Volume 10 (2012)
  Number I - II

Contents


Pages

283-294 C.A. Bouzo and M.G. Küchen
Effect of temperature on melon development rate
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Effect of temperature on melon development rate

C.A. Bouzo* and M.G. Küchen

Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Facultad de CienciasAgrarias, Departamento deProducción Vegetal, Kreder 2805, S3080HOF Esperanza, Santa Fe, Argentina;
*Correspondence: cbouzo@arnet.com.ar

Abstract:

The effect of temperature on melon (Cucumis melo L.) development was quantified by means of a phenological model proposed for this species. A field experiment was conducted on five melon cultivars: ‘DRT’ (Charentais), ‘Ruidera’ (Piel de Sapo type), ‘Row’ (Yellow), ‘Sundew’ and ‘Max Honex’ (Honey Dew type). Air temperature data were collected in the greenhouse and the field at hourly intervals over the growing season by using two thermocouples located 0.5 m above the plants connected to a meteorological station datalogger. The simplified model for calculating Hourly Thermal Units (UTH) was used as a function of air temperature. Cardinal temperatures utilized are 10 °C, 34 °C and 45 °C for Tb (base), To (optimum) and Tx (maximum), respectively. The ∑UTH was correlated with the crop development and calculated Plastochron Interval (PI). The results identify differences in phenology of cultivars in response to temperature. The PI was significantly higher during the initial stage of growth to about five leaves with respect to subsequent stages. These results may indicate the existence of major post-transplant stress, although their causes were not studied here. The methodology used to study the temperature effect on the crop would have a tool for quantifying and predicting crop phenometry in this crop. However, this methodology may be adapted for other crop management systems.

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295-302 P. Karagkiozi, E. Oxouzi and E. Papanagiotou
Comparative socio-economic analysis of bean farms under conventional and integrated crop management
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Comparative socio-economic analysis of bean farms under conventional and integrated crop management

P. Karagkiozi¹, E. Oxouzi² and E. Papanagiotou³

¹ Department of Agricultural Economics, School of Agriculture, Box 232, Aristotle UniversityofThessaloniki,541.24,ThessalonikiGreece;e-mail: kseniakar14@yahoo.gr 2 Department of Agricultural Economics, School of Agriculture, Box 232, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541.24, Thessaloniki Greece; e-mail: oxouzi@gmail.com 3 Department of Agricultural Economics, School of Agriculture, Box 232, Aristotle UniversityofThessaloniki,541.24,ThessalonikiGreece;e-mail: papanag@agro.auth.gr Abstract. The purpose of this study is to analyze the social features of the producers and to compare the expenses, revenues and income from bean farms under conventional and integrated management. A comparison was made between average farms under integrated management and those under conventional management as to the techno-economic data and their economic results. The research was conducted in Western Macedonia, in Florina Prefecture, during 2009–10, and was based on questionnaires, which were filled in during personal interviews. The results of this research showed that the average bean farm under integrated management has slightly lower production cost and lower gross revenues compared to the average bean farm under conventional management; as a result, all the additional economic results of the farms under integrated management are lower than those of conventional management. Key words: beans, integrated management, techno-economic analysisINTRODUCTION

Abstract:

The problems created by conventional agriculture that uses pesticides andfertilizers exhausting farmlands through management systems that fail to maintain environmental balance has led to international research for alternative forms of agriculture, friendly to the environment. Consumers, too, are now searching for new quality features of products, in addition to the traditional ones, which also respect as well as environmental concerns. An alternative form of agriculture that could replace the conventional agriculture is integrated crop management (Parra-Lopez et al., 2007).Within the European Union 5.4 million hectares are cultivated under theintegrated management system (European Commission, 2008). In Greece, significant efforts have been made towards integrated crop management over the past few years. Nevertheless, integrated agriculture prevails in only a small percentage of the total farmland of approximately 29,300 hectares (Ministry of Rural Development and Food, 2010).295

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303-310 M.R. Khaledian, , J.C. Mailhol and P. Ruelle
Impacts of direct seeding into mulch on the CO2 mitigation
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Impacts of direct seeding into mulch on the CO2 mitigation

