Volume 8 (2010)
  Special Issue III

International Scientific Conference
Novel Tasks Posed on Plant Breeding Programmes to Cope with Climate Change
Kuremaa, Jõgeva County, Estonia, July 7–9, 2010

Conference and volume information – PDF (96 K)

Contents


Pages

513-522 R. Aavola and J. Karelson
The dynamics of botanical composition of pure and mixed grass swards on peaty soil
Abstract |

The dynamics of botanical composition of pure and mixed grass swards on peaty soil

R. Aavola and J. Karelson

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 1 J. Aamisepa St., Jõgeva alevik, 48309, Estonia,e-mail: rene.aavola@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

Major part of forage grass varieties used for (re-)seeding Estonian grasslands is imported. Little is known about their performance is severe microclimatic conditions on peat soils as official testing takes place on mineral soils. A field trial comprising 7 pure-sown grass species (8 domestic, 11 foreign varieties) and 9 mixtures composed of local varieties was sown to drained peaty soil. The aim was to determine the sward components, which preserve there. Changes in grass sward composition were observed in 2005–2007. Among pure stands, Estonian Alopecurus pratensis variety ‘Haljas’, Phleum pratense ‘Tia’ and ‘Tika’, Bromus inermis ‘Lehis’ maintained the highest percentages (86.0–92.8) of cultivated species by the third harvest year. Only B. inermis survived a harsh winter with negligible winterkill. The frost devastated the stands of Festulolium, Festuca pratense and F. arundinacea. ‘Lehis’ turned out to be the most winter and drought resistant also in mixed grass swards. If added at a rate of 30 kg ha-1 to the mixtures with P. pratense, B. inermis effectively outcompeted the herbs (range 1.4–8.2%) by the third harvest year and became dominant (72.3–87.1%). P. pratense ‘Tia’ persisted for three years but gradually withdrew when was competing with B. inermis, and also with A. pratensis. Phalaris arundinacea was intolerant to three harvests per year at a cutting height of 7 cm and steadily declined from the swards. Dactylis glomerata and F. pratense were vulnerable to winterkill, but could partly recover at the end of a rainy season.

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523-530 A. Bender, S. Tamm
Estonian natural lucerne populations: yield ability and quality
Abstract |

Estonian natural lucerne populations: yield ability and quality

A. Bender, S. Tamm

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute 48 309 Jõgeva, Estonia;
e-mail: ants.bender@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

With seeds collected in 2001–2002 from semi natural grasslands of Estonia, plot trials were established in 2003 in order to determine the ability of lucerne populations, their suitability for breeding purposes and prospective ways of use. In the sum of dry matter yields of the sowing year and three years of use, one natural population (Reigi) exceeded the standard variety by 6.0%, but in the crude protein yield it was within the experimental error inferior to the standard. From plant breeding perspective this population is of interest. However, it must be checked whether the location where seeds were collected was not a former sowing place of some existing foreign variety. The rest of the test ed populations can be divided into two groups based on their growth rhythm and dry matter yield: 1) with modest regrowth, predominantly yellow-flowered forms of Medicago falcata L. type spreading by rhizomes deserve attention as initial material for breeding of specific varieties for landscape management. Particular longevity of the variety and low management costs are highly valued, but the biochemical composition of the yield (dry matter and crude protein yields account for 48.0–55.7% and 49.6–59.2% respectively, compared to the standard variety) is of minor importance, 2) yellow- and multicolour-flowered populations of M. media Pers., which dry matter and crude protein yields ranged between 65.8–92.0% and 64.5–86.2% respective ly, in comparison with standard variety. The seeds of these populations can successfully be used for improvement of semi-natural grasslands on drought-sensitive light soils with neutral or alkaline reaction that are suitable for lucerne growth. Their advantage is winter hardiness , grazing resistance and longevity, and that is worth of considering while choosing initial material for breeding.

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531-536 S. Bumane
The influence of NPK fertilization on Lolium perenne L. forage quality
Abstract |

The influence of NPK fertilization on Lolium perenne L. forage quality

S. Bumane

Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute, 1a Zinatnes St., Priekuli, LV 4126, Latvia;
e-mail: skbumane@inbox.lv

Abstract:

Within the framework of the research program developed at the Latvian University of Agriculture (LLU), at the Research Institute of Agriculture (ZZI), Agency of LLU field trials were established and research was conducted over the period 1999–2003. In all trials, tetraploid perennial ryegrass cv. ‘Spidola’ was sown to plots at a rate of 12 kg ha-1. The impact of three factors (NPK) in 17 treatments, replicated four times, were researched according to the so-called „star” scheme added to control treatment N0P0K0 + absolute MAX N120P120K160. The totalplot area was 17.5 m2, harvested area 13.5 m2. In the trial, five levels of fertilizer werecompared: – 0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 of N, 0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 of P2O5, and 0; 40; 80; 120 and 160 kg ha-1of K2O. The goal of current research was to clarify the influence of mineral fertilizer optimization on forage quality formation in perennial ryegrass cv. ‘Spidola’ under agro-climatic conditions of Latvia. It is concluded that N fertilizer mostly influenced herbage yield and quality characteristics of perennial ryegrass where both, crude protein (CP) content of dry matter and total yield of CP per hectare increased. In the treatments N60 and N120, the CP content in grass dry matter increased by 0.14 and 2.66%, and CP yield per hectare by 98 and 226%, respectively, compared with N0 (at P60 K80 background).

