Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences,
Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: helgi.kaldmae@emu.ee

Abstract:

The study investigated effects of five different microbial inoculants on silage fermentation and nutritive value. Silage was prepared from red clover-rich material with dry matter content after 24 hours of wilting of 170 g kgí1 for the first cut and 430 g kgí1 for the second cut. Tests with five different commercial inoculants were based on different strains of Lactobacillus plantarum which were used alone or in combinations with other lactic acid bacteria (1/BO, 2/BI, 3/SI, 4/EC, 5/BM), and chemical additive (CHEM) were used. Six commercial additives were compared with the untreated control. The additives were applied to fresh forage at the levels recommended by the manufacturers. Chemical compositions of the first and second cut of red clover were significantly different í crude protein 176 g kgí1 and 143 g kgí1 ; NDF 366 g kgí1 and 503 g kgí1 DM respectively. In the first trial, silages treated with 2/BI had lower levels of acetic acid 25.5 g kgí1 and ethanol 8.0 g kgí1 compared to the control values of 35.6 g kgí1 and 11.6 g kgí1 (P<0.05). Otherwise, the pH, and contents of ammonia nitrogen, ethanol and organic acids were no different from the control silage. In the second trial, silage treated with 1/BO and 4/EC showed the highest contents of lactic acid. Compared to the untreated control silage, the acetic acid content was lower in silages treated with 2/BI, 3/SI and 5/BM (P<0.05). The lactic acid:acetic acid ratio was higher in inoculated silages: for 1/BO, 2/BI; 3/SI, 4/EC and 5/BM it was 2.73; 2.17; 1.98; 2.03 and 2.87, respectively. The same ratio for the control silage was 1.83. All commercial inoculants improved the fermentation quality of red clover silage under the conditions stated. No differences were found between dry matter in vitro digestibility of the inoculated and the control silage for both the first and second cut. Digestibility of the red clover silage treated with CHEM was higher than that of the control silage by 4.6% for the first cut and by 7.3% for the second cut (P<0.001).

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801-810 P. Konvalina, Z. Stehno, J. Moudry
The critical point of conventionally bred soft wheat varieties in organic farming systems
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The critical point of conventionally bred soft wheat varieties in organic farming systems

P. Konvalina¹, Z. Stehno², J. Moudry¹

¹University of South Bohemia in ýeské BudČjovice, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Plant
Production and Agroecology, Department of Organic Farming, ýeské BudČjovice, Czech
Republic, konvalina@zf.jcu.cz
²Crop Research Institute Prague, Czech Republic, stehno@vurv.cz

Abstract:

Nowadays, wheat is the most important crop for organic farming systems. However, the varieties bred and tested in the conditions of organic farming systems are still missing, resulting in a very low level of yield in the Czech Republic (less than 50% of level of conventional yield in the same conditions). One reason is that the ideotype of the organically bred variety is different from that of the conventional. The varieties suitable for an organic farming system differ in many respects from those adopted in conventional farming. The first difference is obvious from the conventional tests of the varieties’ value for use, taking only direct indicators influencing the main parameter (yield) into account. Generally speaking, the features to be tested can be divided into 4 groups: the morphological, biological, economic and quality parameters. The conventional varieties are bred in conditions characterised by an abundance of soluble nutrients, and therefore, their root systems are not adapted to an insufficiency or weaker bonding of nutrients. The competitiveness with weeds has also been ignored. Any conventional variety which has not had to confront strong weeds during the breeding process cannot be assumed to be competitive enough in the conditions of an organic agro-ecosystem. Resistance to diseases and pests can be similarly characterised. Varieties are protected by pesticides throughout the conventional breeding process. Because of the seasonal fluctuations in weather, we need a plastic and flexible variety. They also differ in their qualitative parameters.

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811-822 D.Kostova, M.Kamburova
Determination of manganese with crystal violet in plant material in different fertilization
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Determination of manganese with crystal violet in plant material in different fertilization

D.Kostova, M.Kamburova

Agricultural University – Plovdiv
12, Mendeleev Str., 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
E-mail: deny_kostova@yahoo.com

Abstract:

A study in a multiple-factor stationary field experiment with 16 variants NPK on background with and without annual fertilization with manure was carried out at the Agricultural University in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The manganese content in the roots of radishes, cultivar Red with white tails, was determined by a new extraction-photometric method with Crystal Violet. The ion-associate of manganese (VII) was completely extracted in a single extraction of only 30 s. The molar absorptivity of the associate was (1.54 ± 0.05) x 104 l mol-1 cm-1. This indicates the high sensitivity of the given reaction. Manganese has been determined by atomic-absorption method, too, in order to compare the results. It was established that fertilization has an effect upon the manganese content in the roots of radishes. The roots of radishes accumulate the highest level of manganese 116.25 mg/kg in a mineral fertilization N:P:K = 3:2:1 with 40 t/ha manure. The relationship between yield and manganese content in radish roots under the influence of fertilization has been established.

