Volume 7 (2009)
  Special Issue II

Animal health and husbandry
Food quality and human health
Socioeconomic and political issues

NJF seminar 422
Fostering healthy food systems through organic agriculture – Focus on Nordic-Baltic Region

International Scientific Conference Tartu, Estonia, August 25–27, 2009

Conference and volume information – PDF (148 K)
Journal information – PDF (119 K)
Contents – PDF (69 K)

Contents


Pages

565-571 P. Aleknaviciene, H. Danilcenko, E. Jariene, I. Kraujutiene, J. Kulaitiene,A. Paulauskiene and Z. Taraseviciene
Amino acid profile of organically grown alternative agricultural products
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Amino acid profile of organically grown alternative agricultural products

P. Aleknaviciene, H. Danilcenko, E. Jariene, I. Kraujutiene, J. Kulaitiene,A. Paulauskiene and Z. Taraseviciene

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Kaunas, Studentu g. 11, Kaunas, Lithuania;e-mail: Paulina.Aleknaviciene@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

Human nutrition recently has mainly focused on animal products; particularly processed products with large amounts of various synthetic additives. The benefit of fruits and vegetables for human health has been already shown and consumer interest in organic food products has increased. Therefore the main aim of this research work was to determine the amino acid content of the following organically grown raw alternative products: the pumpkins Cucurbita maxima Duchesne – ‘Stofuntovaja’, ‘Bambino’, ‘Kroška’; Cucurbita moschata (Duchesne) Duchesne ex Poir. – ‘Žemčiužina’; Cucurbita pepo L. – ‘Miranda’, ‘Golosemiannaja’, ‘Herakles’ and Jerusalem artichokes (Helianthus tuberosus L.) – ‘Swojecki’, ‘Rubik’, ‘Albik’.After harvest they were analyzed in order to estimate their amino acid composition. Amino acids were separated by the method of ion-exchange chromatography and detected photometrically with an automatic analyzer of amino acids Mikrotechna AAA 339. The amount of essential amino acids was highest in Jerusalem artichokes. The largest concentration of individual essential amino acids, depended on cultivar, was arginine 8.41 to 9.57 g kg -1 in Jerusalem artichokes; while in pumpkins this was leucine, which ranged from – 3.61.09 g kg -1. The pumpkin ‘Bambino’ cv. had the highest content of all essential amino acids compared with other pumpkins. Jerusalem artichokes of the ‘Albik’ cv. were exceptionally high in amounts of nonessential glutamate and pumpkins of ‘Golosemiannaja’ cv. in aspartate amino acid, respectively 11.09 and 12.99 g kg -1. The essential to total amino acids ratio is higher in Jerusalem artichoke tubers compared with pumpkin pulp.

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572-577 I. Bender, M. Ess, D. Matt, U. Moor, T. Tõnutare and A. Luik
Quality of organic and conventional carrots
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Quality of organic and conventional carrots

I. Bender¹, M. Ess¹, D. Matt², U. Moor², T. Tõnutare² and A. Luik²

¹Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, Aamisepa 1, 48309 Jõgeva alevik, Estonia;e-mail: Ingrid.Bender@jpbi.ee
²Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences,Kreutzwaldi 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia

Abstract:

At Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, cultivation of the Estonian carrot variety ‘Jõgeva Nantes’ conventionally (with application of mineral fertilizers: N 115, P 40 and K 152 kg ha-1 and pesticides: Fenix, Actara 25 WG, Agil and Signum) and organically (compost, Humistar, agryl cover) was compared. Marketable yield of organic carrots was 11% higher than that of conventionally grown carrots. Conventional carrots contained pesticide residues and had significantly higher nitrate concentration than organic carrots. Contents of dry matter, total sugars, soluble solids, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium did not significantly differ between carrots between cultivation systems. The contents of ß-carotene, vitamin C and nitrogen were significantly lower in organically grown than in conventionally grown carrot. Key words: agryl cover, ß-carotene, calcium, dry matter, magnesium, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, soluble solids, total antioxidant capacity, total sugars, vitamin C, yieldINTRODUCTION

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578-584 I. Blanco-Penedo, J.L. Benedito, R.F. Shore, M. Miranda,M. García Vaquero and M. López-Alonso
Influence of farm type (organic, conventional and intensive) on toxic metal accumulation in calves in NW Spain
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Influence of farm type (organic, conventional and intensive) on toxic metal accumulation in calves in NW Spain

I. Blanco-Penedo¹, J.L. Benedito¹, R.F. Shore², M. Miranda³,M. García Vaquero¹ and M. López-Alonso¹

¹Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Patoloxía Animal, Facultade deVeterinaria, 27002 Lugo, Spain
²Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg,Lancaster LA1 4AP, UK
³Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Ciencias Clínicas Veterinarias, Facultade deVeterinaria, 27002 Lugo, Spaine-mail: isabel.blanco.penedo@usc.es.

