Volume 8 (2010)
  Special Issue II

International Scientific Conference
Risks in Agriculture: Environmental and Economic Consequences
Tallinn, Estonia, 8 – 10 June, 2010

Conference and volume information – PDF (840 K)

Contents


Pages

311-316 F.L. Stoddard
Improving food and feed security in the Nordic and Baltic region by using appropriate crop rotations
Abstract |
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Improving food and feed security in the Nordic and Baltic region by using appropriate crop rotations

F.L. Stoddard

Dept. Agricultural Sciences, PL 27 (Latokartanonkaari 5), 00014 University ofHelsinki, Finland; email frederick.stoddard@helsinki.fi

Abstract:

Abstract: Rotations in the Nordic and Baltic region are, as elsewhere in Europe, heavily biased towards cereals. Broadleaved crops in general, and grain legumes in particular, offer a range of environmental and agricultural benefits that are inadequately exploited in this region. This article reviews some of the options available to the region. Brassica oilseeds can be used as catch crops, cover crops and biofumigants, as well as for their oil and protein-rich meal. Fibre hemp is a good soil-cleaning crop with excellent bioenergy potential. Grain legumes produce food and animal feed locally while contributing positively to soil health, and are particularly under-exploited regionally, in spite of the availability of suitable germplasm. The prospects for using mainstream alternative crops in regional rotations are therefore very good and this use should lead to improved agricultural sustainability and economic viability.

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317-322 M-L. Kütt, H. Lõiveke, R.Tanner
Detection of alternariol in Estonian grain samples
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Detection of alternariol in Estonian grain samples

M-L. Kütt¹, H. Lõiveke¹, R.Tanner²

¹Department of Plant Sciences, Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 4/6,EE75501 Saku, Estonia; e-mail: maryliis.kytt@eria.ee; heino.loiveke@eria.ee
²Department of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Chemical Physics andBiophysics,Akadeemiatee23,EE12618Tallinn,Estonia;e-mail:risto.tanner@kbfi.ee

Abstract:

Current testing for mycotoxins in cereals and feed in Estonia includes aflatoxin, ochratoxin, zearalenone and vomitoxin. Research at the Agricultural Research Centre (ARC) has shown that ~30% of analysed Estonian grain samples contain one or more of these mycotoxins.The Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture (ERIA) has mycological evidence thatgrain samples could contain other mycotoxins than the four mentioned above. Other mycotoxins have also been detected in nearby countries (Finland, Norway). We suggest that current analyses for mycotoxins in Estonian grain should be expanded.Alternaria was the main mould in grain samples on Saku experimental fields in 2008. Thismould causes several plant diseases and severe damage of cereals. The aim of the current work was to implement methods for detection of the Alternaria toxin alternariol (AOH). Our results show that 4 out of 10 grain samples contained alternariol.

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323-326 M. Malbe, T. Otstavel, I. Kodis and A. Viitak
Content of selected micro and macro elements in dairy cows’ milk in Estonia
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Content of selected micro and macro elements in dairy cows’ milk in Estonia

M. Malbe¹, T. Otstavel¹, I. Kodis¹ and A. Viitak²

¹Department of Plant Sciences, Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13,75501 Saku, Estonia; e-mail: marge.malbe@eria.ee; teet.otstavel@eria.ee; ingrid.kodis@eria.ee
²Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tallinn University of Technology,Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia; e-mail: anu.viitak@ttu.ee

Abstract:

Milk and milk products are an important source of dietary minerals for consumers. The content of the micro and macro elements in food varies among and within countries. Information about concentration of micro and macro elements in Estonian food is limited. To get preliminary information about calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co) and copper (Cu) content in raw milk, samples from 8 Estonian conventional and 2 organic dairy farms, as well as from 2 consumer milks produced by different dairies were analysed by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). No suboptimal micro and macro element concentrations were found in raw milk samples. However, concentration of dietary minerals in consumer milk was lower than the concentration in raw milk except Fe, which was higher in consumer milk.

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327-331 J. Ouhrabková, D. Gabrovská, J. Rysová, S. Vavreinová, I. Paulíčková,I. Němečková, P. Roubal and M. Pechačová
Utilization of vegetable raw materials as alternatives to cow’s milk
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Utilization of vegetable raw materials as alternatives to cow’s milk

J. Ouhrabková¹, D. Gabrovská¹, J. Rysová¹, S. Vavreinová¹, I. Paulíčková¹,I. Němečková², P. Roubal² and M. Pechačová²

¹ Food Research Institute Prague, Radiová 7, 102 31 Praha10, Czech Republic;e-mail: Dana.Gabrovska@vupp.cz
² MILCOM, Ltd., Ke Dvoru 12a, 160 00 Praha 6, Czech Republic

Abstract:

Non-dairy spreads from vegetable raw materials based mainly on millet, buckwheat, amaranth, oat and chickpea were developed. Other components of the spreads were root vegetables, sunflower seeds, seaweed, dietary fibre, tofu, vegetable oil. The spreads are suitable especially for patients suffering from milk protein allergy, lactose intolerance and celiac disease. The spreads are rich in soluble and insoluble dietary fibre. Nutritional and sensory evaluation of the spreads was carried out. The spreads were also well appreciated by the public at the Gastronomic fair held at Karlštejn castle in April 2008. The developed spreads may enrich the assortment of foods suitable for patients suffering from milk protein allergy or lactose intolerance.

