Volume 9 (2011)
  Special Issue II

International Scientific Conference
Food/Feed Quality, Safety and Risks in Agriculture (FLAVOURE Conference)
Tallinn, Estonia, 25 – 28 October, 2011

Conference and volume information – PDF (129 K)

Contents


Pages

383-388 S. Cerina, V. Krastina and I. Vitina
Production and Expenses of Enriched Composition Broiler Chicken Meat in Latvia
Abstract |

Production and Expenses of Enriched Composition Broiler Chicken Meat in Latvia

S. Cerina, V. Krastina and I. Vitina

Research Institute of Biotechnology and Veterinary Medicine “Sigra” of Latvia University of Agriculture, Institūta 1, Sigulda, Latvia; LV–2150, e–mail: sigra@lis.lv

Abstract:

Enriched composition of broiler chicken meat, in comparison with commercial mass production, contains increased levels of ω–6 and ω–3 fatty acids and carotenoids complex, which positively influence human health and prevent risk factors that cause various diseases. The aim of the investigations was to evaluate the possibility of obtaining an enriched composition broiler chicken meat and to evaluate the expenses of production in bio-economic aspects by using vegetable oils that contain an increased amount of ω–6 and ω–3 fatty acids level and an additive of carotenoids complex “Karotinas V”. The feeding trial was carried out with cross ROSS 308 broiler chickens ranging in age from 1–42 days (n  = 300). It was concluded that the combination of oils in broiler chicken feed for producing enriched composition meat is 1.0% flax seed, 1.0% rapeseed and 2.0% soybean oils and 0.1% carotenoids complex. Use of the composition resulted in broiler chicken meat with 27.4% ω–6 and with 8.3% ω–3 fatty acids in total lipids, which is about 3.9% and 3.2 % higher than in the commercial product. Poultry organism metabolic processes are essential factors that determine the carryover levels of fatty acids and carotenoids from feed to meat, and it is impossible to precisely evaluate and calculate these physiological processes in organisms, economically. In the trial, the expense of feed consumption per 1,000 broiler chickens was higher than by using commercial feed but increased the broiler chickens’ live weight, providing a possible 15% increase in total sales revenues for 1,000 broiler chickens. The tested combination of oils resulted in increased levels of ω–6 and ω–3 fatty acids in broiler chickens’ tissue: as a result, income was higher in the experimental group.

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389-394 I. Jansons, A. Jemeljanovs, I. H. Konosonoka, V. Sterna, B. Lujane
The Influence of Organic Acid Additive, Phytoadditive and Complex of Organic Acid Additive Phytoadditive on Pig Productivity, Meat Quality
Abstract |

The Influence of Organic Acid Additive, Phytoadditive and Complex of Organic Acid Additive Phytoadditive on Pig Productivity, Meat Quality

I. Jansons, A. Jemeljanovs, I. H. Konosonoka, V. Sterna, B. Lujane

Research Institute of Biotechnology and Veterinary Medicine “Sigra” of Latvia University of Agriculture, Instituta 1, Sigulda, Latvia, LV-2150; e-mail: sigra@lis.lv

Abstract:

A study was conducted to determine the efficiency of organic acids, phytoadditives and an organic acids and phytoadditive complex on pigs' growth processes and meat quality. Control group pigs (group 1) were fed with a complete ration (basic feed); the trial group pigs additionally received an organic acid additive (group 2), a phytoadditive (group 3), an organic acids and phytoadditive complex (group 4). The highest impact of 12% on the live weight gain of pigs was exercised by inclusion of the newly developed phytoadditive in the feed ration compared with the control group. The feed conversion ratio for pigs having received organic acid additives was by 4.2% higher, for animals having received the phytoadditive – by 8.1% and for animals having received a complex of both – by 7.45% higher than for the control group pigs where feed consumption was 3.09. The phytoadditive and the organic acids and phytoadditive complex as a pig feed supplement ensures a higher protein quality in muscle tissue, i.e., a higher nutritive value. The highest impact on the cholesterol level reduction in muscle tissue was exercised by the phytoadditive by 51.1 mg kg−1 in comparison with the control group.