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to determine how accumulation of toxic metals by beef-cattle in NW Spain varies between farms that have markedly different practices (including intensive, conventional and organic management) and to determine possible key factors affecting toxic metal assimilation by cattle. Soil, feed (forage and concentrate) and animal tissues (liver and kidney from 120 calves) were collected from nine farms across NW Spain and were analysed for metals by ICP-MS. Toxic metal concentrations in beef calves were generally low but did vary significantly between farms. There were no consistent patterns of difference in tissue metal concentrations between farms from different regions or between farms with different management practices. Variations in arsenic, cadmium and mercury concentrations in calf tissues were not significantly explained by soil or diet metal concentrations but were significantly and inversely related to the proportion of concentrate in the ration. Higher levels of metal residues in tissues were associated with consumption of low amounts of concentrate and relatively high levels of grazing. Higher toxic metal intake due to grazing is likely to be largely a result of soil ingestion.

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585-591 I. Blanco-Penedo, M., López-Alonso, R.F. Shore, M. Miranda, C. Castillo,J. Hernández and J.L. Benedito
Evaluation of food safety and quality in organic beef cattle in NW Spain; a comparison with intensive and conventional systems
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Evaluation of food safety and quality in organic beef cattle in NW Spain; a comparison with intensive and conventional systems

I. Blanco-Penedo¹, M., López-Alonso¹, R.F. Shore², M. Miranda³, C. Castillo¹,J. Hernández¹ and J.L. Benedito¹

¹Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Patoloxía Animal, Facultade deVeterinaria, 27002 Lugo, Spain.
²NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue,Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP, UK.
³Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Ciencias Clínicas Veterinarias,Facultade de Veterinaria, 27002 Lugo, Spain.e-mail: isabel.blanco.penedo@usc.es

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to analyse how beef-cattle farming in NW Spain on organic farms compares with intensive and conventional systems in terms of impacts on the safety and quality of cattle products. Data on the hygiene and quality of 244, 2596 and 3021 carcasses of calves from organic, intensive and conventional farms, respectively, were collected at the slaughterhouse. Organic calves generally had fewer condemnations for liver, kidney and heart pathologies. Liver parasitic infections were 2 fold higher in organic calves than those from other types of farm. Farm processes and resultant food product quality are linked through the health of the animal and its disease status. Overall better health status was not reflected by carcass performance as this was significantly lower for organic calves than for calves from conventional and intensive farms. Carcass performance seemed to be more determined by dietary component than by health status in the animals in our study.

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592-598 Henriksen, B.I.F., A.R. Lundon, E. Prestløkken,U. Abrahamsen and R. Eltun
Nutrient supply for organic oilseed crops, and quality of potential organic protein feed for ruminants and poultry
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Nutrient supply for organic oilseed crops, and quality of potential organic protein feed for ruminants and poultry

Henriksen, B.I.F.¹, A.R. Lundon², E. Prestløkken³,U. Abrahamsen² and R. Eltun²

¹Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Organic Food and FarmingDivision, Gunnars vei 6, N–6630 Tingvoll, Norway; britt.henriksen@bioforsk.no
²Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Arable Crops Division,Rute 509, N–2849 Kapp, Norway
³Felleskjøpet Fôrutvikling, N-7005 Trondheim, Norway

Abstract:

The aim of organic farming husbandry is to be entirely based on an organically produced diet. Pea is the most commonly cultivated protein rich crop in organic agriculture in Norway. However other high protein crops with complementary properties are needed to meet the nutritional demands in feeds for ruminants, pigs and poultry. An ongoing study in Bioforsk aims to develop cultivation practices on nutrient supply for organic oilseed crops and to establish knowledge on the feed quality of organically grown oilseed crops used as protein feed. It appears that spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa L. var. oleifera) and Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) can both be successfully cultivated with different levels of supplied nitrogen and sulphur. The nutrient value of organic spring turnip rape seems to be equivalent to conventional protein crops. Camelina can be an alternative in organic production, due to fewer problems with harmful pests compared with the traditional oilseed crops rape and turnip rape. Oilseed cake of turnip rape has higher protein and mineral content than the seed, and can be an interesting addition in feed ration for both ruminants and poultry, especially in combination with field pea.

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599-605 A. Hussain, H. Larsson, R. Kuktaite, M.L. Prieto-Linde and E. Johansson
Protein content and composition in organically grown wheat: influence of genotype
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Protein content and composition in organically grown wheat: influence of genotype

A. Hussain, H. Larsson, R. Kuktaite, M.L. Prieto-Linde and E. Johansson

Department of Agriculture – Farming Systems, Technology and Product Quality, Faculty ofLandscape Planning, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 104,SE-23053 Alnarp, Sweden; e-mail: Abrar.Hussain@ltj.slu.se

Abstract:

Abstract: Protein composition and content play a critical role in bread quality and are governed by genetic factors. Organically grown primitive wheats, Triticum monococcum, T. dicoccum, T. spelta, old landraces and early Swedish breeding lines from the period 1900 to 1960 were tested for their protein composition and the amount and size distribution of polymeric proteins. Protein composition was determined by SDS-PAGE. The amount and size distribution of polymeric protein was carried out using SE-HPLC. The studies showed that genotype had an influence on the amount and size distribution of polymeric proteins in organically grown wheat. The variation in storage protein composition and the amount and size distribution of polymeric proteins in the organically grown wheat genotypes indicated significant variation among the genotypes. Also, variation in protein concentration was found between the investigated organically grown spring wheat varieties. This study showed that the primitive wheat varieties, and some breeding selections of wheat, have high protein contents and might be used as breeding materials for high-gluten strength organically grown wheat varieties.