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333-338 M. Roasto, K. Kovalenko, K. Praakle-Amin,K. Meremäe, T. Tamme, T. Kramarenko
Review of the contamination and health risks related to Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the food supply with special reference to Estonia and Latvia
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Review of the contamination and health risks related to Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the food supply with special reference to Estonia and Latvia

M. Roasto¹, K. Kovalenko², K. Praakle-Amin³,K. Meremäe¹, T. Tamme¹, T. Kramarenko⁴

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine andAnimal Sciences, Department of Food Hygiene, Kreutzwaldi 58A, Tartu, Estonia, 51014; e-mail: mati.roasto@emu.ee
²Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Departmentof Food and Environmental Hygiene, K. Helmana iela 8, Jelgava, Latvia, LV–3004; e-mail: ch@no.lv
³University of Helsinki, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of FoodHygiene and Environmental Health, P.O. Box 66, FI-00014, Finland; e-mail: kristi.praakle@helsinki.fi
⁴Estonian State Veterinary and Food Laboratory, Kreutzwaldi 30, Tartu, Estonia,51006; e-mail: toomas.kramarenko@vetlab.ee

Abstract:

The present study gives a review of the contamination and health risks related to Campylobacter spp. and L. monocytogenes in the Estonian and Latvian food supply. Campylobacteriosis and human listeriosis are important zoonotic diseases. Therefore, biosecurity measures at the farm level and Good Hygiene Practices at the industry level must be strictly followed. Further improvements in the state surveillance and food industry self-control systems are needed both in Estonia and Latvia.

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339-344 J. Rysová, J. Ouhrabková, D. Gabrovská, I. Paulíčková, R. Winterová, T. Vymyslický, J. Prokeš and M. Hutař4
Food with addition of little-known legume varieties
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Food with addition of little-known legume varieties

J. Rysová¹, J. Ouhrabková¹, D. Gabrovská¹, I. Paulíčková¹, R. Winterová¹, T. Vymyslický², J. Prokeš³ and M. Hutař4

¹Food Research Institute Prague, Radiová ⁷, ¹0² ³¹ Praha¹0, Czech Republic; e-mail:jana.rysova@vupp.cz
²Agricultural Research, Ltd., Zahradní 1, 664 41 Troubsko, Czech Republic
³PRO-BIO, Trading Company Ltd., Lipová 40, 788 32 Staré Město, Czech Republic
⁴Research Institute of Brewing and Malting, Lipová 15, 120 44 Praha 2, Czech Republic

Abstract:

The nutritional value of little known legumes was studied. Grass pea, old variety of pea,  dark  varieties  of  beans  and  chickpea  were  processed  into  flour,  farina,  flakes  and  malt. These  raw  materials  were  added  into  bread,  bakery  products,  pastas,  spreads  and  desserts; tempeh  was  prepared  by  fermentation  with  Rhizopus  mould.  Foods  with  legumes  were submitted  to  nutritional  evaluation  and  sensory  analysis.  The  addition  of  legumes  to  bakery goods increased proteins and fibre content and decreased the energy value. The level of ODAP and α- galactosides decreased significantly during tempeh preparation.

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345-350 K. Toomemaa, A.-J. Martin, M. Mänd, I. H. Williams
Using oxalic acid in water solution in control of Varroa mites and its influence on honey bees
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Using oxalic acid in water solution in control of Varroa mites and its influence on honey bees

K. Toomemaa, A.-J. Martin, M. Mänd, I. H. Williams

Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of LifeSciences, 1A Kreutzwaldi St, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: ktoomemaa@gmail.com;ants.martin@emu.ee

Abstract:

We studied the toxicity of water solutions containing various concentrations of oxalic acid dihydrate to bees and Varroa mites (Varroa destructor) using by spraying honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies with no brood or little brood in beehive conditions in West-Viru County, Estonia. A water solution of 0.5% OA gave effective control of the mite and was not toxic to bees whereas higher concentrations of OA (1.0 and 1.5%) were highly toxic to bees. In autumn, spraying test colonies that had little capped brood once or twice with a 0.5% OA solution gave effective mite control (92.94 ± 0.01% and 91.84 ± 0.02%, respectively) with no noticeable toxicity to bees.

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351-356 A. Raukas
Sustainable development and environmental risks in Estonia
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Sustainable development and environmental risks in Estonia

A. Raukas

Institute of Ecology at Tallinn University, Uus-Sadama 5, Tallinn, 10120, Estonia,e-mail: Anto.Raukas@mail.ee

Abstract:

Sustainability in Estonia is based not only on natural resources and environmental restrictions, but also on the nation`s culture, spiritual traditions and ethnic values. Nearly 40 significant environmental problems are identified in the National Environmental Strategy. A serious problem is past pollution caused by industrial, agricultural and military activity of the former Soviet Union. To date past pollution dangerous to human health is liquidated and thoroughly monitored in most areas and sites. Key words: sustainable development, environmental risks, past pollution, environmental cleanup, groundwater pollution, radiation level

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357-360 R. Muljar, E. Viik, R. Marja, E. Svilponis, K. Jõgar, R. Karise, M. Mänd
The effect of field size on the number of bumble bees
Abstract |
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The effect of field size on the number of bumble bees

R. Muljar¹, E. Viik¹², R. Marja³, E. Svilponis¹, K. Jõgar¹, R. Karise¹, M. Mänd¹

¹Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1a, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: riin.muljar@emu.ee
²Agricultural Research Centre, Riia 24D, 51010 Tartu, Estonia.
³Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, Vanemuise 46, 51014 Tartu, Estonia.

Abstract:

Bumble  bees  are  important  pollinators  in  agricultural  and  natural  ecosystems.  In recent decades their numbers  have been declining due to the intensification of agriculture and establishment of large homogenous fields. Our goal was to study the effect of the field size on the  abundance  of  bumble  bees  in  Estonia.  The  data  was  collected  from  66  farms  located  in different  regions  of  the  country.  Bumble  bees  were  counted  along  the  field  transect  of  each farm.  The  relationship  between  field  size  and  number  of  bumble  bees  present  was  calculated. We found a negative correlation between the  field  size and the abundance of bumble bees: as the field area increased the number of bees decreased.

