Volume 12 (2014)
  Number 1

Journal full text: Vol 12 No 1

Contents


Pages

7-16 R. Abrahám, R. Majdan, T. Šima, J. Chrastina and J. Tulík
Increase in tractor drawbar pull using special wheels
Abstract |
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Increase in tractor drawbar pull using special wheels

R. Abrahám¹, R. Majdan¹, T. Šima²⋅*, J. Chrastina¹ and J. Tulík¹

¹Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Transport and Handling, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic 2Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Systems, 949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic; *Correspondence: tomasko.sima@gmail.com

Abstract:

The paper is aimed at the possibility of increasing in maximal drawbar pull of tractor working on the soil. The increasing in drawbar pull occurred due to a special wheels mounted on drive axle. The special wheels were equipped with auto-extensible blades and designed in Slovak university of agriculture in Nitra. The main advantage of the special wheels is the automatic extension of steel blades to increase the drawbar pull during a wheel slip and automatic return to the base position to allow the transport of tractor by the route. The testing operation points at the increase in drawbar pull resulting in decrease of wheel slip. A drawbar pull of tractor equipped with standard tires and special wheels was compared on the different soil moisture condition. The higher increasing in drawbar pull was measured during the tractor operation on the soil with higher moisture in comparison the soil with lower moisture level. In case of soil moisture 14% the increase in drawbar pull of tractor equipped with special wheels reached the value 17.2% in compare with standard tires. Using the special wheels on the same field with higher level of soil moisture 22% the increase in drawbar pull reached the value 36.1% in compare with standard tires.

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17-24 J. Ahokas and T. Jokiniemi
Light tractor simulator
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Light tractor simulator

J. Ahokas¹ and T. Jokiniemi²

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, PL 28, 00014 Helsingin yliopisto, Finland; e-mail: 1jukka.ahokas@helsinki.fi, 2tapani.jokiniemi@helsinki.fi

Abstract:

A tractor simulator was made for hard tillage work. The aim of the simulator was to have it in national language and that it is easy to use. There are tractor simulators available but they are mainly made for different conditions than we have and they are also in languages not common to our farmers. The simulator user can interactively experiment how working depth and – width, soil conditions, ballasting and driving speed effect on wheel slip, field capacity and fuel consumption l ha-1. The simulator also shows how complicated a tractor – implement system is. Because the soil conditions and implement conditions are varying there can be large scatter in the results.

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25-32 M. Arak and J. Olt
Constructive and kinematics parameters of the picking device of blueberry harvester
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Constructive and kinematics parameters of the picking device of blueberry harvester

M. Arak* and J. Olt

Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; *Correspondence: margus.arak@emu.ee

Abstract:

The article focuses on the selection of constructive and kinematics parameters of the picking device intended for picking lowbush blueberry, cultivated on milled peat fields. The constructive parameters of the picking device are reel radius, the height of the picking device’s axis of rotation from the ground, the number of picking rakes (or the displacement angle of neighbouring rakes) and the angle of inclination of rake teeth in relation to the upward direction. The kinematics parameters include the angular speed of the picking reel, the machine velocity and the kinematics number. Key words: agricultural engineering, blueberry harvester, picking reel, constructive and kinematics parameters.

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33-40 J. Barwicki, S. Gach, K. Koprysz, S. Ivanovs, A. Adamovicsand O. Valainis
Technical and economical analysis of harvesting and ensilaging of corn grain
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Technical and economical analysis of harvesting and ensilaging of corn grain

J. Barwicki¹, S. Gach², K. Koprysz², S. Ivanovs³⋅*, A. Adamovics³and O. Valainis³

¹Institute of Technology and Life Sciences in Falenty, Warsaw Branch, Warsaw, Poland 2Department of Production Engineering, Warsaw Agricultural University – SGGW, Warsaw, Poland 3Latvia University of Agriculture, Research Institute of Agricultural Machinery, Ulbroka, Latvia; *Correspondence: semjons@apollo.lv

Abstract:

Elaborated test results concerning two technologies of corn grain harvesting using grain harvesters. One technology called ZKP was using a mill crusher unit with direct filling system of a plastic bag and the other one was using a mill crusher connected to a silo press and was called ZKG. Provided research and calculations enabled evaluation of the values of critical coefficients, which were the following: unitary fuel consumption and unitary labour cost requirement. Because of different corn grain yields, these values referred to a unitary area of crop and also unitary mass of corn grain. It has been proved that the total costs of harvesting and conservation of corn grain with the technology ZKP equalled 321.83 € ha-1, but the same costs with the technology ZKG equalled 245.69 € ha-1. However, when taking into consideration the unitary mass of harvested grain, lower costs appeared with the technology ZKP at the value 21.89 € t–1 compared to the 31.02 € t–1 for the technology ZKG.