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606-611 Z. Kadziuliene, L. Sarunaite, I. Deveikyte, S. Maiksteniene, A. Arlauskiene, L.Masilionyte, Cesnuleviciene R. and Zekaite V.
Qualitative effects of pea and spring cereals intercrop in the organic farming systems
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Qualitative effects of pea and spring cereals intercrop in the organic farming systems

Z. Kadziuliene, L. Sarunaite, I. Deveikyte, S. Maiksteniene, A. Arlauskiene, L.Masilionyte, Cesnuleviciene R. and Zekaite V.

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto al. 1, Akademija, Kedainiai LT-58344, Lithuania;e-mail: zkadziul@lzi.lt

Abstract:

The experiment aimed to ascertain the influence of pea and spring cereal intercrops on the yield and quality of spring crops was carried out in 2007 and 2008 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in different experimental sites, soil and cultivation conditions. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), triticale (x Triticosecale Wittm.) were sown as intercrops 50:50 or as sole crop. The results obtained during the two experimental years showed that the productivity and quality of spring cereal sole crops or intercrops depended on the species of cereals and varied between different experimental sites. The cultivation conditions were different in 2007 and 2008, therefore the results varied in the same experimental sites in the first and second experimental years. The experimental evidence is still inconclusive to firmly suggest which of the intercrops could be more stable, however it indicates the benefits of legumes for spring crops grown together.

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612-617 P. Konvalina, J. Moudrý jr., I. Capouchová and J. Moudrý
Baking quality of winter wheat varieties in organic farming
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Baking quality of winter wheat varieties in organic farming

P. Konvalina¹, J. Moudrý jr.¹, I. Capouchová² and J. Moudrý¹

¹University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Agriculture, Studentská 13, České Budějovice,370 05, Czech Republic; phone number: +420387772547, e-mail: konvalina@zf.jcu.cz
²University of Life Sciences Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources,Kamýcká 129, Praha 6-Suchdol, 165 21, Czech Republic

Abstract:

The technological value of wheat is negatively influenced by organic methods of cultivation. The critical factor is the crude protein content and quality. The aim of this paper is to identify diferences in the quality of eight varieties and two strains of wheat recommended in conventional or organic conditions. Correlation analysis of the qualitative parameters of wheat shows a clear relationship between crude protein content, wet gluten content and Zeleny – sedimentation value. According to the test results, it is appropriate to use the content and quality of protein as selective criteria for the selection of varieties. The Level of baking quality is never reduced below the quality level of the worstquality varieties grown in the same conditions. On the other hand, the best quality varieties provide grains characterized by better baking quality, but lower yield level, than the others.

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618-624 N. H. Kristensen, S. Netterstrøm, C. He, B. E. Mikkelsen and T. Nielsen
Making the organic food service chain work and survive
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Making the organic food service chain work and survive

N. H. Kristensen¹, S. Netterstrøm¹, C. He², B. E. Mikkelsen² and T. Nielsen

¹Technical University of Denmark/Innovation & Management, Produktionstorvet 424,2800 Lyngby, Danmark; e-mail: nhk@ipl.dtu.dk.
²Aalborg University, Department of Development and Planning,Lautrupvang 15, 2750 Ballerup, Danmark

Abstract:

Public food provision has received increased attention during the past decades from policymakers, parents and citizens. As an example, food in schools is increasingly coming into focus of change and innovation agendas. One of the most persistent agendas is the call for more organic foods and organic procurement schemes are developing as a strategic part of policymaker‘s tools. However, evidence has shown that the organic change agenda in public food service supply chains seems to be fragile. This is due to the fact that the organic agenda challenges the normal way food service provision works and thus it seems insufficient to implement organic food once and for all. The organic supply chain is dynamic as it is being challenged by influences such as price premiums, supply shortages and convenience level problems. This paper investigates three Danish municipalities focusing on important elements in the policy process that make the organic food service chain work and survive on a long-term scale. Key words: Organic food service, socio-technology, socio-economic, municipalities, school food, qualitative study, food sociologyINTRODUCTION

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625-631 K. Kucińska, J. Golba and I. Pelc
The role of education and extension services for organic and conventional farming in the region of Podkarpacie, Poland
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The role of education and extension services for organic and conventional farming in the region of Podkarpacie, Poland

K. Kucińska¹, J. Golba¹ and I. Pelc

¹Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture and Biology, Warsaw University of LifeSciences, Ul. Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warszawa, Poland;e-mail: katarzyna_kucinska@sggw.pl , jan_golba@sggw.pl

Abstract:

Knowledge and know-how are the most important factors in many branches of the national economy. The same rules apply to organic agriculture. This was investigated in the Podkarpackie region in Poland. A survey revealed that lack of professional knowledge in the area of organic agriculture is seen as an important obstacle to running a farm. The process of conversion is assessed less strictly by farmers with higher education. Moreover, the direction of education is more important for proper farm management than its level. To succeed in running an organic farm, farmers emphasised two important issues. They are government subsidies and a well organised extension service.