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537-544 I. Dzene, A. Jansons, B. Jansone and S. Rancane
The study of variability of agro-morphological characteristics of white clover accessions from other countries in Latvian climate conditions
Abstract |
Full text PDF (122 kB)

The study of variability of agro-morphological characteristics of white clover accessions from other countries in Latvian climate conditions

I. Dzene, A. Jansons, B. Jansone and S. Rancane

LUA Research Institute of Agriculture, 7 Zemkopibas instituts, Skriveri, Skriveruregion, Latvia, LV-5125; e-mail: szc@inbox.lv

Abstract:

White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is one of the most important forage legumes in temperate grasslands because of its large spread, good adaptability, high nutritive value combined with a good palatability and by its nitrogen-fixing capacity (Balan, 2007). The evaluation of the white clover germplasm collections under field conditions is recognized as a general method to estimate biological diversity. During the years 2006–08 experimental field trials were performed at the Research Institute of Agriculture in Latvia. A white clover collection of 46 samples with large-scale geographic origins from 19 countries was established. Wild populations gathered in Latvia and Lithuania were also included in the collection. Native cultivar ‘Daile’ as the standard was used. All three white clover varietas (var.) – silvestris, hollandicum, and giganteum – were represented in the collection. A huge diversity of morphologically different plants was observed among the collected samples. Winter-hardiness, earliness, growth intensity, time of flowering, weight of leaves and flower heads, length of sprouts, size of the central leaflet, etc, are the important traits of the genetic variability. Among the white clover accessions were samples with untraditional reddish-rose-colored flower heads. The aim of the study was to select valuable source material for future breeding with a good possibility of adaptation in the changeable climate and different soils in Latvia, with high productivity, good disease resistance, of many years’ standing in the sward, etc. Our research shows that large genetic variability exists within the investigated white clover collection. The evaluation of samples of our white clover collection in the agro-climatic conditions of Latvia shows that some varieties are featured with several morphological qualities and could be appropriate as promising material for the creation of a new variety. These are ‘Dubraux’ (Czech Republic/Slovakia); ‘Gigant’ (Belgium); ‘Huia’ (New Zealand) and local wild population ‘Ecotype 2005’, which stand out for their winter-hardiness, earliness, production of a large foliage surface and produce high seed yield.

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545-552 D. Grauda, N. Lepse, V. Strazdiņa, I. Kokina, L. Lapiņa, A. Miķelsone, L.Ļubinskis and I. Rashal
Obtaining of doubled haploid lines by anther culture method for the Latvian wheat breeding
Abstract |

Obtaining of doubled haploid lines by anther culture method for the Latvian wheat breeding

D. Grauda¹, N. Lepse¹, V. Strazdiņa², I. Kokina³, L. Lapiņa¹, A. Miķelsone¹, L.Ļubinskis¹ and I. Rashal¹

¹Institute of Biology, University of Latvia, Miera 3, Salaspils, LV-2169, Latvia;e-mail: dace@email.lubi.edu.lv; izaks@email.lubi.edu.lv
²State Stende Cereals Breeding Institute, p/o Dižstende, Talsi region, LV-3258, Latvia;e-mail: vijastrazdina@inbox.lv
³Institute of Systematic Biology, Daugavpils University, Vienības 13, Daugavpils, LV-5401,Latvia; e-mail: inese.kokina@biology.lv

Abstract:

Methods of modern biotechnology, like double haploids (DH), could highly contribute improving efficiency and speeding up the breeding process. Aim of the present work was to elaborate most effective protocol of obtaining DH lines by spring and winter wheat anther culture. As initial material 10 spring and 4 winter wheat F2 hybrids were used. The cold (4ºC) pre-treatment of spikes was applied, and spikes were sterilized by 50% solution of bleach for 17 min. Isolated anthers were cultivated on the different induction media: 190-0, AMC, and AMC with addition of 2.5 mg l-1 CuSO4 x 5H2O. The most suitable induction medium for obtaining DHs from used wheat hybrids was the AMC medium with copper. Produced DH lines were multiplied and tested in the field conditions.

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553-562 A. Ingver, I. Tamm, Ü. Tamm, T. Kangor and R. Koppel
The characteristics of spring cereals in changing weather in Estonia
Abstract |

The characteristics of spring cereals in changing weather in Estonia

A. Ingver, I. Tamm, Ü. Tamm, T. Kangor and R. Koppel

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 48 309 Jõgeva, Estonia;e-mail: Anne.Ingver@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

The objective of this investigation was finding out the impact of weather on yield, length of growing period, plant height, lodging resistance and protein content of spring cereals over 19 years (1991–2009). Two varieties per each crop were selected for testing. Historical weather and crop yield data from the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute were analyzed by the linear correlation analysis. To estimate the variation of grain yield, the minimum and maximum values, averages and coefficients of variation were calculated.It can be stated that the both stress conditions – drought and excess precipitation causeddecrease of yield and quality of all the crops. The highest yields developed in 180–250 mm precipitation range from sowing to maturity. Oat requires more moisture than wheat and barley. Significant positive correlation between the amount of precipitation and oat yield was found when three years of severe lodging were eliminated. Positive correlation between yield and plant height was found. In the years of severe lodging there was remarkable yield decrease of oat. Yield of oat and barley had negative correlation with sunshine hours in June. The same correlation for wheat was not significant. Extra-low protein content for all the cereals, especially for wheat, formed in a cool year with the lowest sum of sunshine hours during the whole growing period (2009). For oat and barley positive correlation between sunshine hours in June and protein content was found. For formation of higher protein content, warm and dry weather conditions are required. Protein content was inversely associated with yield.