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361-366 E. Nugis, T. Võsa, K.Vennik, H. Meripõld, J. Kuht, M. Müüripeal
Results of observations of damages to field and landscape
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Results of observations of damages to field and landscape

E. Nugis¹, T. Võsa¹, K.Vennik², H. Meripõld¹, J. Kuht³, M. Müüripeal¹

¹Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, Saku 75501, Estonia; e-mail:edvin.nugis@eria.ee, taavi.vosa@eria.ee.
²Tartu University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Vanemuise 46, Tartu 50090; e-mail: kersti.vennik@ksk.edu.ee
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, Tartu 51014; e-mail:jaan.kuht@emu.ee

Abstract:

It is a fact that crop growth conditions vary greatly within the same field. Provisionally actual growth conditions are made up of many components, i.e. variation of natural conditions (climate & soil), results of effects of machinery on soil (soil compaction) and unfavourable conditions for plant growing. In Estonia rather widely used ATV’s are causing remarkable damage to landscapes.All collected data were geo-referenced by means of a GPS-receiver and post-processed forposition correction. For All Terrain Vehicle (ATV) damage assessment the trajectory was recorded. Both the area and forms of damages were assessed for damaged sites, (e.g.) damage to potato by Colorado beetles. The collected data were compared to the digital soil map.Economic loss on the average, due to unfavourable conditions for plant growth, in thecase of winter rye "Portal" was 131 euros per ha, for medicago 18.5 euros per ha, for spring barley "Anni" 1000 euros per ha and for potato “Ando” 27.1 euros per ha.

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367-372 A. Petropavlovsky, A. Komarov and K. Matveeva
Ecological aspects in use of new polimeric fertilizers as a tool of environmental safety management
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Ecological aspects in use of new polimeric fertilizers as a tool of environmental safety management

A. Petropavlovsky¹, A. Komarov² and K. Matveeva¹

1«Polymerorgsyntez, Ltd», Koly Tomchaka 28, St. Petersburg 196006, Russia;e-mail: polymerorgsyntez@rambler.ru.
²Agrophysical Research Institute, 14 Grazhdansky prosp., St. Petersburg 195220,Russia; e-mail: Zelenydar@mail.ru

Abstract:

Pollution of a significant territory of the Baltic Sea is largely determined by the levels of man-made emissions of significant quantities of mineral fertilizers, which are used in intensive agriculture practices in the Baltic region.We developed and propose a new method of application of fertilizers from the “Zelenit”family, which allows for effective plant metabolic processes in an up-to-date manner. This method involves liquid mineral polymeric fertilizers, which lack the drawbacks of their predecessors and are fundamentally different from traditional varieties used for spray feeding due to containment of feeding elements in the polymeric matrix of fertilizers.The use of the above-mentioned fertilizers allows us to solve the environmental problemof water polution by elements of plant feeding, particularly by decreasing waste in the Baltic Sea. It can also raise profitability of agricultural production due to decreased input of main fertilizers into the soil and help to create rational systems for mineral feeding, significantly decrease the influence of meteofactors, and raise the quality and quantity of a crop.

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373-378 E. Švilponis, J. Rautapää, R. Koidumaa
Comparative ad hoc analysis of phytosanitary efficiency in EU
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Comparative ad hoc analysis of phytosanitary efficiency in EU

E. Švilponis¹, J. Rautapää², R. Koidumaa³

¹ Plant Protection Department, Estonian University of Life Sciences. Kreutzwaldi 1,EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; email: eha.svilponis@emu.ee
² Agricultural Zoology, Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki,Finland; email: jorma.rautapaa@pp.inet.fi
³ Plant Health Department, Estonian Agricultural Board. Teaduse 2, Saku, Estonia. Abstract. The number of harmful plant pests and diseases intercepted in phytosanitary checks of plant materials during import and intra-community movement by EU member states in 1999–2008 were compared with import volumes, and the ad hoc phytosanitary efficiency indices were calculated. There were but minor significant differences in phytosanitary efficiency between the member states which had joined before 2004 and the new member states. Several factors, like raw material import volumes, geographic position and the island effect were found to explain differences in phytosanitary efficiency among the member states. Keywords: Interceptions, harmful organisms, island effect, import inspection, plant health

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION

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379-384 K. Tamm
The impact of distance to the cereal plot on the annual emission of diesel exhaust caused by intra-farm transportation
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The impact of distance to the cereal plot on the annual emission of diesel exhaust caused by intra-farm transportation

K. Tamm

Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, Saku, Estonia;e-mail: kalvi.tamm@eria.ee

Abstract:

Machines and heavy-duty vehicles used in agriculture are powered almost exclusively by diesel engines. Diesel engines make a significant contribution to air pollution in most European countries. Aside from the engine properties, their use affects the annual diesel exhaust (DE) emission. The enlarging of farm production areas results in longer travelling distances to plots, which cause a higher fuel consumption and annual DE emission. The aim of the present study is to explain annual DE caused by transportation of equipment and materials, depending on plot distance and tillage technology.The calculation of annual DE emission is based on on-road transportation work hoursrelated to cereal plot. In the process of composing a calculation model, all technology/technical equipment used during the whole crop year on the plot is taken into account. The model incorporates two components from the model designed by the author: the transport of field operation units (FOUs) and the transport of technological materials. The simulations include considered specific DE emissions for on-road transport of agricultural machines.The simulations show that plot distance to the farm centre and tillage technology has sig-nificant impact on annual DE emission, especially on NOX amount. The greater the distance from plot to the farm centre, the higher is the emission. The emission is lowest in the case of direct drilling and highest when conventional tillage is used. The average values for CO, NOX, HC and PM are 7.2, 44.4, 2.6 and 1.9 g ha-1 km-1 respectively, in the case of conventional tillage.