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632-639 S. Lakner
Technical efficiency of organic milk-farms in Germany – the role of subsidies and of regional factors
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Technical efficiency of organic milk-farms in Germany – the role of subsidies and of regional factors

S. Lakner

Georg-August University Göttingen, Department for Agricultural Economicsand Rural Development Platz der Göttinger Sieben 5, 37073 Göttingen;e-mail: slakner@gwdg.de

Abstract:

This paper investigates the efficiency of organic milk farms in Germany based on data from 1994/95 to 2005/06. Five inputs and one output are analysed by means of a stochastic frontier production function, allowing for heteroscedasticity and technical effects. The selection of determinants of technical efficiency includes 5 groups of indicators. The analysis is focused on the impacts of farm support of organic farms and of regional factors, which can influence technical efficiency. The results show, that the agri-environmental payments do not affect efficiency. Farms, which receive investment aid, show lower efficiency scores. Finally, the implications for the agricultural policy are discussed.

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640-646 L. Lepasalu, D. Arney, R. Soidla and V. Poikalainen
Organic milk and meat production in Estonia – current situation and perspectives
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Organic milk and meat production in Estonia – current situation and perspectives

L. Lepasalu, D. Arney, R. Soidla and V. Poikalainen

Estonian Univsersity of Life Sciencese-mail: lembit.lepasalu@emu.ee; tel: 003727313320, fax: 003727313354

Abstract:

The main livestock farmed in organic production systems in Estonia are cattle and sheep; the proportion of pigs, goats and chickens is marginal. The number of organic cattle was about 18,000 in 2008. The total number of organic cattle has increased by more than 50% in the last four  years  (2005–2008) whereas the  number of  organic  dairy cows  has remained  stable at about  3,000,  only  3%  of  the  total  number  of  dairy  cows.  The  number  of  organically  reared lambs numbered nearly 34,000 in 2008 (37% of the total number), which has doubled in the last four years. Organic livestock farms are distributed all over Estonia, but are concentrated mainly in the south and on the large islands in the west. Only two farms produce organic dairy products commercially,  and  there  are  two  small-scale  slaughterhouses  for  organic  meat.  Despite agricultural  subsidies,  a  great  deal  of  organic  livestock  production  is  sold  as  conventionally produced. The main reason for this is the lack of enterprises’ potential, or incentive, to produce organic  meat  and  dairy  products  from  organically  produced  milk  and  meat.  This  sector  is currently the bottleneck preventing further development.

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647-653 A.-K. Løes and B. Nölting
Organic school meal systems – towards a more sustainable nutrition
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Organic school meal systems – towards a more sustainable nutrition

A.-K. Løes¹ and B. Nölting²

¹Bioforsk Organic Food and Farming, Gunnars veg 6, N-6630 Tingvoll, Norway;e-mail: anne-kristin.loes@bioforsk.no, www.ipopy.coreportal.org
²Berlin Institute of Technology, Hardenbergstr. 36A, 10623 Berlin, Germany;e-mail: noelting@ztg.tu-berlin.de

Abstract:

Nutritional and health problems related to life style alarm European governments. The interest in school meals as a lever for change is increasing because young people reside longer in public institutions and their often unsatisfactory eating patterns might be counterbalanced by healthy school food. Organic food contributes to sustainable nutrition, and hence is an interesting starting point for healthier menus and food education. The research project ‘innovative Public Organic food Procurement for Youth’ (iPOPY) studies efficient ways to implement organic food in public serving outlets for young people. The project has four explorative work packages studying policies, supply chains and certification, the young consumers’ perception and learning about sustainability and organic food, and health effects of organic menus in Denmark, Finland, Italy, and Norway. Finland and Italy serve a warm school meal daily for all pupils, whereas Denmark and Norway rely on packed lunch from home. Italy and Denmark have ambitious goals for organic food in schools, whereas Finland and Norway have not (yet). Political decisions are required, but not enough, to ensure well functioning organic school meal systems.

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654-661 N. Maršalkienė, A. Sliesaravičius, B. Karpavičienė and A. Dastikaitė
Oil content and fatty acid composition of seeds of some Lithuanian wild crucifer species
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Oil content and fatty acid composition of seeds of some Lithuanian wild crucifer species

N. Maršalkienė¹, A. Sliesaravičius¹, B. Karpavičienė² and A. Dastikaitė¹

¹Department of Crop Science and Animal Husbandry. Lithuanian University of Agriculture,Studentų 11, Akademija, Kaunas distr. Lt-53067 Lithuania; e-mail: nijole.petraityte@delfi.lt
²Laboratory of economic botany. Institute of Botany. Zaliuju Ezeru g. 49,Lt-08406, Vilnius, Lithuania

Abstract:

Oil content and fatty acid composition were investigated in the following wild crucifer species during 2008: Nineteen samples of fanweed (Thlaspi arvense L.), eight samples of flixweed (Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl), 17 samples of wallflower mustard (Erysimum cheiranthoides L.), one sample of sea rocket (Cakile baltica Jord. ex Pobed.) and two samples of garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara et Grande). The greatest amount of oil was found in seeds of flixweed (32.2%) and wallflower mustard (30.6%). Seeds of garlic mustard contained the least amount of oil (15.8%). Fatty acids were dominated by unsaturated acids (oleic, linoleic and linolenic) in flixweed (71.4%), wallflower mustard (63.5%) and sea rocket (62.7%), by erucic acid in garlic mustard (49.3%) and fanweed (35.6%) seed oil. The seed oil of some investigated wild crucifer species could be suitable both for human consumption and industrial purposes.