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563-572 B. Jansone, S. Rancane, P. Berzins, V. Stesele and A. Jansons
Evaluation of perennial grass mixtures of different species and varieties in the central part of Latvia introduced from other European countries
Abstract |

Evaluation of perennial grass mixtures of different species and varieties in the central part of Latvia introduced from other European countries

B. Jansone, S. Rancane, P. Berzins, V. Stesele and A. Jansons

LUA Research Institute of Agriculture, 7 Zemkopibas instituts, Skriveri, Skriveruregion, Latvia, LV-5125;e-mail: sarmite.rancane@inbox.lv

Abstract:

Forage grasses growing in the wild and cultivated in fields represent many species with various properties. Scientists at the LUA Research Institute of Agriculture have for many years performed purposeful breeding work with the aim of originating new, highly productive cultivars of different grassland species with good forage quality suitable for growing under Latvia’s climatic conditions, as well as being competitive in the EU countries. A field trial was sown in 2007 to evaluate our new cultivars in the poly-component mixtures with diploid and tetraploid varieties of forage grasses and mixtures offered by other companies and countries. Twenty-two multiform grassland mixtures for cutting and pastures were compared. The test results proved that it is possible to obtain two full cuttings from these mixtures in the sowing year under good climatic conditions; the most productive mixtures yielded 8 t ha-1 DM and more. In the first year, with three cuts, DM yields ranged within 8.89–16.11 t ha-1 the highest DM yields were obtained from mixtures with the newest perennial grass cultivars of the Research Institute. The average DM yields for better swards (SK-1, SK-2, SK-3, P/2) were above 10 t ha-1 in three years. The mixtures with white clover and rhizomatous low grasses proved to be most winter-hardy. The highest protein content and digestibility in the first year of use were the characteristic features of cutting mixtures SK-5 and P/1, but in the second year, it was found in mixtures for grazing Dot-21, Dot-24, SK-6 and G-2.

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573-582 I. Jansone, S. Malecka and V. Miglane
Suitability of winter triticale varieties for bioethanol production in Latvia
Abstract |

Suitability of winter triticale varieties for bioethanol production in Latvia

I. Jansone, S. Malecka and V. Miglane

State Stende Cereals Breeding Institute, p/o Dizstende, Talsi district, LV–3258 Latvia;e-mail: stende.selekcija@apollo.lv

Abstract:

The research was carried out at the State Stende Cereals Breeding Institute in experimental years 2007/08 and 2008/09. The subject of the research was the suitability of seven winter triticale varieties and lines for bioethanol production. Two supplementary fertilization rates of nitrogen were used (N 100 kg ha-1 and N 140 kg ha-1). The correlations of characteristics of different varieties were evaluated. During the research the analysis of grain quality (starch and crude protein content) was carried out. The theoretical bioethanol outcome (L t-1) and yield (L ha-1) were calculated by using the indicators of starch content. The results of the research show that the winter triticale variety ‘Dinaro’ and line 9402-3 with the highest theoretically calculated bioethanol outcome (489.4 L t-1 and 486.5 L t-1) and the highest starch content of the grains (681.19 g kg-1and 677.13 g kg-1) were the most suitable for the bioethanol production in Latvian conditions. No substantial effect of the fertilization methods on the starch content in grains and on the theoretically calculated ethanol outcome was observed.

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583-588 H. Jänes, P. Ardel, K. Kahu, K. Kelt and A. Kikas
Some biological properties and fruit quality parameters of new sweet cherry cultivars and perspective selections
Abstract |

Some biological properties and fruit quality parameters of new sweet cherry cultivars and perspective selections

H. Jänes, P. Ardel, K. Kahu, K. Kelt and A. Kikas

Polli Horticultural Research Centre, Institute of Agricultural and EnvironmentalSciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, 69108 Karksi–Nuia, Estonia;e-mail: pille.ardel@pma.agri.ee

Abstract:

Twelve Estonian sweet cherry cultivars: ‘Anu’, ‘Arthur’ (control), ‘Elle’, ‘Ene’, ‘Irma’, ‘Kaspar’, ‘Mupi’, ‘Tontu’, ‘Elo’, ‘Jaago’, ‘Taki’, ‘Tiki’ and two selections: Polli 2–1 and Polli 4–13 as well as two introduced cultivars ‘Iputj’ (Russia) and ‘Jurgita’ (Lithuania) were evaluated for yield, ripening time, fruit weight and biochemical characteristics during 2007–2009 at the Polli Horticultural Research Centre. Results showed that the earliest ripening among the all studied genotypes was ‘Elo’ (16.06), while the latest one was Polli 2–1 (29.07). Average of the three years yields ranged from 6.0 kg per tree for cultivar ‘Jurgita’ to 20.1 kg per tree for cultivar ‘Arthur’. The largest fruits showed cultivars ‘Iputj’ (6.5 g) and ‘Jurgita’ (6.0 g), followed by ‘Arthur’, ‘Anu’ and ‘Mupi’ while the smallest fruits showed ‘Elo’ (3.2 g). The average °Brix value in fruit juice varied by the genotypes from 14.6 (‘Tiki’) to 19.6 (‘Anu’), average of all the genotypes was 17.1. The average total acids content ranged from 0.50% in ‘Iputj’ to 0.75% in ‘Ene’ while the total sugar content ranged from 7.7% in ‘Jurgita’ to 11.2% in ‘Arthur’. The ascorbic acid content ranged from 13.8 mg 100 g-1 in ‘Jaago’ to 24.8 mg 100 g-1 in ‘Anu’. The sugar:acid ratio was considerably high in ‘Iputj’, ‘Kaspar’, ‘Arthur’, ‘Anu’ and ‘Mupi’ (from 17.9 to 20.3). The most attractive were fruits of the cultivars ‘Iputj’, ‘Jurgita’, ‘Mupi’ and ‘Arthur’ (from 4.7 to 4.8 points).

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589-594 K. Kahu, L. Klaas and A. Kikas
Effect of cultivars and different growing technologies on strawberry yield and fruit quality
Abstract |

Effect of cultivars and different growing technologies on strawberry yield and fruit quality

K. Kahu, L. Klaas and A. Kikas

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and EnvironmentalSciences, Polli Horticultural Research Centre, Karksi-Nuia, 69108, Estonia;e-mail: kersti.kahu@emu.ee

Abstract:

The interest in organic farming and organically produced products is increasing every year in Estonia. In 2003 the trial with four widely grown strawberry cultivars: ‘Polka’, ‘Bounty’, ‘Korona’ and ‘Senga Sengana’ in two variants, the organic and the conventional, was established at the Polli Horticultural Research Centre. The objective of this study was to assess the strawberry cultivars in organic and conventional growing with regard to their yield and berry quality. No significant differences in commercial and defective yield per plant between two growing variants were observed in 2004, but the commercial yields were significantly higher in the conventional variant in 2005 and 2006. It was noted that organically grown strawberries had a higher content of soluble solids, but a lower content of ascorbic acid comparing with conventionally grown strawberries. Due to its good productivity and high content of soluble solids and ascorbic acid, ‘Bounty’ was the most profitable cultivar in this study, and appeared highly suitable for organic cultivation.