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41-58 V. Bulgakov,, V. Adamchuk, G. Kaletnik, M. Arak and J. Olt
Mathematical model of vibration digging up of root crops from soil
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Mathematical model of vibration digging up of root crops from soil

V. Bulgakov¹,*, V. Adamchuk², G. Kaletnik³, M. Arak⁴ and J. Olt⁴

¹National University of Bioresources and Nature Management of Ukraine, 15 Heroiv Oborony St., 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine; *Correspondence: vbulgakov@meta.ua 2National Scientific Centre ‘Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification’ National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine (NAASU), 11 Vokzalna St., Glevakha-1, Vasylkiv District, Kyiv Region, 08630, Ukraine 3Vinnitsa National Agrarian University, 3 Soniachna Str., 21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine 4Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia

Abstract:

A new theory of vibrational digging up of root crops from the soil has been developed. The Hamilton-Ostrogradski variational principle is used, on the basis of which we have received the differential equation of longitudinal oscillations of the root in the soil with an infinite number of degrees of freedom. Solution of the given equation provided the possibility to determine the main parameters of the tools that are used in modern beet harvesters. Key words: root crop, digging tool, vibrational digging up, variational principle, differential equation, constructive parameters.INTRODUCTION

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59-64 J. Chyba,, M. Kroulík, K. Krištof, P.A. Misiewicz and K. Chaney
Influence of soil compaction by farm machinery and livestock on water infiltration rate on grassland
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Influence of soil compaction by farm machinery and livestock on water infiltration rate on grassland

J. Chyba¹,*, M. Kroulík¹, K. Krištof², P.A. Misiewicz³ and K. Chaney³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, Prague 6 – Suchdol, 16521, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: chyba@tf.czu.cz 2Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra, Slovak Republic 3Harper Adams University, Newport, Shropshire, TF10 8NB, United Kingdom

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to investigate the rate of water infiltration into the soil under different soil compaction levels caused by livestock and farm machinery. Measurements were performed on grassland which is situated at Harper Adams University, UK. The soil type is classified as a sandy loam – Eutric Cambisols. The following treatments were evaluated: non-compacted soil, compaction by cattle hooves and compaction by tractor with trailer. Infiltration rate was measured by simplified falling-head and cone index to a depth of 0.3 m using a cone penetrometer. Results of the simplified falling-head infiltration method showed a significantly higher water infiltration rate in the non-compacted soil than the compacted soil. There was no statistical difference in the infiltration rate following compaction by cattle hooves and compaction by tractor. The mean values of water infiltration rate measured on compacted soil by cattle hooves and tractor with trailer showed 2.6% difference. The measurements of cone index showed a significant difference only in the case of compaction by cattle hooves, where a decrease of cone index values by approximately 20% in the depth from 0.15 to 0.25 m occurred. Overall it was found that the ground pressure of 200–250 kPa reduces water infiltration properties of the soil more than 80% in comparison to the non-compacted soil. Key words: cone index, saturated hydraulic conductivity, soil compaction, water infiltration rate.

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65-72 T. Hoffmann and S. Geyer
Determination of silage density in bunker silos using a radiometric method
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Determination of silage density in bunker silos using a radiometric method

T. Hoffmann* and S. Geyer

Leibniz-Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam Bornim, Max-Eyth Allee 100, 14469 Potsdam, Germany, *Correspondence: thoffmann@atb-potsdam.de

Abstract:

Wilted grass and chopped maize have to be compressed in bunker silos in order to achieve storability for high quality silage. High losses can occur if the compaction is too low. The aim of the project was to develop a measuring device to determine the density of the ensiled material during the compaction drives. The measuring method is based on the radiometric density determination by backscattered gamma-photons. Cesium Cs-137 is used as photon source. The cesium source and the detector were located in a measuring wheel, which is trailed by the compaction vehicle over the silo. In conjunction with data from a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS), the density values can be related to certain positions in the silo. An assessment of the costs and benefits showed that the radiometric measurement method is cost-effective if the number of dairy cows exceeds 135 cows. Key word: Silage, compression, radiometry, bunker silo, costs, benefits.

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73-80 D. Hoffmann, A. Rybka, M. Linda and M. Kříž
Detection of anchoring columns in low trellis
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Detection of anchoring columns in low trellis

D. Hoffmann*, A. Rybka, M. Linda and M. Kříž

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamýcká 129, 16521 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: dhoffmann@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Low trellis of hop field was emerged in the Czech Republic in the mid-nineties of the 20th century. Growing hops in a low trellis has already been tested in 1991 by Hop Research Institute Ltd. in Žatec. However, at that time, the lack of adequate (the dwarf) varieties and special techniques prevent to their expansion. For full use low trellis is necessary mechanization, that is already currently being developed. The main advantage of growing hops at low trellis is costs reduce. Some experts say cost reduction to 50%. Cost reduction is the result of simplifying the spring and harvest work (using a mobile harvester). Currently, a prototype of a mechanical cutter is tested in field conditions. Activity of mechanical cutter is now controlled directly by the tractor driver. This control of mechanical cutter (or rather inter-axle carrier on which it is cutter mounted) puts on the tractor driver too high demands on precision. Failure to comply with the conditions set comes in contact the trimming disc with anchor pillar and the mutual damage. The movement of inter-axle carrier would therefore be appropriate automatically. But at first, it is necessary to solve recognition (detection) anchoring columns of the low trellis. During the cutting of hops needed to ensure the most accurate copy of the columns by the trimming disc, to be trimmed hop vines and hops growing in close proximity (distance hops from the anchoring column is about 150 mm). The paper presents several types of sensors and describes their advantages and disadvantages. For laboratory test was developed model low trellis comprising also hop vine, at which were referred sensors tested. This article analyzes the measured results of individual sensors and it is shown, that not all sensors are suitable for this field application. In conclusion are recommendations for follow-up research.

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81-94 T. Jokiniemi, S. Jaakkola, M. Turunen and J. Ahokas
Energy consumption in different grain preservation methods
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Energy consumption in different grain preservation methods

T. Jokiniemi*, S. Jaakkola, M. Turunen and J. Ahokas

University of Helsinki, Department of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 28, 00014, University of Helsinki, Finland;
*Correspondence: tapani.jokiniemi@helsinki.fi

Abstract:

The energy consumption of hot air drying and alternative feed grain preservation methods was examined. Alternative methods were airtight preservation, acid preservation and grain crimping. The results indicate that significant energy savings can be achieved by using any of these methods instead of hot air dying for preservation of home-grown grain used for animal feeding. Remarkable differences in the energy consumption between the alternative methods were also found. Grain crimping showed the lowest energy consumption, but the effect of the used additive and especially the storage system was large. A suitable option for different farm animal species can be found among these methods, and the limitations, when they exist, are set rather by the feeding technology than the nutritive value of the preserved grain.