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662-667 D. Matt, E. Veromann and A. Luik
Effect of housing systems on biochemical composition of chicken eggs
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Effect of housing systems on biochemical composition of chicken eggs

D. Matt, E. Veromann and A. Luik

Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences,Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; tel: +372 7425 010; e-mail: darja.matt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of production system (organic, conventional) on the quality of chicken eggs. Energetic value, carbohydrate, cholesterol, protein, fatty acid, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, dry matter and vitamin contents were evaluated. The mean content of cholesterol was 30%, and potassium 7%, greater in the organic eggs compared with the conventional eggs. No significant difference was found in the content of fatty acids, protein, sodium or dry matter. The organic eggs had considerably lower contents of calcium (2.8 times) compared with eggs from conventional farming. Negligible differences were found in the occurrence of vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin D3). The residues of 45 pesticides and 6 PCB isomers were analyzed in both types of eggs and no residues compounds were found.

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668-676 M. Mikkola
Catering for sustainability: building a dialogue on organic milk
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Catering for sustainability: building a dialogue on organic milk

M. Mikkola

University of Helsinki, Ruralia Institute, Lönnrotinkatu 7, FIN-50100 Mikkeli, Finland

Abstract:

As an industrialised high quality food commodity, organic milk would present a reliable option to feature catering for sustainability. However, its use in schools, hospitals and workplaces is minimal in Finland at the moment. To boost perspective taking on organic milk among caterers, a co-developmental dialogue in terms of organic milk was employed by researchers and practitioners. The first turn of the dialogue was taken by the researcher who invited the caterers to focus on organic milk; the second was offered by practitioners, who disclosed their views about organic milk in individual interviews and focus group discussions. The third turn was taken by the researcher, who shared information with caterers about their issues and suggested the test use of organic milk. As the fourth turn of the dialogue the caterers responded to the researcher by their chosen practices for the (test) use of organic milk. The dialogue as a participatory research method seemed to offer new ways to promote catering for sustainability.Key words: participatory method, dialogue, organic milk, public catering, catering for sustainability

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677-683 S. Mikulioniene and L. Balezentiene
Responses of cereals grain quality on organical and conventional farming
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Responses of cereals grain quality on organical and conventional farming

S. Mikulioniene and L. Balezentiene

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentų 11, Akademija LT– 53361, Kaunas distr.,e-mail: ligita.balezentiene@lzuu.lt;

Abstract:

Commodity-based conventional farming induced applying heavy amounts of mineral and organic fertilizers and stimulated the decline of the animated part of the soil. Integrated, extensive and ecologically sustainable organic agriculture systems started to spread inherently as an alternative to such aggressive conventional farming. The main aim of this research was to evaluate and compare chemical composition of forage cereals (barley, wheat, rye, oat and triticale) cropped in different farming systems. Dry matter (DM), crude ash (CA), crude fat (CF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), content of mineral, trace elements and heavy metals were determined for estimation of the feed value of tested cereals grain. The highest content of important essential amino acid methionine+cystine (5.0 g kg -1 DM) and lysine (4.7 g kg -1 DM) was determined in chemical composition of oat. The equal content of tryptophane (1.2) was determined in wheat, oat and barley. The smallest content (0.95 g kg -1 DM) of this amino acid was found in rye. Mineral and trace element concentrations in DM ranged as follows: Ca– 0.3–0.9, P – 3.3–3.7, Mg – 1.1–1.2 and Na – 0.16–0.35 g kg -1. Organically cropped grain contained less crude protein (CP) and fat, but crude fiber content increased as compared to those conventionally cropped. CP varied from 8.2 (triticale) to11.5% (oat) in organically cropped grains. CP content was markedly higher in intensively cropped grain and ranged between 11.9–14.5%.

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684-690 A. Nykänen, L. Jauhiainen and M. Rinne
Biomass production and feeding value of whole-crop cereal-legume silages
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Biomass production and feeding value of whole-crop cereal-legume silages

A. Nykänen¹, L. Jauhiainen² and M. Rinne³

¹ MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Production Research, Lönnrotinkatu 3, FIN-50100Mikkeli, Finland; e-mail: arja.nykanen@mtt.fi
² MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Method Services, FIN-31600 Jokioinen, Finland
³ MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Animal Production Research, FIN-31600 Jokioinen, Finland

Abstract:

In eastern Finland, 12 mixtures of spring wheat, spring barley, spring oats and/or rye with vetches and/or peas  were evaluated in  field experiments from 2005 to 2007 for their dry matter (DM) production, crude protein (CP) concentration and digestibility using three different harvesting  times.  Spring  wheat-pea  and  spring  wheat-vetch-rye  mixtures  produced  the  highest DM  yields  (5,000–6,000  kg  ha-1)  while  the  lowest  yields  were  found  with  spring  oats-vetch (4,000 kg ha-1 DM). The highest CP concentrations were found in vetches (200 g kg-1 DM) and lowest in  spring cereals (90–120 g kg-1  DM). Organic  matter digestibility  was  highest in peas (700–750  g  kg-1)  and  lowest  in  spring  rye  and  wheat  (550–610  g  kg-1).  It  is  suggested  that decisions concerning when to harvest legume-cereal mixtures for forage could be based on the maturity stage of the cereal, because changes in digestibility and CP concentration are slow in legumes during the potential harvesting period.  Key words: barley, dry matter yield, forage digestibility, oats, pea, rye, vetch, wheatINTRODUCTION