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385-396 G. Várallyay
The impact of climate change on soils and on their water management
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The impact of climate change on soils and on their water management

G. Várallyay

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry (RISSAC) of theHungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest; e-mail: g.varallyay@rissac.hu

Abstract:

Human activities result in changes in the global environment, sometimes with severe consequences for our future life. Changes in the gas composition of the atmosphere – partly due to CO2 and ‘greenhouse gases’ emission – may lead to a rise in temperature with high spatial and temporal variability, to alterations in the global circulation processes, and to a serious rearrangement of atmospheric precipitation, increasing aridity in some locations. These modifications are reflected sensitively by ecosystems (natural vegetation and land use pattern) and by considerable alterations in soil formation and degradation processes, in soil properties and soil functions.The potential impacts of the forecasted climate change reservoirs are briefly summarizedin the present paper with special regard to soil water management, soil moisture regime and their influences on the main soil degradation processes. Based on this analysis, conclusions are drawn regarding the possibilities of sustainable soil moisture and the required measures of rational control: increasing water use efficiency; reducing evaporation, surface runoff, seepage and filtration losses; increasing water storage capacity and available moisture range of soils.

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397-402 A. Arlauskienė, S. Maikštėnienė and A. Šlepetienė
Effect of cover crops and straw on the humic substances in the clay loam Cambisol
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Effect of cover crops and straw on the humic substances in the clay loam Cambisol

A. Arlauskienė¹, S. Maikštėnienė¹ and A. Šlepetienė²

¹ Joniskelis Research Station of Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Joniskelis, LT-39301 Pasvalys distr., Lithuania; e-mail: joniskelio_lzi@post.omnitel.net
² Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Akademija, LT–58344 Kėdainiai distr., Lithuania

Abstract:

The experiments were done on a productive clay loam Gleyic Cambisol used for agricultural production and were designed to estimate the effects of various cover crops – red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) mixture with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lamk.) and white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) biomass and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw incorporated into the soil on the composition of humus. In the first year, incorporation of only the cover crops’ biomass or together with straw increased the content of mobile humic acids (HA 1) by 10.7–28.0% compared with that before the trial was established.. Conditionally stable humic acids fractions (HA 2, HA 3) formed more intensively in the second year of the effects of the measures applied. Having incorporated cover crops’ biomass together with straw, the fraction of humic acids HA 3 tended to increase or was the same as that before the trial establishment. An increase in the content of humic acids, compared with the levels before the trial establishment determined positive changes in the one of the main indicators of humus quality – humification rate; they were the most distinct having incorporated red clover phytomass together with straw. The incorporation of mineral nitrogen fertilizer N 45 together with straw increased the soil organic matter mineralization rate and determined a reduction in humic acids content.

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403-408 G. Dinaburga, D. Lapins, A. Berzins, J. Kopmanis and A. Plume
Interconnection of altitude of stationary GPS observation points and soil moisture with formation of winter wheat grain yield
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Interconnection of altitude of stationary GPS observation points and soil moisture with formation of winter wheat grain yield

G. Dinaburga, D. Lapins, A. Berzins, J. Kopmanis and A. Plume

Institute of Soil and Plant Science, Latvia University of Agriculture, Liela iela 2,Jelgava, LV-3001, Latvia; e-mail: Gundega.Dinaburga@llu.lv

Abstract:

Field trials were carried out at the Research and Study farm “Vecauce” of the Latvian University of Agriculture during the years 2006–07 to investigate factors influencing the formation of the winter wheat grain yield. Researches have been carried out in stationary observation points. Results show tight negative correlation between the altitude of observation points and soil moisture. The correlation is significant P < 0.05 in both trial years but coherence is tighter in the year with reduced precipitation, as observed in April–July 2006. Significant negative correlation was established between altitude and winter wheat grain yield. In year 2006, when lack of precipitation was observed, this coherence is with increased probability P < 0.01. Soil moisture at the depth of 40−45 cm was below optimum – 25% – in both trial years and also in both stationary observation levels with average altitude 95 and 102 m above sea level. It was also significantly lower in the highest points of the terrain. Significantly higher grain yield of winter wheat was obtained in field points with an average altitude 95 m above sea level. This coherence is also more explicit in the year with less precipitation, as in 2006. Analysis of correlation established that soil moisture at the depth of 40−45 cm has significant positive impact on the winter wheat grain yield and on the flag leaf area.

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409-414 D. Janušauskaitė and A.Velykis
The influence of the expansion of winter crop proportion in the rotation structure on soil biological activity
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The influence of the expansion of winter crop proportion in the rotation structure on soil biological activity

D. Janušauskaitė¹ and A.Velykis²

¹Plant Pathology and Protection Department, Lithuanian Research Centre forAgriculture and Forestry Akademija, Dotnuva, Kedainiai District, Lithuania, LT-58344; e-mail: daliaj@lzi.lt
²Joniskelis Experimental Station, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry,Joniskelis, Pasvalys District, Lithuania, LT-39301; e-mail: velykisalex@gmail.com

Abstract:

The effect of the expansion of the winter crop proportion in the crop rotation structure under conditions of conventional (ploughing) and sustainable (reduced) soil tillage on soil biological properties was investigated on a clay loam Gleyic Cambisol at the Joniskelis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry over the period 2004–06. The effect of a different proportion of winter crop in the rotation on microbial populations in soil was influenced primarily by the weather conditions during the growing seasons. In different years, the number of ammonificators ranged from 5.68 to 28.37 mln g-1, the number of mineralizators ranged from 8.23 to 37.01mln g-1, fungi from 28.55 to 101.46 thousand g-1 of soil. The soil microbial amount was higher under wetter conditions. The numbers of microbes differed between soil tillage systems and had diverse impact. The number of ammonificators did not differ markedly between the soil tillage treatments; however, the number of microbes in the conventionally tilled plots exceeded that in the sustainable tillage system by 5.57%. The sustainable tillage system was positive for N assimilators and fungi. Increasing the winter crop in the rotation did not exert any strong positive effect on all microbes. Increasing the winter crop proportion was favourable for micromycetes. More bacteria were found in the rotation with 25% of winter crop, more mineral N assimilators were found in the rotation with 25% and 50% of winter crop, and fungi max under 50%, 75% and 100% of winter crop in the rotation.