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395-401 K. Kaseleht , T. Paalme and I. Nisamedtinov
Quantitative Analysis of Acetaldehyde in Foods Consumed by Children using SPME/GC-MS(Tof), On-fiber Derivatization and Deuterated Acetaldehyde as an Internal Standard
Abstract |

Quantitative Analysis of Acetaldehyde in Foods Consumed by Children using SPME/GC-MS(Tof), On-fiber Derivatization and Deuterated Acetaldehyde as an Internal Standard

K. Kaseleht¹ ², T. Paalme¹ ² and I. Nisamedtinov¹ ²

¹Department of Food Processing, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, EE12618 Tallinn, Estonia; e-mail: kristel.kaseleht@mail.ee, tpaalme@staff.ttu.ee
²Competence Center of Food and Fermentation Technologies, Akadeemia tee 15b, EE12618, Tallinn, Estonia; e-mail: inisamedtinov@lallemand.com

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to develop a precise quantitative method for acetaldehyde determination in solid food matrixes as, to the authors’ best knowledge, no such method was available. The method was applied for quantification of acetaldehyde in various foods consumed by children such as yoghurt, purees, curd creams etc. On-fiber derivatization of acetaldehyde with PFBHA was used to increase the method sensitivity and deuterated acetaldehyde was used as an internal standard for exact quantification. The article is mostly focused on method development, including sample preparation. The amount of acetaldehyde in foods was found to be rather negligible, with the highest concentration (up to 31.5 ± 0.05 mg – kg 1) detected in yoghurts.

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403-408 T. Klesment , J. Stekolštšikova and K. Laos
The Influence of Hydrocolloids on Storage Quality of 10% Dairy Fat Ice Cream
Abstract |

The Influence of Hydrocolloids on Storage Quality of 10% Dairy Fat Ice Cream

T. Klesment¹ ², J. Stekolštšikova¹ and K. Laos¹ ²

¹Competence Center of Food and Fermentation Technology, Akadeemia tee 15B, 12618, Tallinn, Estonia; e-mail: tiina.klesment@gmail.com, jelena.lillo@gmail.com
²Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 80035, Tallinn, Estonia; e-mail: katrin@tftak.eu

Abstract:

In the present study, texture and flavour attributes were used to evaluate hydrocolloids (guar gum, carrageenan, xanthan gum and locust bean gum) and their blends on the crystallization of ice cream during a 13 month storage period. Only certain stabilizers retard ice crystal growth. Guar gum and xanthan gum blends attained the better stabilizing effect, improving textural and taste quality.  Locust bean gum and carrageenan blends remarkably deteriorated ice cream shelf life.

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409-414 K. Koppel , E. Chambers IV, D. H. Chambers
Flavour and Acceptance of Estonian Cheeses
Abstract |

Flavour and Acceptance of Estonian Cheeses

K. Koppel¹ ², E. Chambers IV³, D. H. Chambers³

¹Tallinn University of Technology, Department of Food Processing, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086, Tallinn, Estonia
²Competence Center of Food and Fermentation Technologies, Akadeemia tee 15B, 12618, Tallinn, Estonia, email: kadri@tftak.eu
³The Sensory Analysis Center, Kansas State University, Justin Hall, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-1407, email: eciv@ksu.edu, delores@ksu.edu

Abstract:

The flavour and acceptance of locally manufactured cheeses in Estonia were studied. The 36 cheeses, varying in texture, manufacturing technology, fat content, and additives, were described by 32 flavour attributes. Estonian cheese was described as milky and buttery, with sweet aromatics, occasionally with biting and butyric acid aromatics. The cheeses are usually not highly aged, and thus do not have dominant astringent or bitter sensations found in cheeses from other countries. Based on a cluster analysis of the flavour of the cheeses, four were chosen for an acceptance study. One hundred and eleven consumers in Estonia tested the four cheeses. Cluster analysis of the consumers’ liking scores indicated two clusters of consumers, one cluster preferring the younger cheeses and the second cluster preferring more aged cheeses. The study provides information concerning cheese flavour and preferences in an area of Eastern Europe which has been lacking in previous literature.