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691-705 F.W. Oudshoorn, C.G. Sørensen and I.J.M. de Boer
Environmental evaluation of three alternative futures for organic dairy in Denmark
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Environmental evaluation of three alternative futures for organic dairy in Denmark

F.W. Oudshoorn¹*, C.G. Sørensen¹ and I.J.M. de Boer²

1Århus University, Faculty of Agricultural Science, Department of AgriculturalEngineering, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele, Denmark
²Wageningen University and Research centre, Animal Production Systems Group, P.O.Box338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands
*corresponding author; e-mail: Frankw.Oudshoorn@agrsci.dk

Abstract:

Objective of this study was to explore sustainability of scenarios for organic dairy farming based on visions and goals of the future, by parameterization at farm level. The scenarios were in agreement with the scope of principles for organic farming; health, ecology, fairness and care. Scenarios were designed using stakeholder and expert opinions and then translate them through choice of relevant production parameters to a farm unit design. This resulted in three vision-based scenarios, one animal welfare (ANW), one environmental (ENV) and one using all possible new technologies to enhance productivity and efficiency (business as usual, BAU). The amount of milk produced per ha was, 9500, 7215 and 5188 kg ECM respectively for BAU, ANW and ENV. Stocking density was 1.41, 1.38, and 0.88 Livestock Units respectively for BAU, ANW and ENV, parallel to large differences in required import of feed. The different organic farms of the future are to be evaluated on the environmental impacts, green house gas (GHG) emissions, nitrogen surplus and energy use, economy, and social acceptance.

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706-711 E. Peetsmann, A. Luik, K. Kall, A. Vetemaa, M. Mikk and A. Peepson
Organic marketing in Estonia
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Organic marketing in Estonia

E. Peetsmann¹, A. Luik¹, K. Kall², A. Vetemaa², M. Mikk³ and A. Peepson³

¹Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences,Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; tel: +372 7425 010; e-mail: elen.peetsmann@emu.ee
²Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences,Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu
³Centre of Ecological Engineering, Fr. Tuglase 1-6, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; tel: +372 7422 051

Abstract:

In order to foster organic marketing in Estonia, a farmer survey was conducted among organic farmers to determine where organic food is sold and how many farmers use organic labelling. A postal questionnaire was sent to 880 organic farmers, who had passed conversion periods. 313 farmers answered and 202 marketed at least one product. Estonian farmers use many different selling channels – from farm, delivery to customers, industry, processors, local markets, small shops and supermarkets, schools, kindergartens, hospitals, producers cooperative. The most common marketing channels are direct sale from the farm (88%) and delivery to customers (57%). 35% of farmers sell their products to the conventional food industry and/or processor, because there are only a few organic food processors. The reasons why organic food is sold as conventional are the absence of organic retailers and processors, especially in animal husbandry. The most common way to refer to organic farming is oral information. Only 15% of farmers use the Estonian organic logo on their products.

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712-718 A. Radzevičius, R. Karklelienė, P. Viškelis, Č. Bobinas,R. Bobinaitė and S. Sakalauskienė
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit quality and physiological parameters at different ripening stages of; Lithuanian cultivars
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Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit quality and physiological parameters at different ripening stages of; Lithuanian cultivars

A. Radzevičius, R. Karklelienė, P. Viškelis, Č. Bobinas,R. Bobinaitė and S. Sakalauskienė

Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture. LT-54333, Babtai, Kauno 30, Kaunas distr., Lithuania;e-mail: a.radzevicius@lsdi.lt

Abstract:

Four cultivars (‘Neris’, ‘Svara’, ‘Vytėnų didieji’, ‘Jurgiai’) and one hybrid (‘Vaisa’) of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were investigated at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture from 2007─2008.During this investigation fruit quality and physiological parameters were evaluated: thelycopene and β-carotene contents, colour indices (CIE L*a*) and hue angle (h°) with chroma (C) at four different fruit ripening stages (I stage – green, II stage – beginning of ripening, III – not fully ripened, IV – fully ripened)A significant increase in lycopene and β-carotene content at each successive ripeningstage of tomato fruit was recorded. Tomato fruit colour became darker and the ratio of red to green colour increased during the ripening process. Chroma value increased with a change of tomato colour from green to light red, and subsequently declined at the red fruit stage, but chroma of the hybrid ‘Vaisa’ increased at all ripening stages.External colour was expressed in terms of hue angle. All the analyzed tomato cultivarsdeveloped a similar colour when mature, with average hue angles generally being close to 40 degrees, but the cultivar ‘Neris’ had lower hue value (32 degrees).

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719-727 E. Rembiałkowska and D. Średnicka
Organic food quality and impact on human health
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Organic food quality and impact on human health

E. Rembiałkowska and D. Średnicka

Chair of Organic Foodstuffs, Faculty of Human Nutrition and Consumer Sciences,Nowoursynowska 159c, 02-776 Warszawa, Poland, phone: 48 22 5937038, fax: 48 22 5937036;e-mail: ewa_rembialkowska@sggw.pl.