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415-420 V. Loide
Relieving the calcium deficiency of field soils by means of liming
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Relieving the calcium deficiency of field soils by means of liming

V. Loide

Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 11, Saku 75501, Estonia;e-mail: valli.loide@mail.ee

Abstract:

Over 22% of Estonian field soils are calcium-deficient and acidificated, and are also among the poorest soils in Estonia in terms of humus; their average humus content remains below 2%. Low humus content in calcium-deficient soils results from either, a lesser generation of organic matter on acid soil, or its decomposition speed as affected by the micro fungi, which are dominant in calcium-deficient (Haplic Podzoluvisols) soils. The dissolved organic matter succumbs easily to leaching and transport caused by wind and water (erosion), whereby the fertility of the soil will decline. Thus, calcium plays an important role in ensuring the fertility and sustainability of soil; liming is used to relieve its deficiency. To eliminate calcium-deficiency in field soils, the quick-acting fine dusty limes with 5-year interval 5 t ha-1 are mainly used in Estonia. Paying attention to the dynamics of available calcium content in the soil limed with fine dusty lime fertilisers, it appeared that the calcium content remained at the optimum level in the ploughed layer for only 2–3 years, a considerably shorter period of time than expected. Since the level of fineness determines its ability to dissolve and the effect of lime on the available calcium content in soil, then to improve the effectiveness of liming and, from the aspect of an economical use of resources, it is advisable to use dusty limes with a shorter than 5-year interval and, respectively, in smaller quantities, which would guarantee a more stable calcium content in the soil with a better use of resources. For longer effect, limestone should sufficiently contain a coarser fraction, dissolving only in the 3rd–4th year.

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421-426 E. Nugis
Seedbed quality preparation in Estonia
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Seedbed quality preparation in Estonia

E. Nugis

Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, Saku 75501, Estonia;e-mail: edvin.nugis@eria.ee

Abstract:

The field experiments for seedbed quality preparation were performed in five farms and experimenrtal areas. The laboratory tests were carried out with the use of the gutta-diagnostic indication method by E. Reppo, (1979). We have been using the Nordic Countries method for observation of seedbed quality preparation and have been improving this method through measurements of bulk densities and soil aggregate distributions within soil layers of the seed planting zone and immediately below the region of seed placement. We also used Litvinov cylinders (50 cm³), standard compactor (Proctor apparatus – PST) and, for measuring the soil penetration resistance to depths up to 40 cm, the Alexeiev penetrometer. We have found that the optimum range of agronomically valuable aggregates (2-5 mm) at physical maturity of soil for the average soils in Estonia remains within the limits of 40–50%.

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427-432 T. Saue, P. Viil, J. Kadaja
Do different tillage and fertilization methods influence weather risks on potato yield?
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Do different tillage and fertilization methods influence weather risks on potato yield?

T. Saue, P. Viil, J. Kadaja

Estonian Research institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, Saku, Harjumaa, Estonia;e-mail: triin.saue@eria.ee, peeter.viil@eria.ee, jyri.kadaja@eria.ee

Abstract:

The influence of weather variability on potato yield was assessed with an aim to address different soil tillage and fertilization regimes by their weather sensibility. The strong effect of an experimental year on potato yields was proved for the experimental period; the effect of fertilization proved significant only between the highest and the lowest fertilization rates; the effect of tillage tested insignificant. If synthesized statistically over the population (over an untested period of time), significant interactions occur between years and tillage/fertilization treatments, verifying that the effect of both tillage and fertilization is dependent on year-to-year weather differences. Yields of all examined variants were found to be significantly correlated to spring weather – positively to temperatures and negatively to precipitation. Negative correlation exists between yields and temperatures summed from emergence to flowering, positive between yields and precipitation from flowering to harvest.

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433-438 T. Tammets
Estimation of extreme wet and dry days through moving totals in precipitation time series and some possibilities for their consideration in agrometeorological studies
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Estimation of extreme wet and dry days through moving totals in precipitation time series and some possibilities for their consideration in agrometeorological studies

T. Tammets

Estonian Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Toompuiestee 24, 10149 Tallinn,Estonia; e-mail: t.taam@emhi.ee

Abstract:

Moving totals of daily precipitation are a more exact tool for indicating the most extreme weather periods and their frequency than monthly or 10-day precipitation totals. Therefore the terms ‘extreme wet’ and ‘extreme dry’ are used for the last day of a period of calculating the moving total of precipitation if that is larger or smaller than the specified limits. These terms qualify a day with extra wet or dry meteorological and surrounding conditions. The number of extreme days and limits that lead to a large yield loss vary by crops and phenological phases. Calculation of moving totals in precipitation long time series in any number of successive days allows presenting the dependence of the observed maximal and minimal amount of precipitation on the number of successive days in a period. Such dependence seems to be useful in estimating the climate resources in an area. Examples are given for Jõgeva, Pärnu and Ristna precipitation time series of 1957–2008.Estimation of extreme wet and dry weather conditions on the basis of moving totals ofdaily precipitation allowed distinguishing the most drastic periods and trends of the precipitation regime in Estonia in the last 50 years. A day is considered as extreme wet when the moving total of precipitation is at least 10 mm on 10 successive days leading up to this day. A day is considered as extreme dry when there was no precipitation during the successive 20 days till the observed day. By these criteria years with especially wet or dry periods are easily distinguished. Inter-annual variability of the average number of wet and dry days in Estonia increased notably in 1957–2006. The growing trend of annual total number of extreme (wet + dry) days is statistically significant.