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823-835 J. Kulpys, E. Paulauskas, V. Pilipaviþius, R. Stankeviþius
Influence of cyanobacteria Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis biomass additives towards the body condition of lactation cows and biochemical milk indexes
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Influence of cyanobacteria Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis biomass additives towards the body condition of lactation cows and biochemical milk indexes

J. Kulpys¹, E. Paulauskas², V. Pilipaviþius³, R. Stankeviþius¹

¹Lithuanian Veterinary Academy, LT-47181 Kaunas, Tilžơs g. 18; Lithuania; e-mail:
rolandas@lva.lt
²Lithuanian Agricultural Advisory Service, Stoties g. 5, LT-58343 Dotnuva-Akademija,
Lithuania
³Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentu g. 11, LT-53361 Akademija, Kauno r.
Lithuania; e-mail: vytautas.pilipavicius@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

The objective of the research was to estimate the influence of cyanobacteria Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis biomass additive on cows’ body condition, milk productivity and biochemical indexes at the beginning of lactation. Two parallel groups of Lithuanian black and white cows in their early lactation period were used for the experiment.. During the 90-day experimental period, they were fed on almost the same ration: the experimental group received 200 g of cyanobacteria Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis additives daily, mixed with the combined feed. The body condition of cows was scored according to a 5-point scale system in their dry period, after calving, and after the first, second or third month of lactation. Their productivity, milk composition and quality indexes were estimated during control milking: milk yields – on the farm and rates of composition and quality – in the laboratory of SE ‘Pieno tyrimai’. The experiment showed that the cows of the experimental group which received 200 g of cyanobacteria Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis daily during the experimental period became 8.5-11 percent fatter (P < 0.01). Each gave on average 34 kg milk per day in the beginning of their lactation, or 6 kg more than those from the controlled group (P < 0.05). Throughout the 90-day experiment, the average income from the milk of one cow from the experimental group was 378 Lt, or 21% more than from the controlled group. The use of cyanobacteria additives was economically effective, because 1 Lt costs for ‘Spirulina platensis’ increased income from the milk by 8.4 Lt.

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837-846 I. Mountousis, K. Papanikolaou, G. Stanogias, Ch. Roukos, F.Chatzitheodoridis, and A. Papazafiriou
Mineral content of the herbage material in pastures ofMt. Varnoudas NW Greece
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Mineral content of the herbage material in pastures ofMt. Varnoudas NW Greece

I. Mountousis¹, K. Papanikolaou², G. Stanogias¹, Ch. Roukos², F.Chatzitheodoridis², and A. Papazafiriou²

¹ Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Technological Educational Institute
of Western Macedonia, Terma Kontopoulou, 53100 Florina, Greece; e-mail:
dkklinon@otenet.gr
²Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Aristotle University of
Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece; e-mail: fchatzitheo@gmail.com

Abstract:

The effects of growing season and altitudinal zone on herbage production and mineral concentration (K, Na, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn Mn), were studied in herbage samples harvested from pastures in north-western Greece. Herbage production was affected (P<0.001) by the harvest month but was not affected by altitudinal zone and “month x altitude” interaction. Harvest month had significant influence (P<0.001) on Mg, Fe, and Zn contents as well as (P<0.05) on Na content. Only the trace elements were affected (P<0.05) by the altitudinal zone. The “month x altitude” interaction had no affect on either macro minerals or trace element concentration. Some of the minerals studied (P, Fe, Zn and Mn) were seasonally deficient for beef cattle while Na was deficient for both cattle and sheep in all altitudinal zones. The remainder of the minerals met the nutrient requirements of grazing animals.

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847-854 E. Nugis, J. Kuht, A. Etana & I. Håkansson
Effects of seedbed characteristics and surface layer hardeningon crop emergence and early plant growth
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Effects of seedbed characteristics and surface layer hardeningon crop emergence and early plant growth

E. Nugis¹, J. Kuht², A. Etana³ & I. Håkansson³

¹Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, 75501 Saku, Estonia
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
³Department of Soil Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box
7014, S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden

Abstract:

The emergence and early growth of barley were studied in seedbeds of various properties arranged in plastic boxes. The main objective was to check whether results similar to those obtained in Sweden (Håkansson et al., 2001) could be obtained under somewhat different conditions. In an experiment in Tartu, Estonia, the effects of sowing depth in a sandy loam and a silt loam were studied. Under suitable moisture conditions, sowing at 5 or 10 cm led to lower and later emergence than sowing at 2 cm in both soils. In the silt loam, the effects of surface layer hardening caused by irrigation immediately after sowing was also studied. Since the surface layer started hardening before crop emergence, the number of plants that emerged was considerably reduced. Early loosening of the hardening layer eliminated a large part of the detrimental effect. In an experiment in Saku, Estonia, the effects of moderate compaction of the layer under the seed was studied in a clayey silt and a silty sand. Compaction of this layer improved the early growth of the crop.

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