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95-100 M.H. Jørgensen
Adaptive tillage systems
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Adaptive tillage systems

M.H. Jørgensen

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Aalborg University, 16 Fibigerstraede, DK-9220 Aalborg, Denmark; e-mail: MHJ@m-tech.aau.dk

Abstract:

Acstract. This paper addresses the perspective of developing autonomous tillage robots. The aim is to analyze the possible perspectives in site specific tillage performed by autonomous units, including the additional effects that can be achieved by self-propelled systems in contrast to the classic tractor-tool units. In general, soil tillage can be defined with two different main purposes. One is the close-to-surface seed bed preparation for optimal conditions regarding seed germination. The deeper soil tillage normally involves other types of implements such as the chisel cultivator or the plough. For this operation, the aim is more complex, including mixing soil and organic residues, weed control and losing the soil structure. Site specific tillage has great potential. The result of the tillage operation can be improved dramatically when the intensity of the operation is adapted to the local needs. The autonomic unit will by nature be a light weight and less intensitive design compared to the traditional tractor-tool unit. This means that soil tillage by autonomic implements is also the solution for reducing soil compaction. In fact, site specific tillage has great potential gains in addition to the optimized quality of the operation; substantial energy savings can be achieved, negative soil compaction and erosion risks can be reduced, and in general, the reduced and the less intensive soil tillage will support a naturally rich micro biology life, characterized by the occurrence of worms etc. Key words: Adaptive soil tillage, agricultural engineering, implements, autonomous systems, adaptive systems, sensors.

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101-114 H. Karadöl and S. Arslan
Development of an active boom controller for field sprayers
Abstract |

Development of an active boom controller for field sprayers

H. Karadöl¹ and S. Arslan²

¹Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, 46100, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey
²Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Biosystems Engineering Department, 46100 Kahramanmaraş, Turkey,
e-mail: sarslan@ksu.edu.tr

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to develop an electronic control system to automatically control the boom of an agricultural sprayer. This paper addresses the electronic circuits and programmes used to accomplish active boom control under laboratory conditions. The boom sections were mounted on two sides of the frame in the laboratory and ultrasonic sensors were placed at the tips of boom sections. The sensors were tested at varying heights from 50 cm to 150 cm to obtain a
calibration equation correlating voltage output of the sensors to the boom
height. In the lab experiments, the calibration of the ultrasonic distance
sensors could be done with a high coefficient of determination (R2=0.999).
Both PLC and PIC programming were used to develop the
control programmes. T
he simulations of control programs were written in
PIC C and Ladder programming languages and were executed on a computer. The
sensor data were interpreted with the control programme loaded on the control
device and automatically controlled the hydraulic valves and cylinders. The
control program was programmed to neglect vertical oscillations with magnitudes
less than 3.5 cm
under laboratory conditions, which can be varied for field conditions. It was
concluded that PLC and PIC circuits could work fast enough to sample analogue
signals generated by the sensors at a forward speed of 6-8 km/h when used in real
field conditions. Further research is ongoing to adapt the system to a field
sprayer for field experiments.

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115-120 K. Krištof, T. Šima, L. Nozdrovický and P. Findura
The effect of soil tillage intensity on carbon dioxide emissions released from soil into the atmosphere
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The effect of soil tillage intensity on carbon dioxide emissions released from soil into the atmosphere

K. Krištof, T. Šima*, L. Nozdrovický and P. Findura

Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Systems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra, Slovak Republic; *Correspondence: tomasko.sima@gmail.com

Abstract:

Soil tillage is among the factors which affect the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions released from soil into the atmosphere. The objective of the study was to compare three tillage systems which overall represents the most commonly used systems. No-tillage, reduced tillage (shallow disc cultivation) performed by LEMKEN Rubin 9/600 KU disc cultivator and ploughing performed by LEMKEN EuroDiamant 8 mouldboard plough. Experimental area was divided into three replications of each tillage treatment as a randomized block design and the effect of soil tillage intensity on CO2 emissions were observed in field conditions by using ACE device (Automated Soil CO2 Exchange Station, ADC Bio-Scientific Ltd., UK). There were found an effect of soil tillage intensity on CO2 emissions released from soil into the atmosphere. Increasing tillage intensity resulted in increasing rate of CO2 emissions released from soil into the atmosphere where reduced tillage was reflected as 43% and ploughing as114% of this escalation. The results of our study supporting the more ecological effects of reduced tillage and no-tillage systems in comparison with widespread conventional systems by using mouldboard ploughs.