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439-444 A. Velykis, A. Satkus
Role of amendments in modifying clayey soil physical properties under conventional and reduced tillage in northern Lithuania
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Role of amendments in modifying clayey soil physical properties under conventional and reduced tillage in northern Lithuania

A. Velykis, A. Satkus

Joniskelis Experimental Station, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture andForestry, Joniskelis, LT-39301 Pasvalys District, Lithuania;e–mail: velykisalex@gmail.com

Abstract:

Investigations to improve clayey soil physical properties and conditions for applying reduced tillage to spring crops were carried out at Joniskelis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry in a glacial lacustrine clay loam on silty clay soil with deeper-lying sandy loam (Endocalcari–Endohypogleyic Cambisol). Amendments for soil improvement were the following: farmyard manure – 60 t ha-1, green manure – 27 t ha-1 and lime mud – 10 t ha-1 were incorporated by a mouldboard and segment plough at 0.25 and 0.40 m depths for winter crops twice every third year. Conventional mouldboard ploughing at 0.25 m and reduced ploughless tillage at 0.25 and 0.15 m depths was applied to spring crops after incorporation of amendments. The incorporation of amendments resulted in the decrease of soil bulk density, improvement of soil aeration and water conductivity. Ploughing by a segment plough, especially with incorporation of amendments, improved the subsoil physical properties and water conductivity. However, the segment ploughing resulted in a worsening of topsoil properties due to mixing the subsoil layer with topsoil. Lime mud was more effective for subsoil improvement. Reduced ploughless tillage determined the decrease of soil porosity, worsening the soil structure and seedbed quality. Incorporation of amendments, especially farmyard manure, helps to avoid or lessens the negative effect of reduced tillage on the clayey soil physical condition and on the decrease of the spring crop yield.

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445-452 V. Scholz, J. Kern and P. Kaulfuß
Environmental effects of energy crop cultivation – results of a long-term field trial
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Environmental effects of energy crop cultivation – results of a long-term field trial

V. Scholz¹, J. Kern² and P. Kaulfuß³

¹Leibniz-Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim (ATB), Max-Eyth-Allee 100, D-14469 Potsdam, Germany, e-mail: vscholz@atb-potsdam.de
²Postal address above, e-mail: jkern@atb-potsdam.de
³Postal address above, e-mail: pkaulfuss@atb-potsdam.de

Abstract:

In order to identify crop species for sustainable energy farming it is necessary to determine the significance of genetic, environmental and growing-technical factors. Therefore, in 1994 a  long-term practically oriented field experiment on a sandy soil was established to investigate ten annual and perennial plant species and the effects of different N-fertilisation. The measuring programme includes yields, energy gain, N2O emissions as well as ecologically relevant plant and soil constituents. The results of this 15-year trial confirm the possibility of ecological and energy-efficient production of various energy crop species.

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453-458 D. Feldmane
The influence of drip irrigation and woodchip mulch on growth and first yield of sour cherries
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The influence of drip irrigation and woodchip mulch on growth and first yield of sour cherries

D. Feldmane

Latvia University of Agriculture, Lielā 2, LV3001, Jelgava, Latvia;e-mail: daina.feldmane@inbox.lv

Abstract:

The trial was established at the Latvia State Institute of Fruit Growing in 2007 to determine the effect of soil moisture adjustment on the yield of different sour cherry cultivars. Woodchip mulch and drip irrigation were used on cultivars ‘Bulatnikovskaya’, ‘Desertnaya Morozovoi’, ‘Latvijas Zemais’, ‘Orlica’, ‘Shokoladnica’, ‘Tamaris’ and ‘Zentenes’. In general the use of drip irrigation increased the vegetative growth of sour cherries. The use of woodchip mulch tended to decrease growth in the first two growing years but significantly advanced growth in the third growing year. The use of drip irrigation did not influence the yield of sour cherries, but the treatment with woodchip mulch decreased the yield. The cultivar ‘Bulatnikovskaya’ was the most productive.

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459-464 A. Lisowski, J. Klonowski and M. Sypuła
Comminution properties of biomass in forage harvester and beater mill and its particle size characterization
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Comminution properties of biomass in forage harvester and beater mill and its particle size characterization

A. Lisowski, J. Klonowski and M. Sypuła

Department of Agricultural and Forest Machinery, Warsaw University of Life Sciences– SGGW, Nowoursynowska 166, 02787 Warsaw, Poland;email: aleksander_lisowski@sggw.pl

Abstract:

It was found that the differences in the distribution of particle length were the species feature of energetic plants. The length distribution of comminuted willow particles showed the highest mean value and good regularity, while the topinambour mixture was the shortest and most irregular in the mixture of energetic plants. Connectivity between mean values of particle length plants broken up in the forage harvester and in the beater mill, calculated by geometric mean method and according to Rosin-Rammler-Sperling-Bennett model, was very high, as testified by square correlation values, which amounted to 79.4 and 97.8% respectively. The research allows proving the practical possibility of using the RRSB model to determine the amount of separated material meeting dimension requirements for production of formed fuels.