M.R. Khaledian¹, ²⋅*, J.C. Mailhol¹ and P. Ruelle¹

¹UMR G-EAU Irstea, BP 5095, 34196 Montpellier Cedex 05 France 2University of Guilan, P.O. Box 41635-1314, Rasht, Iran *Correspondence: mohammad.khaledian@irstea.fr

Abstract:

The development of agricultural systems with low energy input could help to reduce agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. Tillage consumes nearby 50% of the direct energy in a conventional tillage system (CT). Current agricultural policies seek to promote crop production systems that minimize fossil energy input for a high level of output. One possible solution can be conservation tillage, in which tillage will be reduced or even completely eliminated, such as direct seeding into mulch (DSM). Conservation tillage can both reduce diesel consumption and sequestrate C into soil, resulting in CO2 mitigation. The present study assessed the impact of DSM on CO2 mitigation compared with CT. An experimental study has been carried out at Lavalette experimental station in Montpellier in south-east France. The diesel consumption for field operations was measured in both DSM and CT. Soil C concentration was also measured. CO2 emission was calculated considering CO2 emission from diesel combustion and organic carbon variations in soil during the field trial. The results showed that using DSM resulted in less diesel consumption compared with CT (about 50%). Furthermore, DSM increased C content of soil (1,671 kg. ha-1 year-1). The consequence of these two positive impacts of DSM resulted in considerable CO2 mitigation.

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311-318 S. K. Kim, H.J. Choi, D. K. Kang, H.Y. Kim
Starch properties of native proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.)
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Starch properties of native proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.)

S. K. Kim, H.J. Choi, D. K. Kang, H.Y. Kim

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319-328 E. Kruus
Impact of trade on distribution of potato rot nematode (Ditylenchus destructor) and other plant nematodes
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Impact of trade on distribution of potato rot nematode (Ditylenchus destructor) and other plant nematodes

E. Kruus

Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of LifeSciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: eha.kruus@emu.ee

Abstract:

Scarce status reports give but little substance for convincing conclusions about the gravity of the current problem with the potato rot nematode (Ditylenchus destructor Thorne 1945). This paper reviews the international experience and presents the survey of the most recent plant nematode interception reports by member states of the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Factors influencing the distribution and invasiveness of the species are discussed. The majority of the nematode infestations were identified in consignments of bonsai or aquarium plants, originating predominantly from Asia via Western European countries. Potatoes were the most frequent nematode pathways as detected by Northern, Eastern and Southern Europe. D. destructor has been among the ten best recognised phytonematodes in the international plant trade, even though it was present only in about 3% of the nematode-related interceptions of potato lots. Seed potato has been found contaminated with Potato Cyst Nematodes on several occasions, whereas latent potato rot nematode infestation in ware potato or ornamental plants may easily be overlooked. Special research programs, including the comparative population genetic analyses are necessary to establish the natural and introduced distribution of D. destructor and substantiate creating pest free areas.

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329-334 J. Kuht, E. Reintam, L. Edesi and E. Nugis
Influence of subsoil compaction on soil physical properties and on growing conditions of barley
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Influence of subsoil compaction on soil physical properties and on growing conditions of barley

J. Kuht¹*, E. Reintam¹, L. Edesi² and E. Nugis²

¹Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; 2Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, 75501 Saku, Estonia *Correspondence: jaan.kuht@emu.ee Abstract. In 1997, 1998 and 1999 field experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of soil compaction on the soil properties and on the composition of phytocoenosis in barley fields. The field trials were completed on sandy clay Haplic Stagnosol (by WRB 2006) which is quite characteristic for Estonia, and sensitive to compaction. The results of the investigations at Eerika (near Tartu, Estonia) demonstrated a strongly negative effect of subsoil compaction on soil characteristics and were associated with the number of compaction events carried out. Furthermore, the amount of aggregates of the 0.25–7 mm decreased by 14.4%. The penetration resistance in subsoil was 1.7–2.6 times higher compared with the non-compacted area. The results indicated that adaptability of weeds on the soil degraded by excessive compaction was remarkably strong, thus increasing their competitiveness in association with barley, especially under conditions unfavourable to the plants. Key words: soil compaction, penetration resistance, water content, barley, weeds