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121-128 Z. Kviz, M. Kroulik and J. Chyba
Soil damage reduction and more environmental friendly agriculture by using advanced machinery traffic
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Soil damage reduction and more environmental friendly agriculture by using advanced machinery traffic

Z. Kviz, M. Kroulik and J. Chyba

Department of Agricultural Machines, Technical Faculty, Czech University of Agriculture in Prague,Kamycka 129, 16521 Prague, CzechRepublic;
*Correspondence: kviz@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Nowadays, the agriculture technologies using guidance systems during field operations are more and more common all around the world. Machines without satellite navigation in fields have a tendency to pass-to-pass errors, especially unwanted overlaps, resulting in waste of fuel and pesticides, longer working times and also environmental damage. Finally, such errors can be taken as useless additional costs of farming. When utilising satellite guidance for field operations, the pass-to-pass accuracy can be significantly improved and thus it is possible to make the agriculture production more efficient. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate advantages and real possibilities of using advanced machinery guidance systems with regard to energy consumption and efficiency and also more environmental friendly agricultural operations. Real pass-to-pass errors (omissions and overlaps) in a field were measured on different tractor-implement units with and without guidance system utilization. The outcomes from our measurements revealed that there is a statistically significant difference between the total area treated by machinery without any guidance system and machinery using precise guidance systems. It means, better accuracy of machinery passes in fields with guidance systems could help with energy and material savings. Namely the fuel, seeding material or chemicals can be saved up to 6% from a single field operation.

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129-134 J. Mašek, P. Novák, M. Kroulík and J. Chyba
The quality evaluation of different soil tillage technologies
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The quality evaluation of different soil tillage technologies

J. Mašek*, P. Novák, M. Kroulík and J. Chyba

Faculty of Engineering, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 16521 Prague, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: masekj@tf.czu.cz Abstract: Soil tillage technologies are one of the most important processes having huge influence on sowing, germination, growing and yield of cultivated crops. At the same time soil tillage is one of the most consuming processes of crop production. There are lots of differences in conventional and other soil tillage technologies. Substitution of the deep cultivation based on ploughing with the technologies of shallow tillage or no tillage allows the reduction of the negative impact on the environment and decreasing of labour and energy cost for soil tillage. Described below is a field experiment based on different soil tillage technologies and its influence on soil condition. Among main research objectives are impact of different intensity soil tillage on the main physic-mechanical properties of soil and overall assessment of the technologies in terms of environmental protection. To evaluate the reliability of the achieved results the data was assessed by statistical analysis methods, using ‘Statistica’ software. In a field experiment there were evaluated two kinds of tillers typically used in conservation soil tillage technologies. Experiment was focused on working quality and influence of working tolls on soil properties. Key words: soil tillage, conservation tillage, crop residue, erosion.INTRODUCTION

Abstract:

Ways of farming change notably the structure of soils and conditions for cropsgrowing. Structure is changed by all external pressure mechanization agents, the way of fertilization, weather conditions and last but not least a very significant influence also have different way soil tillage systems, which was confirmed in study of Powers & Skidmore (1984) and Lhotsky (2000). The main goal of conservation soil tillage systems is restriction of the soil textures destruction, elimination of soil compaction and protection the soil against erosion. Minimum soil tillage includes above all summary proceedings progress cultivation (Hůla et al., 2002), that is based on jointing or reduction of the number of single operations, reduction of depth or intensity of tillage processes and soil could be tilled only in zone treatment or only in a certain soil profile layer.The constant addition of crop residues leads to an increase in the organic mattercontent of the soil. In the beginning this is limited to the top layer of the soil, but with time this will extend to deeper soil layers. Organic matter plays an important role in the soil: fertilizer use efficiency, water holding capacity, soil aggregation, rooting environment and nutrient retention, which all depend on organic matter (Johnson, 1988). Residues on the soil surface reduce the splash-effect of the raindrops, and once the energy of the raindrops has dissipated the drops proceed to the soil without any

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135-142 P. Novák, J. Chyba, F. Kumhála, and P. Procházka
Measurement of stubble cultivator draught force under different soil conditions
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Measurement of stubble cultivator draught force under different soil conditions

P. Novák¹, J. Chyba¹, F. Kumhála¹,* and P. Procházka²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ; *Correspondence: kumhala@tf.czu.cz 2BEDNAR FMT s.r.o., Lohenická 607, Prague-9 Vinoř, 19017 Prague, Czech Republic

Abstract:

Knowledge of the energy demands of the machines for soil tillage is a useful factor for machinery design as well as farm management. It was decided to measure the draught force necessary for the operation of the stubble cultivator Ecoland 4000 from BEDNAR FMT Co. The measuring set was composed as follows: pull tractor John Deere 8220 pulled by a rod in which the load cell was placed, another tractor John Deere 8345R. A cultivator type Ecoland 4000 (4 m working width) was mounted on the second pulled tractor. Measurements were carried out on two different soil types (light sandy and loamy) at operational speeds 6, 8 and 10 km h-1 and at two different adjusted depths of loosening. The soil physical properties were characterized by cone index measurements which were measured with a penetrometer PN-10 with cone angle 30° and area 100 mm2. The results showed an about 30% increase in the draught force at work in clayey soil in comparison to sandy soil. Different quality of tillage was also observed on different soil types.

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143-150 P. Novák,, M. Müller and P. Hrabě
Research of a material and structural solution in the area of conventional soil processing
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Research of a material and structural solution in the area of conventional soil processing

P. Novák¹,*, M. Müller² and P. Hrabě²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ; *Correspondence: novakpetr@tf.czu.cz 2Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Czech University of Life Science

Abstract:

Sustainability in the area of agricultural commodities production depends on soil processing. Ploughshare is one of the most strained parts of a ploughing body and huge requirements are put on it. It has to meet relatively high strength requirements on one hand and high wear resistance on the other hand. The aim of the research is to increase the service life of the ploughing body by means a structural and material solution. Increasing the service life of a ploughshare by means of overlaying is a much discussed topic. The types of overlay materials of carbides (Soudokay A43-0, OK Tubrodur 14.70, OK Tubrodur 15.82) and martensitic (Filarc PZ 6159) were used. Further, new a functional surface was distinguished for reinforcement of the ploughshare cutting edge. A method of size and mass analysis in field tests was chosen for measurements of the ploughshares service life.