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595-602 T. Kangor, A. Ingver, Ü. Tamm and I. Tamm
Effect of fertilization and conditions of year on some characteristics of spring wheat and barley
Abstract |

Effect of fertilization and conditions of year on some characteristics of spring wheat and barley

T. Kangor, A. Ingver, Ü. Tamm and I. Tamm

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 1 J. Aamisepa St., 48309, Jõgeva alevik, Estonia;e-mail: Tiia.Kangor@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

Spring wheat and barley are the most cultivated spring cereals in Estonian farming. Six-year (2003–2008) field trial was conducted at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute to estimate the effect of fertilization and weather conditions of the tested years on characteristics of spring wheat and barley. Four levels of fertilization (N0 – untreated control N0P0K0 kg ha-1; N1 – N60P13K23; N2 – N100P22K39; N3 – N140P31K54) were applied using the complex fertilizer Kemira Power (N18P4K7). The weather data during the tested years were variable. Year as factor influenced the length of growing period of both cereals the most (wheat 98.0%; barley 98.5%). Wheat had longer growing period than barley (difference 11 days). Spring wheat was more sensitive to environmental conditions; its yield was more affected by year (32.3%) than barley (3.3%). Moreover, from variation of yield of barley 82.0% was explained by fertilization and the same for wheat was 52.9%. The lodging resistance of both crops was influenced by fertilization, year conditions and their interaction (Y x F). The year conditions and Y x F interaction influenced 1000 kernel weight of both cereals, but fertilization had only a marginal effect on this parameter. The protein content of both crops depended on the fertilization and year as factor. Wheat showed higher level of this characteristic in all the years and fertilizer doses.

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603-614 K. Kask, H. Jänes, A. Libek, L. Arus, A. Kikas, H. Kaldmäe, N. Univer andT. Univer
New cultivars and future perspectives in professional fruit breeding in Estonia
Abstract |
Full text PDF (104 kB)

New cultivars and future perspectives in professional fruit breeding in Estonia

K. Kask, H. Jänes, A. Libek, L. Arus, A. Kikas, H. Kaldmäe, N. Univer andT. Univer

Polli Horticultural Research Centre, Institute of Agricultural and EnvironmentalSciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Karksi-Nuia 69108, Estonia;e-mail: polli@emu.ee

Abstract:

During 2001–2010, the following cultivars from the breeding programme of the Polli Horticultural Research Centre of the Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences were registered: the apples ‘Kaari’, ‘Kaimo’, ‘Karamba’, ‘Katre’, ‘Kikitriinu’, ‘Krista’, and ‘Liivika’, the crab apples ‘Kuku’, ‘Ritika’, and ‘Ruti’, the sweet cherries ‘Elle’, ‘Karmel’, ‘Piret’ and ‘Tontu’, the raspberries ‘Aita’ and ‘Alvi’, and the black currants ‘Almo’, ‘Ats’, ‘Elo’ and ‘Karri’. Since 2004, applications for registration and DUS testing have been submitted for the new apple cultivar ‘Els’, pear cultivars ‘Kadi’ and ‘Polli Punane’, sweet cherry cultivars ‘Anu’, ‘Ene’, ‘Irma’, ‘Kaspar’, ‘Mupi’, ‘Polli Murel’ and ‘Tõmmu’. Apple, plum, sweet cherry, black currant and raspberry breeding programmes are going on as part of the public breeding program. Winter hardiness is the first-rate goal in all crops. In apple, breeding for scab resistance is now the main task. In the nearest future, some new plum, apple and black currant cultivars will supplement the breeding results of the institution at Polli.

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615-624 V. Kemešytė, N. Lemežienė, J. Kanapeckas, E. Vilčinskas,L. Z. Baistruk-Glodan and R. Ivanciv
Evaluation of Lolium perenne L. wild ecotypes of Ukrainian origin in Lithuania
Abstract |
Full text PDF (134 kB)

Evaluation of Lolium perenne L. wild ecotypes of Ukrainian origin in Lithuania

V. Kemešytė¹, N. Lemežienė¹, J. Kanapeckas¹, E. Vilčinskas¹,L. Z. Baistruk-Glodan² and R. Ivanciv²

¹Institute of Agriculture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and ForestryInstituto al. 1, Akademija, Kedainiai distr., Lithuania; e-mail: vilma@lzi.lt²Prikarpatjan branch of Western region Institute of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry,Ukrainian Academy of Agrarian Science., Lishnia, Lvov r., Ukraine; e-mail: d_stancija@mail.lviv.ua

Abstract:

The plants of 23 wild populations of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were collected in 2006 and 2007 in the natural habitats of grasses in West Ukraine (Prikarpatja, Karpat and Zakarpatja region). These populations and 2 Ukrainian varieties were planted in 2008 and 2009 into the germplasm collection at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture. In the collection trials the following parameters were assessed: winter damage, beginning of heading, growth at the beginning of vegetation and re-growth after cuts, plant height, leaf colour, flag leaf length and width, dry matter yield, disease incidence and chemical composition. The Ukrainian wild populations distinguished by winter hardiness, fast spring growth, high dry matter yield and forage quality under Lithuanian conditions. The plants of the wild Ukrainian populations were shorter, with narrower and shorter flag leaves and more sensitive to crown rust and leaf spot pathogens, compared with the Lithuanian varieties. The Ukrainian varieties exhibited early heading and worse chemical composition, compared with the standard Lithuanian variety ‘Žvilgė’.