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335-340 Iv. Palov, E. Kuzmanov, K. Sirakov, St. Stefanov andY.Neykov
Results from a preliminary research on the pre-sowing electromagnetic treatment of rape seeds
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Results from a preliminary research on the pre-sowing electromagnetic treatment of rape seeds

Iv. Palov¹, E. Kuzmanov², K. Sirakov¹, St. Stefanov¹ andY.Neykov³

¹Department of Electrical Power Engineering, University of Rousse Angel Kanchev, 8 Studentska Street, 7017 Rousse, Bulgaria; e-mail: ipalov@uni-ruse.bg; csirakov@uni-ruse.bg; stefanov@uni-ruse.bg 2Department of Automation, Information and Control Engineering, University of Rousse Angel Kanchev, 8 Studentska Street, 7017 Rousse, Bulgaria; e-mail: ekkuzmanov@ru.acad.bg 3Department of Electronics, University of Rousse Angel Kanchev, 8 Studentska Street, 7017 Rousse, Bulgaria; e-mail: yneikov@abv.bg

Abstract:

A possibility has been established to stimulate the sowing quality of rapeseeds through subjecting them to a pre-sowing treatment in an electromagnetic or electrostatic field. It has been confirmed that, after a period of rest of the seeds (up to 7 days) between treatment and sowing, a beneficial effect of the pre-sowing electric impact is observed – up to 18% increase in the length of roots and up to 22% increase of the germs. It has been determined that 21 days after the said treatment, the effect has already become suppressive. The application of increased voltage values (12kV for the electromagnetic treatment and 6 kV for the electrostatic one) has resulted in no statistically significant influence on the monitored parameters – length of roots and germs. The pre-sowing electric impact helps to obtain better nourished seedling roots and germs which have up to 25% higher mass than those of the reference seeds.

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341-350 S. Sîrbu, M. Niculaua and O. Chiriţă
Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of new sweet cherry cultivars from Iaşi, Romania
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Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of new sweet cherry cultivars from Iaşi, Romania

S. Sîrbu¹*, M. Niculaua² and O. Chiriţă³

¹ Department of Genetic and Breeding, Fruit Growing Research Station, Romanian Academy of Agriculture and Forestry, Voineşti Road, 175, Iaşi, Romania; 2 Research Centre for Oenology, Romanian Academy, Sadoveanu Alley, 9, Iaşi, Romania 3 Department of Horticultural Technologies, Faculty of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Sadoveanu Alley, 3, Iaşi, Romania *Correspondence: sorinas66@gmail.com

Abstract:

Fruit samples analyzed in this paper were harvested in 2008 and 2009 from seven new sweet cherry cultivars, namely ‘Cetăţuia’, ‘Cătălina’, ‘Bucium’, ‘Golia’, ‘Maria’, ‘Ştefan’, ‘Tereza’, as well as from the cultivar ‘Boambe de Cotnari’, which is most widespread in the Iaşi area, in North-Eastern Romania. The period from flowering to full maturity was between 56–76 days. ‘Cetăţuia’ and ‘Cătălina’ were the earliest cultivars, while ‘Boambe de Cotnari’ and ‘Maria’, the latest ripening ones. Fruit width ranged between 17.0 mm and 23.0 mm and fruit weight ranged from 3.9 g and 7.4 g, but statistical differences between ‘Boambe de Cotnari’, ‘Bucium’, and ‘Maria’ were non-significant. Soluble solids content in different cultivars was between 14.5 °Brix and 17.8 °Brix. The lowest values were recorded in ‘Golia’ and ‘Ştefan’, and the highest, in ‘Boambe de Cotnari’. The lowest values of reducing sugar content were in cultivars ‘Golia’ and ‘Bucium’ (9.5 g 100 g-1 fresh fruit), while ‘Ştefan’ and ‘Cetăţuia’ had the highest reducing sugar content (12.2 g 100 g-1 fresh fruit). Titratable acidity was between 0.5 and 0.9 g malic acid 100 g-1 fresh fruit, ‘Cătălina’ and ‘Golia’ having the lowest values, while ‘Tereza’ and ‘Bucium’ had the largest. The antioxidant capacity of fruits, expressed as mg ascorbic acid 100 mL-1 fruit’s methanolic extract, ranged between 4.2 (in ‘Bucium’) and 18.6 (in ‘Ştefan’). There was a non-significant relationship between the number of days from full bloom until fruit maturation and chemical properties.