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415-420 M-L. Kütt, M. Malbe and J. Stagsted
Nanostructure-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (NALDI) for Analysis of Peptides in Milk and Colostrum
Abstract |
Full text PDF (196 kB)

Nanostructure-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (NALDI) for Analysis of Peptides in Milk and Colostrum

M-L. Kütt¹⋅², M. Malbe¹ and J. Stagsted³

¹Department of Agricultural Products, Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture,Teaduse 13, EE75501 Saku, Estonia; e-mail: maryliis.kytt@eria.ee; marge.malbe@eria.ee
²Department of Food Processing, Faculty of Chemical and Materials Technology,Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia
³ Department of Food Science, Aarhus University, Blichers Allé 20, Postboks 50D K-8830 Tjele, Denmark; e-mail: Jan.Stagsted@agrsci.dk

Abstract:

Several bioactive proteins have been identified in colostrum and milk. However there are needs for development of technologies to identify and purify low molecular weight (LMW) peptides with bioactivity. The most used method is Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), but matrix suppression often prevents detection of LMW components. Our approach was to work out a suitable method for analysing small peptides in bovine milk and colostrum without extensive sample pre-treatment. Nanostructure-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (NALDI) is a matrix-free method to identify such LMW components. We also made a comparison between MALDI and NALDI for detection of peptides from colostrum samples. Our results show that NALDI provides better intensity compared with MALDI. It allows us to sequence small peptides and to identify a fragment of β-casein from the colostrum sample. Further studies are needed for comprehensive identification and characterization of LMW bioactive peptides from colostrum and milk.

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421-426 O. Läänemets, A.-H. Viira and M. Nurmet
Price, Yield, and Revenue Risk in Wheat Production in Estonia
Abstract |

Price, Yield, and Revenue Risk in Wheat Production in Estonia

O. Läänemets¹, A.-H. Viira¹ and M. Nurmet¹ ²

¹Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1A, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mails: ottlaanemets@gmail.com; ants.viira@emu.ee
²Faculty of Economics, University of Tartu; Narva Rd. 4, 51009 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: nurmet@eau.ee

Abstract:

 In recent years, price risk has been increasingly acute for Estonian cereal growers due to increased volatility of commodity prices in the world market. Price risk is especially important due to long production cycle of the cereals. Inputs for growing wheat are bought months before the harvest, but the producers are unable to affect the output price. Price volatility and yield uncertainty increase income uncertainty. In the paper we analyse wheat price and yield variability and respective impact of these on sales revenue of wheat in Estonian conditions. The results show that the variability of yields and producer price of wheat are similar, while the variance of sales revenue of wheat per hectare indicates that production and price risk cumulate.

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427-432 K. Laos , E. Kirs , R. Pall and K. Martverk
The Crystallization Behaviour of Estonian Honeys
Abstract |
Full text PDF (100 kB)

The Crystallization Behaviour of Estonian Honeys

K. Laos¹ ², E. Kirs¹ ², R. Pall¹ and K. Martverk¹

¹Department of Food Processing, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, EE12086 Tallinn, Estonia; e-mails: katrin.laos@ttu.ee; evelinkirs@gmail.com; praili@hotmail.com; kaie.martverk@ttu.ee
²Competence Center of Food and Fermentation Technologies, Akadeemia tee 15B, EE12618 Tallinn, Estonia

Abstract:

The feasibility of water activity and viscosity measurement was studied to characterize the isothermal crystallization of Estonian honeys. In parallel, samples were observed by light microscopy. The most important phenomenon for crystallization is the fructose/glucose ratio in favour of glucose. The increase in water activity and viscosity was noticed during crystallization. Polarized light microscopy was more sensitive than water activity or viscosity for determining the crystallization time.

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433-438 A. M. Méndez, D. Castillo , A. del Pozo, I. Matus, R. Morcuende
Differences in Stem Soluble Carbohydrate Contents among Recombinant Chromosome Substitution Lines (RCSLs) of Barley under Drought in a Mediterranean–type Environment
Abstract |
Full text PDF (140 kB)

Differences in Stem Soluble Carbohydrate Contents among Recombinant Chromosome Substitution Lines (RCSLs) of Barley under Drought in a Mediterranean–type Environment

A. M. Méndez¹, D. Castillo² ³, A. del Pozo², I. Matus³, R. Morcuende¹

¹Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology of Salamanca, IRNASA–CSIC, Apartado 257, 37071 Salamanca, Spain; e–mail: rosa.morcuende@irnasa.csic.es
²Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Talca, Casilla 747, Talca, Chile
³Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias CRI-Quilamapu, Casilla 426, Chillán, Chile