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625-632 S. Kiru and I. Nasenko
Use of genetic resources from Jerusalem artichoke collection of N. Vavilov Institute in breeding for bioenergy and health security
Abstract |

Use of genetic resources from Jerusalem artichoke collection of N. Vavilov Institute in breeding for bioenergy and health security

S. Kiru¹ and I. Nasenko²

¹N. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry (VIR), B. Morskaya St. 44, 190000 St.Petersburg, Russian Federation; e-mail: s.kiru@vir.nw.ru
²Majkop research station of N. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry, Shuntuk, Majkopdistr. Krasnodar reg., Russian Federation

Abstract:

The VIR Collection contains 313 varieties and hybrids of Jerusalem artichoke Heliantus tuberosus L. The material originated from several countries of America and Europe represents a potential source of valuable traits for breeding, including yield and precocity. Clones of 70 varieties and hybrids of Jerusalem artichoke from 11 countries were evaluated for yield and precocity. The selection of valuable for breeding accessions was carried out. As result of five years screening new perspective genetic sources of valuable commercial traits for breeding were singled out.

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633-636 O. Klymenko, M. Klymenko, L. Kartyzhova and Z. Alechenkova
Cultivation of sweet cherry (Cerasus avium (L.) Moench) seedlings with using of phosphate-mobilizing microorganisms
Abstract |

Cultivation of sweet cherry (Cerasus avium (L.) Moench) seedlings with using of phosphate-mobilizing microorganisms

O. Klymenko¹, M. Klymenko¹, L. Kartyzhova² and Z. Alechenkova²

¹ State Nikitsky Botanical Gardens, National Centre of Science, Nikita, Yalta, Ukraine,e-mail: olga.gnbs@mail.ru
² Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Science of Belarus, Minsk, Belarus,e-mail: kartyzhova@mail.ru

Abstract:

In a field experiment the influence of phosphate-mobilizing bacteria (PMB) on growth, development and output of one-year-old grafted sweet cherry seedlings have been studied. Two various phosphate-mobilizing bacteria PMB 6, PMB 7 and their mix were applied for increase of nursery efficiency. We established that the application of PMB increased seedlings thriving, stimulated growth processes, improved frost and winter resistance and vitality of sweet cherry buds, budded on a Cerasus mahaleb. PMB 7 and mix PMB 6 + PMB 7 increased an output of seedlings, reduced the cost price of a planting material and increased the level of profitability. The greatest economic benefit was received by using of the mix PMB 6 + PMB 7.

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637-644 R. Koppel, A. Ingver
Stability and predictability of baking quality of winter wheat
Abstract |

Stability and predictability of baking quality of winter wheat

R. Koppel, A. Ingver

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 1. J. Aamisepa St., Jõgeva alevik, 48306; e-mail:
Reine.Koppel@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

Baking quality of 11 winter wheat varieties was studied at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute during 5 years (2005–2009). Protein content, farinograph absorption, dough stability time and loaf volume were examined in this study. The varieties were divided into clusters according to the average value of quality characteristics and coefficient of variation. Ada, Tarso, Portal, Ramiro had high protein content. Bjorke, Portal, Tarso belonged to the cluster with the highest farinograph absorption. Ada had the highest value of dough stability every year. Ada, Ebi, Compliment, Gunbo, Ramiro, Širvinta 1 and Tarso had higher loaf volume. For all the wheat quality parameters the variety effect was statistically significant but had very small magnitude compared to year effect. For the milling and baking industry, it is desirable that quality traits should be maintained as stable as possible through all environments. Varieties that had lower Cultivar Superiority value usually had higher coefficient of variation. Protein content is commonly used as predictor of baking quality. The correlation existed between protein content and farinograph absorption. Farinograph absorption correlated also with dough stability. Loaf volume had correlation with protein content only in one year out of five.

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645-652 L. Legzdiņa, I. Mežaka and I. Beinaroviča
Hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) resistance to pre-harvest sprouting: diversity and development of method for testing of breeding material
Abstract |

Hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) resistance to pre-harvest sprouting: diversity and development of method for testing of breeding material

L. Legzdiņa, I. Mežaka and I. Beinaroviča

State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute, Zinātnes str. 1a, Priekuli LV-4126, Latvia;e-mail: lindaleg@navigator.lv

Abstract:

Pre-harvest sprouting significantly reduces grain yield and quality of hulless barley (HB). In field conditions pre-harvest sprouting resistance can be scored rarely. The objective of the research was to develop appropriate testing method for barley breeding material in laboratory conditions and to estimate genetic diversity in pre-harvest sprouting resistance among various HB genotypes. The amount of seeds with visible germination symptoms were determined in days 4, 7 and 10 after initiation of laboratory test; it was started in ripening stage and after 4 weeks of storage of harvested spikes. The average amount of germinated grains differed significantly between the three estimation days (p < 0.001) in all years and both if tested in ripening stage or during storage. The effect of genotype on the number of germinated grains was the highest in the 10th testing day. Germination was significantly higher if the test was started after 4-week storage of harvested spikes. The correlation between amounts of germinated grains with the sprouting scores obtained in field conditions was significant in most of the cases; the highest values of correlation coefficient were obtained in estimation days 7 and 10 if the test was started in ripening stage. As more suitable for performing laboratory test of pre-harvest sprouting in barley breeding program can be suggested testing in ripening stage with estimation day 10 or 7. A noticeable variation of amount of germinated grains among the genotypes was found (CV = 49.8%, 10th estimation day). It approves the possibility for improvement of this trait by breeding.