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351-356 V. Vasileva
Nitrogen content in yield of dry aboveground and root mass of forage lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) after mineral nitrogen fertilization and water deficiency stress
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Nitrogen content in yield of dry aboveground and root mass of forage lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) after mineral nitrogen fertilization and water deficiency stress

V. Vasileva

Institute of Forage Crops, 89 ‘Gen. Vl. Vazov’ Str. 5800 Pleven, Bulgaria;e-mail: viliana.vasileva@gmail.com

Abstract:

The effect of mineral nitrogen fertilization and water deficiency stress on nitrogen content in yield in dry aboveground and root mass of forage lucerne was tested at the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria (2003-04). Mineral nitrogen fertilization at the doses of 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg N kg-1 soil was tested in pot trials. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied as ammonium nitrate. Ten-day water deficiency stress at the budding stage of lucerne was imposed by stopping the irrigation till soil moisture dropped to 37–40% FC. It was found that mineral nitrogen fertilization increased nitrogen in dry aboveground mass yield – for doses of 120 and 160 mg N kg-1 soil in the conditions of optimal moisture, by 21 and 37%; for doses of 120 and 80 mg N kg-1soil and water deficiency stress, by 12 and 14%. Mineral nitrogen fertilization had a stronger effect on nitrogen in dry root mass yield compared with that in dry aboveground mass. The negative effect of water deficiency stress on nitrogen in dry aboveground and root mass was lowest when 80 mg N kg-1was applied to the soil.

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357-372 P. Zeiger, J. Lehtsaar, M. Nurmet and T. Zeiger
Alternatives to bring company’s net assets into compliance with legislation based on Estonian examples
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Alternatives to bring company’s net assets into compliance with legislation based on Estonian examples

P. Zeiger¹, J. Lehtsaar², M. Nurmet³ and T. Zeiger⁴

¹Institute of Economic and Social Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences,Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu Estonia; e-mail: peedu.zeiger@emu.ee
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu Estonia; e-mail:jyri.lehtsaar@emu.ee
³Institute of Economic and Social Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences,Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu Estonia; e-mail: maire.nurmet@emu.ee
⁴The Estonian Information Technology College, Raja 4C, 12616 Tallinn Estonia; e-mail: taavi.zeiger@gmail.com

Abstract:

A situation may arise as a consequence of the realisation of the external and/or internal risks of a company in which the net assets of a company no longer comply with the requirements laid down by law. Net assets of a company that are not in compliance with legislation represent a situation where the liabilities of a company exceed its assets. Such a situation may threaten the sustainability of a company and its ability to meet the liabilities to its creditors.According to Estonian legislation, income tax is imposed on the refund of monetary contributions made to cover losses. Income tax is also imposed on the reconstitution of a proprietary loan as a company’s liability. Income tax is imposed on both described transactions because of the fact that in the case of these transactions, net assets are brought into compliance with requirements by means of an income statement and income tax is imposed on the later disbursement of any profit distributed.The purpose of the current paper is to compare different methods for bringing a company’s net assets into compliance with requirements laid down by law in the fastest and most cost effective way.The use of an additional reserve fund to comply with the requirements established by the company’s net assets allows for achieving the desired result within a minimum amount of time. Monetary payments made from additional reserve fund and/or reconversion of liabilities cannot be construed as profit allocations and, therefore, such payments are not subject to income tax.

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