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465-470 L. Metspalu, K. Jõgar, A. Ploomi, K. Hiiesaar, I. Kivimägi and A. Luik
Effects of biopesticide Neem EC on the Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)
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Effects of biopesticide Neem EC on the Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)

L. Metspalu, K. Jõgar, A. Ploomi, K. Hiiesaar, I. Kivimägi and A. Luik

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and EnvironmentalSciences, Kreutzwaldi Str. 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: Luule.Metspalu@emu.ee

Abstract:

Third instars larvae of the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. were exposed to Neem EC (M/S RYM Exports, The Indian Neem Tree Company) by a leaf-dip experiment (concentration of azadirachtin – 100 ppm). The after-treatment parameters studied the duration of the larval stage, mortality, and weight of pupae. Neem EC has shown significant prolongation in the development of larvae of M. brassicae: 18.5 days in the test variant, versus 14.8 days in the control. Neem EC also caused lethal failure of larval-larval and larval-pupal ecdysis, which is typical for insecticides possessing morphogenetic activity commonly referred to as IGR-activity. The mortality of larvae, prepupae and pupae in the test variant was significantly higher than in the control. The experiment in laboratory revealed that Neem EC inhibited larval development, greatly increased mortality, had antifeedant/deterrent effects and acted as a growth regulator for M brassicae larvae and pupae.

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475-480 P. Sooväli, T. Kangor and I. Tamm
The incidence of fungal diseases in oat leaves and yields as affected by fertilizer and chemical inputs in Estonia
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The incidence of fungal diseases in oat leaves and yields as affected by fertilizer and chemical inputs in Estonia

P. Sooväli, T. Kangor and I. Tamm

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 1 J. Aamisepa St., 48309, Jõgeva alevik, Estonia;e-mail: Pille.Soovali@jpbi.ee, Tiia.Kangor@jpbi.ee, Ilmar.Tamm@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

Field experiments were conducted for three years and were designed to study the effects of fertilizers on fungal disease infections and yield of two oat genotypes. The impact of the different levels of fertilization has been noticed at the level of crown rust (induced by Puccinia coronata) and oat leaf spot (induced by Pyrenophora avenae). Four fertilizer doses (N0 = untreated control N0P0K0 kg ha-1; N1 = N60P13K23; N2 = N100P22K39; N3 = N140P31K54) and two variants of chemical treatments (variant 1 – without chemicals; variant 2 – with chemicals as growth regulator, fungicide and thrice with foliar fertilizer) were used. The significant differences in levels of disease infection and grain yields between inputs and varieties were observed. The infection level of both oat diseases was mostly influenced by the yearly weather conditions. By using variant 2, including fungicide, the infection of Puccinia coronata decreased considerably. The fertilizer input increased the grain yield of the oat varieties. Oat grain yields were higher in treated plots in variant 1 than in variant 2, due to weather conditions. Keywords: oat, fertilization, fungicides, diseases, yieldINTRODUCTION

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481-486 V. Surikova, A. Kārkliņš and E. Rubauskis
Preliminary results of nitrogen uptake with mown grass in an apple orchard under influence of mulch and irrigation
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Preliminary results of nitrogen uptake with mown grass in an apple orchard under influence of mulch and irrigation

V. Surikova¹, A. Kārkliņš² and E. Rubauskis¹

¹Latvia State Institute of Fruit–Growing, Graudu iela 1, Dobele, LV 3701; e–mail:Valentina.Surikova@lvai.lv
²Latvia University of Agriculture, Lielā iela 2, Jelgava, LV 3001; e–mail:Aldis.Karklins@llu.lv

Abstract:

Nitrogen leaching from intensive agriculture systems is one of the major contributors responsible for nitrate concentration increasing in groundwater. The aim of the study was to determine the content of total nitrogen in the orchard lawn and use this parameter as a correction factor for reduction of nitrogen fertilizers application and to include the nitrogen from mown grass into the N balance and turnover calculation. The investigation was conducted at the Latvia State Institute of Fruit–Growing, Dobele in 2009, on the basis of an existing field experiment planted in 1997 with cultivar `Melba` (rootstock B 9). The influence of soil moisture management treatments were compared near the alleyway: control, sawdust mulch and fertigation. The alleyway was covered by grass vegetation (Lolium perenne L. and Poa pratensis L,). Total nitrogen was determined using the Kjeldahl method. The preliminary results show that the mulch used in tree strips in an apple orchard had a significantly negative influence on the concentration of nitrogen in the dry matter of mown grass of the alleyway compared with control and fertigation. Near the mulching treatment the concentration of nitrogen in dry matter of mown grass in the alleyway was 2.23%, but near the control and fertigation treatments it was 8% higher. Nitrogen concentration in the grass of the alleyway was significantly influenced by the time of grass mowing. Nitrogen uptake with mown grass biomass in the alleyway near the control in tree strips was 33.36 kg ha-1, near the mulch treatment it was higher by 6%, but in fertigation treatment – by 20%.

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487-492 L. Talgre, E. Lauringson, A, Makke
Amounts of nitrogen and carbon returned to soil depending on green manure and the effect on winter wheat yield
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Amounts of nitrogen and carbon returned to soil depending on green manure and the effect on winter wheat yield

L. Talgre, E. Lauringson, A, Makke

Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of LifeSciences, Kreutzwaldi St. 1, Tartu, Estonia, e-mail: liina.talgre@emu.ee

Abstract:

The trials were carried out during the 2006–08 growing seasons at the Department of Field Crop Husbandry in the Estonian University of Life Sciences. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of green manure treatments on the yield and yield quality of winter wheat. The total phytomass of leguminous green manures ploughed into soil in 2007 varied from 10.3 Mg ha–1 with the bird’s foot trefoil to 13.9 Mg ha–1 with the white sweet clover. The root mass of legumes comprised 37–54% of the total biomass. The amount of carbon applied into the soil with the green material and roots of legumes varied from 4.43 Mg ha-1 to 5.98 Mg ha–1. The amounts of nitrogen were up to 274 kg of N ha–1. The highest wheat yields were attained in treatments with lucerne and red clover as preceding crops. Compared to the N0 treatment, the extra yield reached 3.26 Mg ha–1 with green manures. Both green manures and mineral fertilizers enhanced the quality of the winter wheat yield, but the results did not vary among different green manures.