Abstract:

Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses that dramatically threaten the global food supply and it is becoming an increasingly severe problem in many regions of the world, mainly in Mediterranean areas and/or climates. This study investigates the effect of drought on the stem soluble carbohydrate content and its role in grain filling in different barley genotypes –four recombinant chromosome substitution lines (RCSLs) and the recurrent parent cv. Harrington, which had been growing in two contrasting Mediterranean environments in central Chile. At anthesis, drought stress increased the stem glucose and fructose contents in lines 76 and 78 and fructans in all the genotypes. At maturity, in non-stressed plants the soluble carbohydrate content in the stem decreased, suggesting a mobilization of carbohydrates from the stem into the grain. Drought increased the stem content of fructose, sucrose and fructans in all genotypes. The accumulation of fructans was higher in RCSLs as compared to Harrington, providing evidence that the introgression of the wild ancestor (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) into cv. Harrington increases the terminal drought tolerance of barley. Line 89 showed the maximal content of fructans and it could be considered as the most tolerant to terminal drought of all RCSLs. However, this genotype showed the lowest grain weight and yield, indicating that is the most susceptible line of those referred to as grain yield.

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439-442 J. Mičulis, A. Valdovska, V. Šterna and J. Zutis
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Smoked Fish and Meat
Abstract |

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Smoked Fish and Meat

J. Mičulis¹*, A. Valdovska², V. Šterna¹ and J. Zutis³

¹Research Institute of Biotechnology and Veterinary Medicine ”Sigra”, Latvia University of Agriculture, Instituta 1, LV–2150 Sigulda, Latvia; e–mail: sigra@lis.lv
²Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Latvian University of Agriculture, K. Helmana 8, LV–3004 Jelgava, Latvia, e–mail: Anda.Valdovska@llu.lv
³Meat and Milk Industry Engineering Centre, Dzirnavu 42, LV–1010 Riga, Latvia; e- mail: gpric@snmail.lv

Abstract:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH`s) can significantly influence smoked meat quality and safety. Toxicological studies on individual PAHs in animals, mainly on the PAH benzo(a)pyrene, have shown various toxicological effects. One significant source of PAHs in the human food chain is the smoking of meat and fish. Smoke not only gives special taste, colour and aroma to food, but also enhances preservation due to the dehydrating, bactericidal and antioxidant properties of smoke. Therefore the aim of our investigation was to determine the contents of PAH4 (benzo(a)antracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluorantene, chrysene) in a variety of industrially smoked meat and fish products. Results were summarized and compared with maximum acceptable levels set by Draft European Commission regulation (EC) planned to be in force beginning 1.9. 2012.

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443-450 R. Morcuende, P. Pérez, R. Martínez-Carrasco and E. Gutiérrez
Nitrogen Modulates the Diurnal Regulation of Nitrate Reductase in Wheat Plants – Projections Towards Climate Change
Abstract |

Nitrogen Modulates the Diurnal Regulation of Nitrate Reductase in Wheat Plants – Projections Towards Climate Change

R. Morcuende, P. Pérez, R. Martínez-Carrasco and E. Gutiérrez

Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology of Salamanca, IRNASA–CSIC, Apartado 257, 37071 Salamanca, Spain; e–mail: rosa.morcuende@irnasa.csic.es

Abstract:

This study investigates whether the diurnal regulation of nitrate reductase activity in the flag leaf of wheat is affected by combined increases of CO2 and temperature in the air and to ascertain whether the nitrogen supply modifies these effects. Spring wheat was grown at ambient (360 μmol mol−1) or elevated (700 μmol mol−1) CO2, under ambient and 4°C warmer temperatures, and with two levels of nitrogen supply in field temperature gradient chambers. At ear emergence, NR activity reaches a maximum in the early part of the light period and declines later in the light period and during the first part of the night. Although elevated CO2 did not increase NR activity, it led to a modification of the diurnal regulation. During the last part of the photoperiod the decline of the activity was faster in plants grown in ambient CO2, in which the accumulation of amino acids was higher. The maximum reached in the first hours of the light period in plants grown in elevated CO2 and nitrogen abundance was related to a higher accumulation of soluble carbohydrates. The dark inactivation of NR was prevented in plants grown in elevated CO2 with low nitrogen. Additionally, the higher decline of NR activation in plants grown with ample nitrogen supply and higher temperatures was related to the accumulation of amino acids. It is concluded that nitrogen plays a role in the activity and post-translational regulation of NR under the future climatic scenario.