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151-160 R. Pecenka, D. Ehlert and H. Lenz
Efficient harvest lines for Short Rotation Coppices (SRC) in Agriculture and Agroforestry
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Efficient harvest lines for Short Rotation Coppices (SRC) in Agriculture and Agroforestry

R. Pecenka*, D. Ehlert and H. Lenz

Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim (ATB), Max-Eyth-Allee 100, 14469 Potsdam, Germany; *Correspondence: rpecenka@atb-potsdam.de

Abstract:

Wood from short rotation coppice (SRC) such as poplar, willow and black locust is a promising option for the sustainable production of biofuels and biomaterials. Provided that production technologies, logistic chains and end user structures are well designed in farmers’ regional structures, these cropping systems may provide a secure source of income. One of the key problems at present is the lack of knowledge and powerful harvest machinery at practice. Although a lot of machines were developed and tested during the last 30 years, only a few have exceeded the prototype stage. Analysing the process chain for SRC, chip lines seem to be most cost-efficient for harvest, and the modification of forage harvesters for SRC is a promising option. But the high machine weight of forage harvesters is a serious disadvantage due to the limited trafficability of harvest plots in winter. Furthermore, for economic operation of these expensive harvest systems cultivation areas of more than 300 ha are required. Therefore, ATB has developed a simple and low weight tractor-mounted mower-chipper for medium sized standard tractors (75–150 kW) together with the company JENZ (Germany). The chipper is designed for flexible harvest of wood from SRC and Agroforestry (max. stem diameter 15 cm). The total weight of the harvester (tractor and chipper) is less than 50% of the forage harvester combination resulting in much more flexible field operation and lower harvest costs. The machine has been successfully tested in the last two harvest seasons and is on the market available now.

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161-170 K. Soots, V. Maksarov and J. Olt
Continuously adjustable berry sorter
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Continuously adjustable berry sorter

K. Soots¹*, V. Maksarov² and J. Olt¹

¹Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56,
EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; *Correspondence: kaarel.soots@emu.ee
²Department of mechanical engineering National Mineral Resource University,
Vasilevsky island, 21 Line, House 2, 199106 St-Petersburg, Russia

Abstract:

The article has indicated the principle scheme for post-harvest processing of culturalberries according to the possibilities of the developed new berry sorter. The article tackles the constructive features of the post-harvest treatment of berries as well as of the belt sorter that functions on the principle of successive sorting method. The aim of study was to evaluate the technological features of the berry sorter, based on test results, and to determine problematic assemblies in the construction of the device. Continously adjustable gaps between pulleys as new technological solution for belt sorter was tested and initial results are presented in this article with future improvements. Initial results in this article show that novel continuously adjustable berry sorter functioned satisfactorily. The properties of berry fractions produced with novel berry sorter were possible to change with short time. It was also determined that settings to ensure highest berry fraction purity need to be clarify.

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171-178 T. Šima, L. Nozdrovický, K. Krištof, M. Dubeňová and J. Krupička
Impact of the quality of work of fertiliser spreader on nitrous oxide emissions released from soil to the atmosphere
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Impact of the quality of work of fertiliser spreader on nitrous oxide emissions released from soil to the atmosphere

T. Šima¹*, L. Nozdrovický¹, K. Krištof¹, M. Dubeňová² and J. Krupička³

¹Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Systems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra, Slovak Republic; *Correspondence: tomasko.sima@gmail.com 2Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Production Engineering, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra, Slovak Republic 3Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, 16521 Prague, Czech Republic

Abstract:

Quality of work of fertiliser spreader is one of the most important factors that affect the nitrous oxide (N2O) flux from soil to the atmosphere. Calk ammonium nitrate (CAN) with 27% nitrogen content was spread by a fertiliser spreader VICON RS-L connected with a tractor ZETOR 16145 and incorporated into the soil by a power harrow PÖTTINGER LION 301 six hours after its spreading. Application rate of fertiliser was set for 200 kg ha-1. There were selected five monitoring points based on the deviations of application rate for values 172.14, 188.01, 200.68, 213.08 and 227.34 kg ha-1, which means 46.48, 50.76, 54.18, 57.53 and 61.38 kg N ha-1, respectively. Nitrous oxide emissions were measured 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after fertiliser application and incorporation into the soil by a photoacoustic field gas monitor INNOVA 1412 with a multipoint sampler INNOVA 1309. Concentration of N2O ranged from 0.4264 ppm to 1.2970 ppm. Maximum values were measured 21 days after fertilisation for each variant of the experiment. Based on the data obtained, there were found statistically significant differences among time intervals and among the size of deviations of the application rate at a 95.0% confidence level. Results have shown an impact of the 6% deviation (21 days after fertilisation) and 13.7% deviation (14 and 28 days after fertilisation) from the size of fertiliser application rate on nitrous oxide flux from soil to the atmosphere. There were also found the effects of time interval on nitrous oxide flux from soil to the atmosphere for each of the time intervals 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after fertilisation.