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493-498 I. Vanaga, Z. Mintale and O. Smirnova
Control possibilities of Apera spica-venti (L.) P.Beauv. in winter wheat with autumn and spring applications of herbicides in Latvia
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Control possibilities of Apera spica-venti (L.) P.Beauv. in winter wheat with autumn and spring applications of herbicides in Latvia

I. Vanaga, Z. Mintale and O. Smirnova

Latvian Plant Protection Research Centre, Lielvardes iela 36/38, Riga LV-1006

Abstract:

This paper presents results on weed control and yield responses in winter wheat grown after winter oilseed rape and after winter wheat, using data from field trials with a range of herbicides registered for use in Latvia that were applied either in the autumn or in the spring. Apera spica-venti was the dominant weed in these trials, accounting for 70–80% of the total weed biomass. Spring application of herbicides did not provide good control of Apera spica-venti up to harvest time: the infestation at application time was more than 140 plants per m2. Autumn application of appropriate herbicides gave satisfactory control of Apera spica-venti up to harvest time in the following year. All herbicide treatments significantly increased crop yield but the autumn applications gave significantly greater increases than nearly all spring applications.

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493-498 I. Vanaga, Z. Mintale and O. Smirnova
Control possibilities of Apera spica-venti (L.) P.Beauv. in winter wheat with autumn and spring applications of herbicides in Latvia
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Control possibilities of Apera spica-venti (L.) P.Beauv. in winter wheat with autumn and spring applications of herbicides in Latvia

I. Vanaga, Z. Mintale and O. Smirnova

Latvian Plant Protection Research Centre, Lielvardes iela 36/38, Riga LV-1006

Abstract:

This paper presents results on weed control and yield responses in winter wheat grown after winter oilseed rape and after winter wheat, using data from field trials with a range of herbicides registered for use in Latvia that were applied either in the autumn or in the spring. Apera spica-venti was the dominant weed in these trials, accounting for 70–80% of the total weed biomass. Spring application of herbicides did not provide good control of Apera spica-venti up to harvest time: the infestation at application time was more than 140 plants per m2. Autumn application of appropriate herbicides gave satisfactory control of Apera spica-venti up to harvest time in the following year. All herbicide treatments significantly increased crop yield but the autumn applications gave significantly greater increases than nearly all spring applications.

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499-504 R. Vettik and K. Tamm
The impact of a farm’s annual cattle slurry yield on the options for moving the slurry from stable to plot: a simulation study
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The impact of a farm’s annual cattle slurry yield on the options for moving the slurry from stable to plot: a simulation study

R. Vettik and K. Tamm

Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, Saku, Estonia;e-mail: raivo.vettik@eria.ee

Abstract:

The economical efficacy is substantial on both occasions for feeding plants with nutrients and moving the manure from stables to the plots. The aim of the present research is to explain the limit values for the annual amount of slurry and average plot distance on a farm as conditions to decide in favour of a personal eco-friendly slurry distributor or custom equipment. In their previous researches, the authors have composed models to calculate slurry management costs for different technologies depending on plot distance, taking into account ammonia emissions. In the present study, simulations were made using the composed calculation models to compare slurry distribution costs for four slurry application technologies.Calculations show that if the annual amount of slurry exceeds 4000 m3, then for plot dis-tance over 2 km, custom slurry distribution is cheaper than using the farm’s own equipment. How-ever, if the annual quantity of slurry exceeds 16,000 m3, then the limit value for distance is 5 km.If the annual amount of slurry is 4000 m3, then full custom service is cheaper than thetechnology in which the farm’s own slurry distributor and custom transportation is used. In the case of the annual amount of 16,000 m3, it is less expensive to use the farm’s own slurry distributor and custom transportation. In order to benefit from the use of the farm’s own distributor the minimum value for annual slurry amount is 5600 m3.

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499-504 R. Vettik and K. Tamm
The impact of a farm’s annual cattle slurry yield on the options for moving the slurry from stable to plot: a simulation study
Abstract |
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The impact of a farm’s annual cattle slurry yield on the options for moving the slurry from stable to plot: a simulation study

R. Vettik and K. Tamm

Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, Saku, Estonia;e-mail: raivo.vettik@eria.ee

Abstract:

The economical efficacy is substantial on both occasions for feeding plants with nutrients and moving the manure from stables to the plots. The aim of the present research is to explain the limit values for the annual amount of slurry and average plot distance on a farm as conditions to decide in favour of a personal eco-friendly slurry distributor or custom equipment. In their previous researches, the authors have composed models to calculate slurry management costs for different technologies depending on plot distance, taking into account ammonia emissions. In the present study, simulations were made using the composed calculation models to compare slurry distribution costs for four slurry application technologies.Calculations show that if the annual amount of slurry exceeds 4000 m3, then for plot dis-tance over 2 km, custom slurry distribution is cheaper than using the farm’s own equipment. How-ever, if the annual quantity of slurry exceeds 16,000 m3, then the limit value for distance is 5 km.If the annual amount of slurry is 4000 m3, then full custom service is cheaper than thetechnology in which the farm’s own slurry distributor and custom transportation is used. In the case of the annual amount of 16,000 m3, it is less expensive to use the farm’s own slurry distributor and custom transportation. In order to benefit from the use of the farm’s own distributor the minimum value for annual slurry amount is 5600 m3.

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