Abstract:

During the last decades consumers‟ trust in food quality and safety has drastically decreased, mainly due to several food scandals and growing ecological awareness. Consumers have started to look for safer foods, produced in environmentally friendly, authentic and local systems. Organically produced foods are believed to satisfy these demands.Organic crops contain less nitrates and pesticide residues, but more dry matter, vitamin C,phenolic compounds, essential amino acids and sugars than conventional ones. Organically produced milk contains usually more dry matter, fat, calcium, selected vitamins and beneficial conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) compared to conventional milk from high input systems. Meat from organically raised cattle, pigs and sheep was found to contain less total fats and saturated fatty acids but higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and better n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio.The health effects of organic vs. conventional foods have been investigated in severalstudies. In vitro analyses indicated better repair of bacterial DNA and decrease of cancer cells proliferation on organic vs. conventional plant materials. Animal studies indicated better fertility indexes and increased immune parameters in organically fed animals. The effects of organic foods on human health are still not well known. However, according to PARSIFAL study children representing antrophosophic lifestyle, including biodynamic and organic food, had less allergies and lower body weight, while KOALA study associated consumption of organic dairy products with lower eczema risk in children.The overall number of studies analyzing the quality and safety of organic foods andinvestigating the health effects of organic food consumption is growing. However, the results are still insufficient to formulate the explicit conclusions.

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728-736 H. Risku-Norja and M. Mikkola
Systemic sustainability characteristics of organic farming: a review
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Systemic sustainability characteristics of organic farming: a review

H. Risku-Norja¹ and M. Mikkola²

¹MTT Agrifood Research Finland, FIN-31600 Jokioinen, Finland;e-mail: helmi.risku-norja@mtt.fi
²University of Helsinki, Ruralia Institute, Lönnrotinkatu 7, FIN-50100 Mikkeli, Finland

Abstract:

Agriculture for food production has come to crossroads: while conventional agriculture needs to improve environmental and social performance, organic agriculture needs to increase the production volumes and to re-establish the connectedness between producers and consumers. Through re-localising the food production there is an increasing convergence of the farming practices towards sustainable agriculture acknowledging the prospects, advantages and limitations of the different production systems. The aim is to find a combination of production methods that is optimal in given circumstances and to adapt the production system accordingly. Assessment of the environmental impacts should be integrated into the assessment of the overall sustainability. Formulation of the management strategies requires evaluation and integration of research results from many different disciplines, and the focus of the interdisciplinary research should be on food systems and bioregions rather than on the level of farms or farming systems.The present article is a review on today‘s discussion and research dealing withconventional, organic and local farming for food production. The future prospects of organic production to respond to the challenges of advancing global food security and to contribute to overall sustainable development are discussed. It seems that as a developing production mode organic agriculture has a role to play in the green global network of local food systems.

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737-743 A. Sasnauskas, V. Trajkovski, S. Strautina, O. Tikhonova, T. Šikšnianas,M. Rubinskiene, P. Viškelis, J. Lanauskas, A. Valiuškaitė,R. Rugienius and Č. Bobinas
Evaluation of blackcurrant cultivars and perspective hybrids in Lithuania
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Evaluation of blackcurrant cultivars and perspective hybrids in Lithuania

A. Sasnauskas¹, V. Trajkovski², S. Strautina³, O. Tikhonova⁴, T. Šikšnianas¹,M. Rubinskiene¹, P. Viškelis¹, J. Lanauskas¹, A. Valiuškaitė¹,R. Rugienius¹ and Č. Bobinas¹

¹Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Kauno 30, Babtai, Kaunas district, LT-54333, Lithuania
²Swedish Pomological Science Centre, Stubbaröd 2818, S-26023 Kågeröd, Sweden
³ Latvia State Institute of Fruit-Growing, Graudu 1, Dobele, LV-3701, Latvia
⁴N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry, 42-44 B. Morskaya Str, 190000, St. Petersburg, Russia

Abstract:

A cooperative blackcurrant breeding project between Sweden, Russia, Latvia and Lithuania studied yield, resistance to fungal diseases and pest, biochemical composition of berries of 20 new blackcurrant cultivars and hybrids at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture in 2004-2008. The blackcurrants were cultivated without plant protection against either diseases or pests. Yield, damage by fungal diseases and pest and biochemical composition was investigated. The hybrids BRi 9504-5, BRi 9568-1A, BRi 9508-3A and BRi 9508-3B were selected as possible cultivars.

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744-748 I. Sturite
Bottlenecks in organic farming in Northern Norway
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Bottlenecks in organic farming in Northern Norway

I. Sturite

Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Arctic Agriculture and LandUse Division, Tjøtta, N-8860, Norway; e-mail: ievina.sturite@bioforsk.no

Abstract:

In Norway, the goal of 15% organic food production within 2015 is too ambitious if the current growth rate of organic farmland is continued. Hence, a study of bottlenecks within organic farming systems in Northern Norway, and farmer’s preconditions to convert was conducted in spring 2007. A questionnaire was sent to certified and former certified organic farmers, and a control group of conventional farmers. For organic farmers the most important bottlenecks were public regulations and organic price premiums. Conventional farmers feared yield decrease, restricted forage availability and extra work. In 2008, interviews with selected farmers and officials in local municipalities were conducted to explore the reasons for large differences between certified organic farmland.