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179-186 T. Šima,, L. Nozdrovický, K. Krištof, M. Dubeňová and J. Krupička
The effect of nitrification inhibitors on nitrous oxide flux from haplic luvisol soil of DASA® 26/13 and ENSIN® fertilisers in a laboratory experiment
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The effect of nitrification inhibitors on nitrous oxide flux from haplic luvisol soil of DASA® 26/13 and ENSIN® fertilisers in a laboratory experiment

T. Šima¹,*, L. Nozdrovický¹, K. Krištof¹, M. Dubeňová² and J. Krupička³

¹Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Systems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra, Slovak Republic; *Correspondence: tomasko.sima@gmail.com 2Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Production Engineering, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra, Slovak Republic 3Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, 16521 Prague, Czech Republic

Abstract:

The aim of the paper was to compare the effects of two very similar fertilisers on nitrous oxide (N2O) flux from soil to the atmosphere in laboratory conditions. The following fertilisers were used: granulated nitrogenous fertiliser DASA® 26/13 with the nitrogen content of 26%, sulphur content of 13%, and nitrogen fertiliser ENSIN® with the nitrogen content of 26%, sulphur content of 13% and nitrification inhibitors dicyandiamide DCD and 1, 2, 4-triazole (TZ). Both fertilisers are produced by the same manufacturer, DUSLO, Inc., Šala, Slovakia. For both fertilisers, there variants of experiments were carried out for application rates equivalent to 0, 250 and 500 kg ha-1. The amount of the N2O emissions released from soil to the atmosphere was measured by a photo-acoustic field gas monitor INNOVA 1412 connected to a multipoint sampler INNOVA 1309. The experiments were conducted for 30 days in laboratory conditions. The fertiliser was incorporated into the soil in sampling tubes to a depth of 80 mm after 24 hours of measurement. Subsequently, after every 24 hours of measurement, another 48 hours was carried out, and this measuring cycle was repeated 10 times. The results of our experiment have confirmed that the fertiliser application rate and type of the fertiliser used have a significant effect on N2O flux and have confirmed the importance of accurate and uniform application of fertilisers in field conditions in order to eliminate the negative environmental effects.

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187-196 F. Varga, Z. Tkáč, T. Šima, Ľ. Hujo, J. Kosiba and D. Uhrinová
Measurement of soil resistance by using a horizontal penetrometer working with the two-argument comparative method
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Measurement of soil resistance by using a horizontal penetrometer working with the two-argument comparative method

F. Varga¹, Z. Tkáč¹, T. Šima²⋅*, Ľ. Hujo¹, J. Kosiba¹ and D. Uhrinová¹

¹Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Transport and Handling, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic 2Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Systems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra, Slovak Republic; *Correspondent author: tomasko.sima@gmail.com

Abstract:

Currently, the interest in land is high and is increased by in relation to the increasing need for livelihood of the population. Therefore, the need for land use to increase its potential production while ensuring a sustained recovery of agricultural systems still exists. The aim of this publication is to test the measurement of the soil resistance impact at different levels of humidity using a newly designed type of a measuring device – a horizontal penetrometer. The measurements were carried out under field conditions by average soil moisture of 8.47% and 14.24%, on the basis of the two parameters comparative method by using a horizontal penetrometer. The proposed measuring device measured the soil resistance in the tire track and outside of the track after five passages of the tractor. Measuring and recording devices to capture the measured values were also designed. From the results, we can indicate that the soil resistance after each passage increases and we also observed that after the first passage, the soil resistance increased by about 48.1% compared to the initial soil resistance. The average soil bulk density corresponds proportionally with the soil resistance increases in both the absolute and relative terms, depending on the number of tractor passages. It is possible to conclude that the newly designed measuring device is working properly and can be used for all types of tractors equipped with a three-point hitch with the tire tread width of 1,000–2,000 mm. The measurement results will be utilized in mapping of the actual conditions of soil environment.

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197-204 L. Vent and A. Rybka
Storage technologies of picked hops during harvest
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Storage technologies of picked hops during harvest

L. Vent* and A. Rybka

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamýcká 129, Praha 6 – Suchdol, Postcode 16521, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: lvent@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

To prevent interrupting the process of drying or picking due to lack or surplus of hops coming out of picking line, in most cases there is placed a storage container as a capacity equipment. In a container, however, hops are layered, thus temperature and relative humidity increase owing to an increased intensity of hop cones breathing and an insufficient airing, i.e. they mowburn. In the process of breathing a cone loses important substances which results in its worse quality and correspondingly in worse quality of the final product. This work builds on research from 2011. There were monitored changes of physical characteristic of picked hops during storage in container and compared with control variant. This aim of this work is to compare different storage technologies of picked hop in the container. There was a three variants. The control variant was a common stack with a perforated bottom. The second variant was a stack with active ventilation by electric fan. The third variant was a covered stack with passive air circulation. Al stacks had one cubic volume. Data of temperature and relative humidity were continually recorded by MINIKIN TH measuring equipment by EMS Brno company. Another analogue sensors to measure relative humidity and temperature were independently installed for check. The monitoring was each time carried out for 24 hours. Next there were collected a samples for laboratory analysis for product quality. During storage both the temperature and relative humidity of the control variant increased substantially, with temperature values reaching up to 41°C and relative humidity values 100%. The progress of temperatures was almost identical with all the measurements, that is why we present only the average values. The relative humidity of active ventilated variant increased up to 100% but temperature only up to 15°C. The values of humidity of passive ventilated variant were the same (100%) but values of temperature were lower instead of control variant. The highest measured temperature was about 22°C. The conclusion we may draw here says that the best way is passive air circulation. The lowest temperature was measured at variant with fan and it is most important for storage quality of hops but this variant is more expensive due to electric power.