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653-662 Ž. Liatukas, V. Ruzgas and K. Razbadauskiene
Take-all resistance of Lithuanian winter wheat breeding lines
Abstract |

Take-all resistance of Lithuanian winter wheat breeding lines

Ž. Liatukas, V. Ruzgas and K. Razbadauskiene

Institute of Agriculture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, 1Instituto al., Akademija, Kėdainiai distr., LT-58344, Lithuania; e-mail: liatukas@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Take-all, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, is one of the most important root diseases of wheat around the world. Previous research has suggested that winter wheat varieties pose no effective resistance. The experiment was carried out in the winter wheat mono-crop nursery during 2006–2009. In total, 324 accessions, including standard cultivars, were tested during 3 vegetation seasons. The accessions were grown in 2.0 m2 plots. The disease severity was assessed as ear discoloration symptoms from early to late milk stages in scores, using the scale 1 to 9 points, where 1 is the lowest value. Disease severities were high during all three seasons and ear symptoms developed from just visible to full discoloration during 3 to 5 weeks depending on the accessions’ resistance and year. Take-all severity on the accessions tested was estimated from 4.75 to 9.0, 5.38 to 8.95, and 4.00 to 8.53 points in 2007–2009, respectively. Varieties ‘Flair’ and ‘Dream’ were the most frequent in the pedigree of the most resistant lines, occurring in 23.3% pedigrees of the lines. The thousand kernels and hectolitre weight showed no or low correlation with disease severities. Lines resistance showed weak correlation with yield when all plot data were used for calculation. However, correlation coefficients considerably increased when ten percent of each minimal, mean and maximal yields values were used. A mean yield of resistant and susceptible lines differed about 1 t ha-1 in 2007 and 2008, whereas a lower difference (0.54 t ha-1) was found in 2009. Some susceptible lines had higher or similar yield as well as the resistant ones in all years.

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663-672 A. Liatukienė, Ž. Liatukas and V. Ruzgas
Resistance of European lucerne accessions to aluminium
Abstract |

Resistance of European lucerne accessions to aluminium

A. Liatukienė, Ž. Liatukas and V. Ruzgas

Institute of Agriculture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and ForestryInstituto al. 1, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr., LT-58344, Lithuania;e-mail: aurelija@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Aluminium toxicity is one of those factors limiting lucerne production on acid soils. Efficient method for selection of Al resistant plants should accelerate breeding of new cultivars. Reaction to Al of the 25 European lucerne cultivars was evaluated using Petri dish with filter paper moistened with AlCl3 concentrations 0, 2, 4, 8, 16 mM. The tested lucerne cultivars did not differ considerably by resistance to Al in regard to the origin. It was clear that aluminium inhibited lucerne seed germination, seedling root and hypocotyl elongation depending on cultivar resistance. Germination rates at AlCl3 concentrations 0, 2, 4 were similar for most cultivars, whereas AlCl3 concentrations 8 and 16 mM highly inhibited germination of susceptible cultivars. Germination test was suitable for elimination of the most susceptible accessions. The seedlings hypocotyl elongation reaction to different AlCl3 concentrations characterized cultivars better than root elongation rates. This method was suitable for selection of the most resistant accessions as only cultivars Magda, Vertus, Luna, Marova out of the 25 ones formed hypocotyls at AlCl3 concentrations 16 mM.

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673-679 I. G. Loskutov
Genetic resources and main directions and results of barley and oat breeding in Russia
Abstract |

Genetic resources and main directions and results of barley and oat breeding in Russia

I. G. Loskutov

N. I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry, Bolshaya Morskaya St. 44, 190000St-Petersburg, Russia; e-mail: i.loskutov@vir.nw.ru

Abstract:

The oat and barley collections stored at the N. I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry (VIR) reflect worldwide genetic diversity. This vast array of materials undergoes comprehensive studies in the Institute’s fields and labs, and the best accessions are forwarded to Russia’s breeders. Every year dozens of genetic sources and donors produced or identified in the study process are dispatched to all national breeding centers. As a result, most of the oat cultivars currently listed in the Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation have been developed on the basis of the VIR collection or with the help of the Institute’s researchers.

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681-686 L. Narits
Effect of nitrogen rate and application time to yield and quality of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. var. oleifera subvar. biennis)
Abstract |

Effect of nitrogen rate and application time to yield and quality of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. var. oleifera subvar. biennis)

L. Narits

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute; Aamisepa 1, 48309 Jõgeva, Estonia;e-mail: Lea.Narits@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

Oilseed rape is one of the most important sources of vegetable oil in the world. Nitrogen is one of important components of oilseed rape and has strong effect on seed yield and quality. The objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of nitrogen rate and application time to yield and quality of winter oilseed rape. Field trials were carried out at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute in 2007/2008 and 2008/2009. Ammonium nitrate (nitrogen content 34.4%) was used as top-fertilizer. Three different nitrogen rates: 120, 140 and 160 kg ha-1 (in active ingredient) and three different application timings were used: A) once at the beginning of spring vegetation, B) A + when the main stem was 10 cm, C) B + start of flowering in equal portions. By the results can be concluded that the amount of fertilizer had not as strong impact to seed yield and quality as fertilizer application time. The highest yields of seed and raw oil were obtained from the variant of split-N treatment (40+40+40) of 120 kg ha-1.

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687-696 M. Olle and I. Bender
The content of oils in umbelliferous crops and its formation
Abstract |

The content of oils in umbelliferous crops and its formation

M. Olle and I. Bender

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 1. J. Aamisepa St., Jõgeva alevik, 48309 Estonia;e-mail: margit.olle@jpbi.ee, ingrid.bender@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to give an overview about content and constituents of oils found in umbelliferous crops and the conditions influencing oil content in those crops. The large family Umbelliferae is rich in essential oils. Oils play the phytosanitary role by preventing parasites and diseases from developing or by acting like selective weed-killers in order to keep the ground clean around the plant. Factors influencing oil content in umbelliferous crops are: the latitude of cultivation, the climatic and weather conditions, diurnal and annual rhythm, salinity, fertilization, irrigation, growth retardants, plant development, the plant part used, variety, harvesting and storage.