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749-754 I. Turka
Monitoring and inspection problems of GM crops situated potentially close to organic and beekeeping farms
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Monitoring and inspection problems of GM crops situated potentially close to organic and beekeeping farms

I. Turka

Latvia University of Agriculture, 2 Liela, Jelgava, LV 3001,phone: +3713021998, e-mail: Inara.Turka@llu.lv

Abstract:

Precise information is essential to carry out qualitative inspections and monitoring that would help prevent the presence of the undesirable admixture of a GMO in organic and apicultural products. In order to be sure that coexistence is possible, theoretical investigation has been carried out on the basis of field blocks of institutions, on the basis of EU support. One of the most important coexistence requirements is a separation distance of 4000 m for fully fertile GM rapeseed from its organic congeners. The distance of 4000 m was scientifically defined taking into consideration the rather fragmented manner of crop production in Latvia. Regulations for restricted areas around the field blocks were determined in Latvia.

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755-760 T. Tõnutare, U. Moor, K. Mölder and P. Põldma
Fruit composition of organically and conventionally cultivated strawberry ‘Polka’
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Fruit composition of organically and conventionally cultivated strawberry ‘Polka’

T. Tõnutare, U. Moor, K. Mölder and P. Põldma

Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences,Kreutzwaldi 1, Tartu 51014, Estonia; e-mail: tonu.tonutare@gmail.com

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of cultivation technology and plant age on fruit composition of strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) ‘Polka’. Strawberry fruits from two- and three­year-old plantations were harvested on two conventional and two organic farms in South Estonia in 2008. Content of fruit dry matter (DM), ascorbic acid content (AAC), soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), anthocyanins (ACY) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were recorded. The results indicate that the strawberries cultivated under organic farming conditions had higher SSC and contained more fruit DM, compared to the conventionally grown strawberries. Content of ACY and SSC was significantly influenced by plant age. Key words: soluble solids/titratable acid ratio, ascorbic acid, anthocyanins, total antioxidant activityINTRODUCTION

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761-767 A. Urbonavičiūtė, G. Samuolienė, S. Sakalauskienė, A. Brazaitytė,J. Jankauskienė, P. Duchovskis, V. Ruzgas,A. Stonkus, P. Vitta, A. Žukauskas and G. Tamulaitis
Effect of flashing amber light on the nutritional quality of green sprouts
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Effect of flashing amber light on the nutritional quality of green sprouts

A. Urbonavičiūtė¹, G. Samuolienė¹, S. Sakalauskienė¹, A. Brazaitytė¹,J. Jankauskienė¹, P. Duchovskis¹, V. Ruzgas³,A. Stonkus², P. Vitta², A. Žukauskas² and G. Tamulaitis²

¹Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, 30 Kaunas str., LT–54333, Babtai, Kaunas distr.,Lithuania. Tel. +370–37–555476, fax: +370–37–555176; e-mail: a.urbonaviciute@lsdi.lt
²Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University,Saulėtekio al. 9–III, LT–10222 Vilnius, Lithuania
³Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentų g. 11, LT–53361 Akademija,Kaunas distr., Lithuania

Abstract:

We report on the application of flashing amber (596 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), supplemental to high pressure sodium lamps, for the cultivation of green sprouts, such as wheatgrass, barley grass, and leafy radish. The flashing light was found to significantly affect metabolism, thus conditioning the nutritional quality of the sprouts. In particular, it causes stressful conditions for the plants and within a short growth period can promote the synthesis of antioxidative compounds, such as vitamin C, phenolic compounds and carotenoids. However, the flashing amber light effect is dependent on the plant species.

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768-774 S. Żakowska-Biemans
+Factors underlying consumption of organic food in the opinion of Polish consumers
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+Factors underlying consumption of organic food in the opinion of Polish consumers

S. Żakowska-Biemans

Department of Organization and Economics, Faculty of Human Nutrition and ConsumerSciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, ul. Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warszawa

Abstract:

Organic food market in Poland is still at the early stage of development and there are many barriers to overcome, related to both supply as well as demand for organic produce, in order to develop domestic organic food market. Analyses of own data from 2004, 2005 and 2007 face to face interviews with representative samples of Polish consumers show that the most important factors driving purchases of organic food are health, safety and taste. However, other concerns like animal welfare are also pronounced. Organic food have positive connotations in the opinion of Polish consumers. Besides the positive points of organic food, various negative comments also arose, resulting not so much from the essence of organic food itself, but its availability, information on organic food as well as the feeling it is overpriced.

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775-782 J. Žgajnar and S. Kavčič
Multi-goal pig ration formulation; mathematical optimization approach
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Multi-goal pig ration formulation; mathematical optimization approach

J. Žgajnar¹ and S. Kavčič²

¹University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Deptartment of Animal Science, Groblje 3,SI-1230 Domžale, Slovenia; e-mail: jaka.zgajnar@bfro.uni-lj.si
²The same address as 1

Abstract:

Organically produced pork is characterized by high production costs, within the main part goes to ration cost. Forage must be produced under strict conditions, reflecting in high prime costs. The main challenge for farmers is how to formulate economically efficient, nutrition balanced and politically acceptable rations at the least-cost to be competitive. This challenging task demands handy tool that merges all three viewpoints. In this paper an example of such a tool, based on three step approach, is presented. In the first step, a common linear program is utilized to formulate least-cost ration. In the second step, a sub-model, based on weighted goal programming and supported by a system of penalty functions, is used to formulate a nutritionally balanced and economically acceptable ration that also fulfils conditions demanded by organic farming. The most ‘efficient’ energy content of the ration is searched in the last step. The obtained results confirm the benefits of the applied approach.

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