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207-214 M. Dubeňová, T. Šima, R. Gálik, Š. Mihina, G. Vagač and Š. Boďo
Reduction of nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide in the pig barn piggery by different ventilation system intensities
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Reduction of nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide in the pig barn piggery by different ventilation system intensities

M. Dubeňová¹, T. Šima²⋅*, R. Gálik¹, Š. Mihina¹, G. Vagač³ and Š. Boďo¹

¹Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Production Engineering, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra, Slovak Republic 2Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Systems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra, Slovak Republic; *Correspondence: tomasko.sima@gmail.com 3Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Department of Animal Husbandry, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra, Slovak Republic

Abstract:

Agriculture, especially animal production, is one of the most important factors influencing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and causing global warming. The ventilation system in a piggery has a significant impact to carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations. The concentrations of these gases in pig housing also affect the air quality and welfare of animals. The aim of the paper was to analyze the effect of ventilation system intensity on the concentration of CO2 and N2O in a piggery. An experiment was carried out at the Experimental Centre for Livestock at the Department of Animal Husbandry, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Slovakia. The concentrations were measured by a photoacoustic field gas monitor INNOVA 1412 connected to a multipoint sampler INNOVA 1309. Three levels of ventilation system intensity were used: low, medium and high. Fattening pigs, the Large White breed were housed in the piggery. For our experiment, three sensors were used inside and two sensors outside the barn. Based on the gathered data, statistically significant differences were found between different ventilation system intensities at a 95.0% confidence level. The concentration of gases fluctuates during day time interval and, based on the results, it is possible to set up a ventilation system intensity to create the best possible air quality in a building for pigs.

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215-222 M. Gaworski, and A. Leola
Effect of technical and biological potential on dairy production development
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Effect of technical and biological potential on dairy production development

M. Gaworski¹,* and A. Leola²

¹Department of Production Management and Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska str. 164, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland; *Correspondence: marek_gaworski@sggw.pl 2Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia

Abstract:

Dairy production ranks among the most important agricultural activities in many European countries. The general potential of dairy production is created by technical, biological, economic and technological potential. Each unit potential decides about global effectiveness of dairy production including farm as well as national scale. The paper aimed at analyzing importance of some potential in the dairy production development. The significance of technical and biological potential in the dairy production development was indicated, taking into account data coming from Estonian and Polish farms as well as national dairy production systems in two European countries.

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223-230 E. Kokin,, J. Praks, I. Veermäe, V. Poikalainen and M. Vallas
IceTag3D™ accelerometric device in cattle lameness detection
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IceTag3D™ accelerometric device in cattle lameness detection

E. Kokin¹,*, J. Praks², I. Veermäe², V. Poikalainen² and M. Vallas²

¹Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; *Correspondence: eugen.kokin@emu.ee 2Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia

Abstract:

The objective of the pilot study was to evaluate the possibility of using IceTag3D™ accelerometric device for the early detection of lame cows in dairy herd. The measurements were carried out in the experimental cowshed of Estonian University of Life Sciences in the free-stall section with milking parlour. The time the cow spent lying and standing, number of lying bouts, step count and the motion index of 33 dairy cows (14 lame and 19 sound cows) was registered during 15 days period. The measurements confirmed that the lame cows stand and move less than sound animals. As the same trend was in force for older cows it was impossible to differentiate the influence of lameness and age. To clarify the inequality in activity between lame and sound rear legs both legs of lame cows were equipped with loggers (eight cows). Great difference in recordings of diseased and healthy leg lying bouts (ratio 2.47) indicates that this parameter may be one possibility to identify leg disorders. However, further investigations are needed to synchronize video- and IceTag recordings and identify threshold values.

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231-236 A. Saliņš, J. Priekulis and A. Laurs
Fodder feeding peculiarities when introducing the VMS automatized cow milking system
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Fodder feeding peculiarities when introducing the VMS automatized cow milking system

A. Saliņš*, J. Priekulis and A. Laurs

Faculty of Engineering, Latvia University of Agriculture, J. Čakstes bulv.5, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia; *Correspondence: ansis.salins@gmail.com

Abstract:

The research concerns fodder distribution solutions for cows which are milked using the VMS robotised equipment produced by the company DeLaval. The research is conducted at the milking cow farm ‘Līgotnes’ of the Latvia University of Agriculture study and research farm ‘Vecauce’. In the research, cattle-shed cows receive fodder in three different places: together with the basic feed mixture while eating at the feeding table, in the robotised milking stand and at the fodder feeding stations. The research has stated that this feeding system is rational. Adding fodder to feed mixture (about 10% of its mass) is necessary as it improves the feed mixture taste qualities. Hence, it increases the consumption of this mixture and also the cow yield. If fodder is not added to the mixture, the productivity of highly productive cows deteriorates and can decrease by 10%. Moreover, we can add to basic feed mixture fodder prepared at the farm using the grains grown there. Usually, such fodder is cheaper than the bought one, and therefore decreases the prime cost of the milk. Fodder is also fed also in the robotised cow milking stands as such an approach stimulates cows to visit the milking stands more frequently. But during the research we found that highly productive cows with the yield exceeding 30 kg per day do not manage to eat all the due fodder amount during milking. Therefore, fodder feeding stations are necessary for feeding of highly productive cows. They shall be placed after the sorting gates so that the cows that are not directed to milking by the automatic sorting system could visit the fodder stations. Moreover, the number of fodder feeding stations per one cow milking group should not be less than two.