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697-704 V. Rosenberg, A. Tsahkna, K. Kotkas, T. Tähtjärv, M. Särekanno and K.Liiv
Somaclonal variation in potato meristem culture and possibility to use this phenomenon in seed potato production and breeding
Abstract |

Somaclonal variation in potato meristem culture and possibility to use this phenomenon in seed potato production and breeding

V. Rosenberg¹, A. Tsahkna², K. Kotkas¹, T. Tähtjärv², M. Särekanno¹ and K.Liiv¹

¹Department of Plant Biotechnology EVIKA, Estonian Research Institute ofAgriculture, Estonia; e-mail: v.rosenberg@evika.org
²Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, Estonia; e-mail: Aide.Tsahkna@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

Regenerated plantlets obtained through virus-eradication procedure were preserved as meristem clones in vitro. The progeny of each meristem was the basis for meristem clone. We studied somaclonal variation of meristem clones of the new potato variety Reet created at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute (PBI). The aim was to investigate the effect of thermotherapy on variability of potato meristem clones. The results showed that meristem clones differed in yield, number and weight of tubers and late blight resistance. The research provided new information about the effect of thermotherapy. For the first time we detected deviation from true-to-type in morphological characteristics of meristem clones.

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705-710 I. Skrabule, D. Grauda, A. Mikelsone and A. Vasariete
Adaptation of glycoalkaloids detection method for evaluation of Latvian potato genetic resources
Abstract |

Adaptation of glycoalkaloids detection method for evaluation of Latvian potato genetic resources

I. Skrabule¹, D. Grauda², A. Mikelsone² and A. Vasariete²

¹State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute, Zinatnes 1A, Priekuli, LV-4126, Latvia; e-mail: skrabuleilze@navigator.lv
²Institute of Biology, University of Latvia, Miera 3, Salaspils, LV-2169, Latvia; e-mail: dace@email.lubi.edu.lv

Abstract:

The glycoalkaloid content in potato tubers can be influenced by several factors: variety, weather, storage environment, maturity, damage, temperature and exposure to light. Potato varieties vary with regard to their inherited total glycoalkaloid (TGA) content. The problem in the practical use of most TGA detection methods is that they are money and time consuming. The aims of the investigation were adaptation of a rapid and rather cheap method and evaluation of TGA content of varieties included in Latvia potato genetic resources. The used method was based on three earlier elaborated protocols of different authors. 31 varieties of Latvian potato genetic resources were examined for TGA content for two years, 10 of them for three years. TGA content depending on the variety ranged from 2 till 27 mg 100 g-1 fresh weight, the variance between genotypes was high. Th e significant genotype influence on TGA content was established. The influence of growing conditions on TGA content was not significant.

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711-720 J. Slepetys
Influence of cutting and management regimes on fodder galega for forage and seed production
Abstract |

Influence of cutting and management regimes on fodder galega for forage and seed production

J. Slepetys

Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Institute of Agriculture,Instituto al. 1, Akademija, Kedainiai, LT-58344, Lithuania;e-mail: jonas.slepetys@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Field trials were designed to identify the most suitable time for the last cut and to ascertain whether it is possible to alleviate the consequences of improper timing of the cut by using the young and old sward under mixed management for forage and seed. Due to the autumn cut of the aftermath, a significant reduction in herbage dry matter yield and metabolizable energy was obtained in the first and second cuts in the following year. When autumn aftermath had been taken annually for four years, the productivity of the sward significantly declined when the cuts had been taken during the August 15 – October 15 period. The most unsuitable cutting time, when the greatest yield reduction occurred and the adverse effect of autumn aftermath cutting persisted longest, was found to be mid August – beginning of September. When the sward had been cut during the period middle August – beginning of September, a sharp, significant reduction occurred in the content of total and protein nitrogen, water-soluble carbohydrates and starch in roots. The greatest reduction in root mass in the 20 cm soil layer occurred in galega sward when it had been used for forage for four years. In the case of mixed management for forage and seed galega root mass was higher. When old sward of galega was used under mixed management for forage and seed, the negative effects of autumn aftermath cutting were alleviated or eliminated more rapidly.

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721-728 G. Statkevičiūtė and A. Leistrumaitė
Modern varieties of spring barley as a genetic resource for disease resistance breeding
Abstract |
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Modern varieties of spring barley as a genetic resource for disease resistance breeding

G. Statkevičiūtė and A. Leistrumaitė

Cereal Breeding Department, Institute of Agriculture, Lithuanian Research Centre forAgriculture and Forestry, Instituto av. 1, Akademija, Kedainiai distr., LT 58344,Lithuania; e-mail: grazinastat@lzi.lt

Abstract:

The large variation in net blotch resistance is observed among barley germplasm, but the range of European commercial cultivars of spring barley have various degree of susceptibility. This study was designed to test 150 West European ecotype spring barley varieties and breeding lines in the field for resistance to net blotch (Pyrenophora teres) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei) and to provide information for a successful resistance–breeding program in spring barley under Lithuanian conditions. The experiment was conducted at the Institute of Agriculture of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry. The effectiveness of different methods of artificial inoculation was also tested. About 50 varieties with net blotch resistance level ranging from resistant/moderately resistant to susceptible were chosen for agro-biological trait evaluation. Increased net blotch infection had a negative impact on ear length, number of spikelets and number of grains in the ear in 2007. No significant effects on these traits were found in 2009, but increased net blotch level caused significantly lower grain weight per ear. Artificial inoculation using chopped straw of susceptible varieties is more likely to give desirable effects on infection level. The varieties ‘Luokė’, ‘Otis’, ‘Anni’, ‘Landora’, ‘Beatrix’ possessed the highest resistance to net blotch, and the varieties ‘Marnie’ and ‘Isotta’ exhibited good resistance to powdery mildew. The variety ‘Acrobat’ was resistant to both diseases.