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451-454 L. Narits
Effect of Top-fertilizing of Raw Protein and Glucosinolates Content of Winter Turnip Rape
Abstract |

Effect of Top-fertilizing of Raw Protein and Glucosinolates Content of Winter Turnip Rape

L. Narits

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, J.Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva, Estonia;
e-mail: Lea.Narits@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

Rapeseed is a major oil–yielding crop, ranking third place after soybeans and oil palm in the world. Rapeseed contains as average 36–38% crude protein and content of anti–nutritional compounds, among which glucosinolates have received the major attention. The object of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the nitrogen rate and different application times to the crude protein and glucosinolate content of winter turnip rape. The trials were carried out at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute in the 2007–08, 2008–09 and 2009–10 growing seasons. Ammonium sulfate (nitrogen content 21%, sulphur 24%) was used as top–fertilizer. Three different nitrogen rates, 120, 140 and 160 kg N ha−1 and three different application times were used: A) once at the beginning of spring growth (oilseed rape growing code 26), B) A + when the main stalk was 10 cm (code 33), C) B + start of flowering (code 60) (a total of nine different variants) in equal portions. The results indicate that the quantity of the fertilizer has not as strong an impact as application time on the glucosinolate content. The lowest glucosinolate content was obtained from the variant of one N application. The highest protein content was obtained from the variant of three times split-N.

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455-460 L. Proskina, I. Vitina, A. Jemeljanovs, V. Krastina, B. Lujane
The Use of Rapeseed-oil Cake in the Rations of Farmed Red Deer (Cervus elaphus)
Abstract |

The Use of Rapeseed-oil Cake in the Rations of Farmed Red Deer (Cervus elaphus)

L. Proskina, I. Vitina, A. Jemeljanovs, V. Krastina, B. Lujane

Abstract:

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461-468 B. Škrbić1, M. Godula2, N. Đurišić-Mladenović1 and J. Živančev1
Multi-mycotoxin Analysis by UHPLC-HESI-MS/MS: A Preliminary Survey of Serbian Wheat Flour
Abstract |
Full text PDF (149 kB)

Multi-mycotoxin Analysis by UHPLC-HESI-MS/MS: A Preliminary Survey of Serbian Wheat Flour

B. Škrbić1, M. Godula2, N. Đurišić-Mladenović1 and J. Živančev1

1Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia; e-mail: biljana@tf.uns.ac.rs; natasadjm@tf.uns.ac.rs; jelena.zivancev@tf.uns.ac.rs 2 Thermo Fisher Scientific, Prague, Czech Republic; michal.godula@thermofisher.com

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present a high throughput method for the determination of eleven  Fusarium,  Aspergillus and Penicillium mycotoxins in wheat flour from Serbia. Mycotoxins were extracted from samples by one-step solvent extraction (acetonitrile-water (86:14, v/v)) without any cleanup and directly injected into an ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography/heated electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HESI-MS/MS) system. The chromatographic separation was achieved in only 4 min. Quantification was performed by external calibration with matrix-matched standard solutions. The method recovery, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ) were determined. The developed method has been applied to the analysis of samples of wheat flour collected from Serbian local markets.

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469-472 V. Strazdina, A. Jemeljanovs, V. Sterna and V. Vjazevica
Evaluation of Protein Composition of Game Meat in Latvian Farms and Wildlife
Abstract |

Evaluation of Protein Composition of Game Meat in Latvian Farms and Wildlife

V. Strazdina, A. Jemeljanovs, V. Sterna and V. Vjazevica

Research institute of Biotechnology and Veterinary medicine ‘Sigra’ of Latvian University of Agriculture, Institute str. 1, Sigulda, LV 2150, Latvia, e-mail: sigra@lis.lv

Abstract:

The meat of wild animals is highly favourable for human health because it has lower SFA content than domestic animals but higher protein content. In recent years consumption and assortment of game meat products has significantly increased. Deer farms are being established. There have been few investigations of the biochemical composition of game meat, therefore, the aim of the investigation was to evaluate protein composition of game meat in Latvian farms and wildlife. The investigations were carried out in different regions of Latvia. The chemical analyses of 76 samples were made, i.e. wild deer (18), farm deer (12), roe deer (16), elk (18), wild boar (12) meat samples were collected after hunting in the Vidzeme and Latgale regions of Latvia. Protein, amino acids and the content of connective tissue (4-hidroxiproline) were determined in the studied samples. Protein protein ranged from 22.21–23.59%. The content of connective tissue ranged from 2.22% in elk meat up to 3.09% in roe deer. The sum of essential amino acids in game meat samples was determined from 27.06–45.70 g 100 g−1. Elk meat had the highest protein content and lowest content of connective tissues among the game meat.

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473-478 I. Stulova 1, 2 , N. Kabanova 1, 2, T. Kriščiunaite 1, 2, T.-M. Laht 1, 2 and R. Vilu 1,2
The Effect of Milk Heat Treatment on the Growth Characteristics of Lactic Acid Bacteria
Abstract |
Full text PDF (233 kB)

The Effect of Milk Heat Treatment on the Growth Characteristics of Lactic Acid Bacteria

I. Stulova 1, 2 , N. Kabanova 1, 2, T. Kriščiunaite 1, 2, T.-M. Laht 1, 2 and R. Vilu 1,2

1 Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086, Tallinn, Estonia 2 Competence Center of Food and Fermentation Technologies (CCFFT), Akadeemia tee 15B, 12618, Tallinn, Estonia; e-mails: irina.stulova@tftak.eu; natalja@tftak.eu; tiina@tftak.eu; tiiu@tftak.eu; raivo@tftak.eu

Abstract:

The ability to growth in milk is an important feature for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) used as starters for fermented milk products. Several decades ago the results of the studies varied widely: some of them showed that LAB grew better in raw milk and others demonstrated improved growth of the bacteria in heat-treated milk (Foster et al., 1952). The effectiveness of heat treatment of milk as a tool for modifying the functional properties of protein components has been extensively documented in the literature (Raikos, 2010), but the information on the influence of heat treatment of milk on the growth of LAB is not exhaustive. Peculiarities of growth of Streptococcus thermophilus ST12 and Lactobacillus paracasei S1R1 were studied using isothermal batch microcalorimeter TAMIII. Bacterial growth was monitored in pasteurized and ultra-high temperature (UHT) treated milk with different fat content, and also in reconstituted skim milk (RSM) prepared from low-heat skim milk powder (LHSMP). Heat produced during different growth stages (Qtot,  Qexp), maximal specific growth rate (μmax) and lag–phase (λ) duration were determined by processing calorimetric curves, and detailed analysis of growth of the bacteria in differently pretreated milks were carried out on the basis of these data. The results of the experiments showed that primarily heat treatment and, to a minor extent, fat content of milk influenced the growth parameters of both bacterial strains, especially Lb. paracasei, growth of which was almost completely inhibited in UHT milk.

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479-488 P. Stypinski
The Effect of Grassland-based Forages on Milk Quality and Quantity
Abstract |
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The Effect of Grassland-based Forages on Milk Quality and Quantity

P. Stypinski

Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Department of Agronomy Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland,
piotr_stypinski@sggw.pl

Abstract:

Grassland is the first land use in the agricultural areas (AA) of Europe, covering, with rangeland, 56 million ha (33% of AA in EU). Grasslands are characterized by multiple functions and values but one of the most important is forage production for ruminants. In the “grassland region” milk production is connected with grassland management and proper utilisation, whereas in other parts of Europe milk production is based on maize and concentrates. Unfortunately, grassland, particularly grazing, seems to be less important than in the past. Milk quality depends on animal feed. Milk and meat produced from grassland, particularly from botanically diverse pastures, have higher concentrations of those fatty acids and antioxidants which are considered to be of benefit to human health.

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489-494 L. Timberg1,2, K. Koppel1,2, R. Kuldjärv1,2 and T. Paalme1,2
Sensory and Chemical Properties of Baltic Sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus) and Baltic Herring (Clupea harengus membras) in Different Catching Seasons
Abstract |

Sensory and Chemical Properties of Baltic Sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus) and Baltic Herring (Clupea harengus membras) in Different Catching Seasons

L. Timberg1,2, K. Koppel1,2, R. Kuldjärv1,2 and T. Paalme1,2

1Competence Centre of Food and Fermentation Technologies, Akadeemia tee 15b, 12618 Tallinn Estonia; e-mail: loreida@tftak.eu, kadri@tftak.eu, rain@tftak.eu
2Tallinn University of Technology, Department of Food Processing, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086, Tallinn, Estonia; e-mail: tpaalme@staff.ttu.ee

Abstract:

Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus) and Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras L) are two of the most caught fish species among the Estonian seacoast fishermen, and therefore it is important to understand catching season effects on sprat and herring sensory and nutritional quality. The aim of this study was to measure and compare sensory and chemical variability of Baltic sprat and Baltic herring during different catching seasons. Batches of Baltic sprat and Baltic herring were caught from different locations in Estonian coastal waters from February 2008 until April 2009. Water content, protein content, lipid and ash content were measured. Descriptive sensory evaluation of steamed fish was conducted and results analyzed using Partial Least Squares Regression. The results suggested differentiation possibilities between fish from different seasons. The variations lie in fat and water contents, hardness, characteristic flavor and sweetness of the fish flesh.

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495-500 L. Timberg, R. Kuldjärv, K. Koppel and T.Paalme
Rainbow Trout Composition and Fatty Acid Content in Estonia
Abstract |

Rainbow Trout Composition and Fatty Acid Content in Estonia

L. Timberg¹², R. Kuldjärv¹², K. Koppel¹² and T.Paalme¹²

¹Competence Centre of Food and Fermentation Technologies, Akadeemia tee 15B, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia;
e–mail: loreida@tftak.eu; rain@tftak.eu; kadri@tftak.eu
²Tallinn University of Technology, Department of Food Processing, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia;
e–mail: tpaalme@staff.ttu.ee

Abstract:

Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is the most popular aquaculture species in Estonia. The aim of the present study was to examine and compare moisture, protein, lipid and fatty acid (FA) compositions in Rainbow trout from different fish farms in Estonia and that farmed in Finland and Norway. The total lipid content in different Rainbow trout varied more than 5.5 fold, but FA proportions were very similar in all Rainbowtrout. However, it is important to note that Estonian farmed Rainbow trout had generally lower lipid content and therefore also a lower amount of essential FAs.

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501-507 R. Vicente1,2, R. Morcuende1 and J. Babiano2
Differences in Rubisco and Chlorophyll Content among Tissues and Growth Stages in Two tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Varieties
Abstract |
Full text PDF (194 kB)

Differences in Rubisco and Chlorophyll Content among Tissues and Growth Stages in Two tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Varieties

R. Vicente1,2, R. Morcuende1 and J. Babiano2

1Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology of Salamanca, IRNASA–CSIC, Apartado 257, 37071 Salamanca, Spain; e-mails: ruben.vicente@irnasa.csic.es; rosa.morcuende@irnasa.csic.es
2University of Salamanca, Department of Plant Physiology, Campus Miguel de Unamuno, 37008 Salamanca, Spain; e-mail: babiano@usal.es

Abstract:

Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) is a key enzyme in the photosynthetic assimilation of CO2 and the most abundant leaf protein. The amounts ofchlorophyll (chl) and Rubisco have often been considered, respectively, as indices of light harvesting and Calvin cycle capacities of leaves. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in chlorophyll content and the level of Rubisco protein in various plant tissues at different growth stages in two tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) varieties. The results show an increase of the amount of both chlorophyll and Rubisco protein at vegetative growth stages (leaf expansion), which was followed by a gradual decline during anthesis, probably as a consequence of changes in the balance of their synthesis and degradation reported previously –Rubisco could be remobilized and reused in the production of reproductive structures. However, the increase in the amount of Rubisco and chlorophyll at ripening stage (more in Tres Cantos variety) contrasts with the decrease reported in other studies when degradation is becoming predominant during senescence.