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729-734 V. Stukonis, N. Lemežienė and J. Kanapeckas
Suitability of narrow-leaved Festuca species for turf
Abstract |

Suitability of narrow-leaved Festuca species for turf

V. Stukonis, N. Lemežienė and J. Kanapeckas

Institute of Agriculture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and ForestryInstituto al. 1, Akademija, Kedainiai distr., Lithuania; e-mail: vaclovas@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Field experiments, designed for assessment of six narrow-leaved species of Festuca genus, cultivated for turf in Lithuania, were carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 2006–2008. The following parameters were estimated in the competitive trials: field germination speed, sward density, sward colour, sward green colour late in the autumn, growth in spring, re-growth after cuts and leaf width. According to the results of majority evaluated traits, the wild populations of F. pseudovina Hackel ex Wiesb., F. ovina L. and F. trachyphylla (Hack.) Krajina species are best suited for turf establishment. Other species, as F. wolgensis P. Smirnov., F. psammophila (Hack. ex Čelak.) Fritsdch. and F. sabulosa (Anddersson) H. Lindb. were less suited for turf establishment due to lower stand density and rusty sward late in autumn

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735-742 I. Tupits and P. Sooväli
The occurrence and severity of rust diseases of winter rye in Estonian climatic conditions
Abstract |

The occurrence and severity of rust diseases of winter rye in Estonian climatic conditions

I. Tupits¹⋅² and P. Sooväli¹⋅²

¹Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 1 J. Aamisepa St., 48309 Jõgeva alevik, Estonia;e-mail: Ilme.Tupits@jpbi.ee; Pille.Soovali@jpbi.ee
²Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of LifeSciences, 1a Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi St., 51014 Tartu, Estonia

Abstract:

This paper presents a six-year study (2000–2005) of rusts on 11 winter rye varieties in Estonian conditions. Environmental factors may be related to occurrence of different pathogens causing rye diseases. The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of environmental factors on the occurrence of rust diseases on rye. Visual assessments of Puccinia recondita at inflorescence emergence (GS 50) and Puccinia graminis at milk ripening stage (GS 75) under natural infection conditions were carried out. As to average of the years, trial results demonstrated quite moderate infection level in the field conditions at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute (PBI). The year’s climatic conditions had significant influence on the occurrence of stem rust. The impact of year to leaf rust was insignificant. Genotype had an insignificant effect on stem and leaf rust. Stem rust correlated highly with year and variety – R2 = 70.3%, p < 0.001. Neither year nor variety had any impact on the occurrence of leaf rust (R² = 40.6%).

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743-748 T. Univer, D. Kviklys, J. Lepsis and N. Univer
Early performance of ‘Auksis’ apple trees on dwarfing rootstocks in the Baltic region
Abstract |

Early performance of ‘Auksis’ apple trees on dwarfing rootstocks in the Baltic region

T. Univer¹, D. Kviklys², J. Lepsis³ and N. Univer¹

¹Polli Horticultural Research Centre of the Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciencesof the Estonian University of Life Sciences, Polli, 69108, Viljandimaa, Estonia; e-mail: toivo.univer@emu.ee
²Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Kauno 30, LT-54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr., Lithuania;e-mail: d.kviklys@lsdi.lt
³Pure Horticultural Research Station, Abavas 2, Pure, LV-3124, Latvia;e-mail: janis.lepsis@puresdis.lv

Abstract:

‘Auksis’ apple trees on P22, P59, P61, P62, P66, P67, PB-4, Pure 1, B.9, B.396, M.9 and M.26 rootstocks were planted in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in 2005. After five growing season, the strongest growth and the highest yield were recorded in Lithuania. The growth rate of trees on B.396, B.9, P62, P67, P66 and Pure 1 was similar to those of trees M.9. The rootstocks P22, P59 and PB-4 appeared to be more dwarfing than M.9. The highest cumulative yield of ‘Auksis’ was obtained from trees grafted on M.9, M.26, P62 and P67. The least productive were trees on PB-4 rootstock at all the places. Effects of rootstock on fruit weight were modest. Rootstock and location interaction was recorded for P61 in growth vigour control, and P22 and Pure 1 in cumulative yield.

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749-759 S. Zute, Z. Vīcupe and M. Gruntiņa
Factors influencing oat grain yield and quality under growing conditions of West Latvia
Abstract |

Factors influencing oat grain yield and quality under growing conditions of West Latvia

S. Zute, Z. Vīcupe and M. Gruntiņa

State Stende Cereals Breeding Institute, Dižstende, Talsi region, Latvia, LV-3258;e-mail: sanita.zute@stendeselekcija.lv

Abstract:

Ecological comparison of oat varieties are set up every year at the State Stende Cereals Breeding Institute, but five out of the test varieties were estimated in a longer period of time – from 1993 till 2009. For these varieties, productivity and quality indices were measured: grain yield, volume weight, 1000 grain weight, husk content, crude protein content. Meteorological conditions were characterized by two basic indices – the mean temperature and amount of precipitation in the vegetation period. Observations show that in the reporting period precipitation of the vegetation period (coefficient of variation for index variability between years was from 43.1% in June up to 55.3% in April) and mean temperature in April (coefficient of variation was 26.4%) varied most significantly. The average productivity of trial oats varied from 3.56 to 6.62 t ha-1. The most stable yields of grain in the reporting period were provided by the oat varieties Stmara and Laima (the average yields respectively 5.35 ± 0.89 and 5.83 ± 1.07 t ha-1, coefficient of variation respectively 14.9 and 17.0%). Significant, close to medium correlation was established between oat grain volume weight and mean daily temperature in May, July and August (respectively r = –0.468, 0.464 and 0.549 > r0.005 = 0.460). Relationships analyzed between oat grain yield, its quality characterizing indices and parameters characterizing meteorological conditions showed that grain yield and quality of oats in the Northwest region of Latvia were influenced mainly by rainfall in particular months of the vegetation period.

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