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509-514 I. Vitina, V. Krastina, M. Daugavietis, J. Miculis and S. Cerina
Applying Spruce Needle Extractives in Broiler Chicken Feeding
Abstract |

Applying Spruce Needle Extractives in Broiler Chicken Feeding

I. Vitina¹, V. Krastina¹, M. Daugavietis², J. Miculis¹ and S. Cerina¹

¹Research Institute of Biotechnology and Veterinary Medicine “Sigra” of Latvia University of Agriculture, Institūta 1, Sigulda, Latvia, LV-2150; e-mail: sigra@lis.lv
²Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, Rigas 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV 2169; e-mail: inst@silava.lv

Abstract:

Spruce needle extractive substances were produced from a forestry by-product –green biomass of spruce needles. Spruce needle extracts contain a significant amount of natural biologically active substances. During our investigations the evaluation of biologically active substances from spruce needle total extract and of neutral extracts was carried out to assess their effects on innovative composition broiler chicken meat. The feeding trial was conducted with cross Ross 308 broiler chickens by adding the spruce needle total extract and, separately, neutral extract substances to the composition of broiler chickens’ diet. Using spruce needle extractive substances increased live weight on average by 4.31–7.58% (P < 0.05) and decreased feed conversion by 6.28–7.33% in comparison with the control group. The use of neutral extract substances in the poultry diet improved the composition of fatty acids, increased the amount of total carotenoids by 0.45–0.57 mg kg−1 and decreased the cholesterol level by 11.16–23.66 mg 100g−1 in meat.

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515-520 R. Vokk, T. Lõugas, K. Mets and M. Kravets
Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and Parsley (Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss) from Estonia: Seasonal Differences in Essential Oil Composition
Abstract |

Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and Parsley (Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss) from Estonia: Seasonal Differences in Essential Oil Composition

R. Vokk, T. Lõugas, K. Mets and M. Kravets

Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee ⁵, EE¹⁹0⁸⁶, Tallinn, Estonia;e-mail: raivov@hotmail.com

Abstract:

The essential oil content and composition of dill and parsley growing in summer and wintertime in Estonia were studied using the Clevenger distillation method for oil isolation and gas chromatography for identifying the extracts. Antimicrobial activity against several test microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus albus, Bacillus mesentericus and Aspergillus flavus) was studied using the zone-of-inhibition method. The essential oil yield of dried aromatic plants grown in wintertime was 0.²⁴% of dry weight for parsley, and 0.⁵⁶% for dill, and 0.²⁹% and 0.⁶⁵% for plants, grown in summer, respectively. Twenty-five (²⁵) compounds were identified representing over ⁹⁸% of the oil components of dill and dill seeds. The principal components of dill leaf oil were α-Phellandrene (⁴⁷.⁷–⁶².⁵%), myristicin (¹.⁷–²⁸.²%), dill ether (0.⁹–¹⁴.⁸%), β-phellandrene (⁷.⁴–⁷.⁵%), and limonene (³.⁷–³.⁸%). Thirty-four (³⁴) essential oil components were identified in parsley leaves (≥ ⁹⁶%) with the major constituents myristicin (³0.⁷–⁴².⁷%), β-phellandrene (²¹.⁸–³⁵.⁹%), p-¹,³,⁸-menthatriene (⁵.⁴–¹0.0%), andβ-myrcene (⁴.⁵–⁸.⁷%). Essential oils from summer grown plants possessed higher antimicrobial activity against all studied microorganisms.

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521-526 T. Yli-Mattila
Detection of Trichothecene-producing Fusarium Species in Cereals in Northern Europe and Asia
Abstract |

Detection of Trichothecene-producing Fusarium Species in Cereals in Northern Europe and Asia

T. Yli-Mattila

Molecular Plant Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.; e-mail: tymat@utu.fi

Abstract:

Several toxigenic trichothecene-producing and nonproducing Fusarium species are involved in Fusarium head blight, which reduces both crop yield and quality in cereals. Climate change has altered crop production in many countries, and this in turn influences the pathogen populations. E.g. in northern areas a risk will be new toxigenic Fusarium species spreading to the north due to higher temperatures and the increased use of alternative hosts, such as maize, winter barley and winter oats. Traditional identifications and classifications of Fusarium species have been used for grouping isolates to species and grouping species according to shared morphological and cultural characteristics. During the last years researchers have started to use alternative ways for species identification and classification based on molecular data and phylogenetic analyses. The best way to identify and classify Fusarium isolates is the polyphasic approach by using all available characters.

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