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237-244 M. Zajicek, and P. Kic
Heating of large agricultural and industrial buildings
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Heating of large agricultural and industrial buildings

M. Zajicek¹,* and P. Kic²

¹Institute of Information Theory and Automation, The Academy of Science of The Czech Republic, v.v.i.; *Correspondence: zajicek@utia.cas.cz 2Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Czech Republic

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of the simulation calculations used in the selection and design of an appropriate method of heating of large buildings for agricultural or industrial purposes. These halls are characterized by a large built-up area, large room height and high consumption of energy for heating. The aim of the simulation calculation was to find a way of heating, which leads to a reduction in energy consumption while maintaining the required thermal comfort of indoor environment. The calculations were performed using the CFD software ANSYS-Fluent. For comparison of variants, a 3D model was used, including a heat source, natural convection and heat transfer through surrounding structures. The results of the thermal comfort of the working environment in the level of people or the growing zone of plants or the storage space for goods were mainly studied. The second area of interior space, especially important in terms of heat losses, is the level of the ceiling. The results of the calculations provide a detailed analysis of the vertical temperature profiles and the effect of the surrounding walls surface temperature on the thermal state of an indoor environment. The created model was verified according to the results of experiments in large buildings equipped with different heating systems. Based on the results of the simulation calculations and according to the results of experimental measurements, radiant heating method seems to be the suitable heating system solution for studied types of buildings.

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247-254 R. Chotěborský, and M. Linda
Evaluation of friction force using a rubber wheel instrument
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Evaluation of friction force using a rubber wheel instrument

R. Chotěborský¹,* and M. Linda²

¹Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 129, 6521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: choteborsky@tf.czu.cz 2 Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Faculty of Engineering, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 129, 16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic

Abstract:

Abrasive wear is the most important process for innovation of new materials in agriculture. The method depends on the internal (the microstructure of the abraded material) and external (characteristic of the abrasive particle, force, etc.) conditions. A modified rubber wheel instrument based on the ASTM G65 procedure was used to obtain the study results. The results showed that the friction between an abrasive particle and abraded material was influenced by the microstructure of the abraded material and this relationship can be used for abrasive wear evaluation. The study result also showed that the limitation of using the rubber wheel method was the natural frequency of the system. In this study, the natural frequency was found to be 200 Hz, which is useful for elimination of the algorithm for frequency and amplitude during wear analysis.

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255-262 G. Civcisa and A. Grislis
ISO/TS 16949 among Latvian production companies focused on automotive industry
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ISO/TS 16949 among Latvian production companies focused on automotive industry

G. Civcisa¹* and A. Grislis²

¹Riga Technical University, Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Ezermalas 6k, LV 1006, Riga, Latvia; *Correspondence: guna.civcisa@rtu.lv 2Riga Technical University, Institute of Road Transport, Ezermalas 6k, LV 1006, Riga, Latvia

Abstract:

Nowadays vehicle spare parts and materials manufacturers more than ever need a system approach which makes it possible to become a part of global supply-chain in the automotive industry. Such system approach could be implemented by developing a quality management system. The ISO/TS 16949 is particular requirements for the application of ISO 9001:2008 for automotive and automotive–related products production. The aim of this study is to analyze the diffusion of certified quality management systems ISO/TS 16949 and ISO 9001. The ISO survey of certifications has been a source for the analysis conducted for the data within a four–year period. Three main topics are discussed in this paper: the ISO 9001 and ISO/TS 16949 certificates diffusion in the world and in Latvia; the fundamental requirements in the ISO/TS 16949; an applicable tool for reviewing customer complaints in automotive production. This study has been focused on automotive industry therefore it highlights issues relating to industry–specific standard.

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263-268 T. Leemet,, J. Allas, M. Madissoo, E. Adoberg and R. Saar
Testing a method for evaluating the performance of coatings on end mills in semi-industrial conditions
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Testing a method for evaluating the performance of coatings on end mills in semi-industrial conditions

T. Leemet¹,*, J. Allas¹, M. Madissoo¹, E. Adoberg² and R. Saar³

¹Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; *Correspondence: Tonu.Leemet@emu.ee 2 Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia 3Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, EE19086 Tallinn, Estonia

Abstract:

Milling remains as one of the most versatile machining operation in manufacturing. Machine tools with several axis of movement and precise numerical controls are able to manufacture complex geometries for medical implants, parts needed in space technology etc. The quality of the workpiece and the cost of manufacturing are influenced by many factors, tool selection being one with considerable impact. Depending on the specific type of milling operation and the material of the billet, the coating of the cutting tool can have a significant influence to quality and cost of the process. In this study an attempt is made to develop a methodology for relatively simple but effective means for evaluating the suitability of a coating for a particular milling operation. Flank wear width is generally recognized as the key indicator for tool life criteria. Relatively complex geometry of the end mill makes the flank wear measurements somewhat difficult. In practice several other indication of tool wear are used: changes in the spectra and volume level of the sound emitted from the cutting process, shape and color of the chips, quality of the manufactured surface and the presence of the burrs. In this work the flank wear measurements by optical measurements are analyzed and reasoned, additional information is found by scanning electron microscopy. Three industrial PVD coatings – TiAlN, naCo and nACro were tested.

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269-278 V. Maksarov, A. Khalimonenko and D. Timofeev
Machining quality when lathing blanks with ceramic cutting tools
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Machining quality when lathing blanks with ceramic cutting tools

V. Maksarov*, A. Khalimonenko and D. Timofeev

Department of mechanical engineering National Mineral Resource University, Vasilevsky island, 21 Line, House 2, 199106 St-Petersburg, Russia; *Correspondent: maks78.54@mail.ru

Abstract:

The article deals with the problems of improving quality of parts machined on lathe type machine tools. Improvements are suggested by predicting the operability (tool life parameter) of cutting tools equipped with replaceable ceramic inserts. It is proposed to forecast the operability of ceramic tools on the ground of relation between operational characteristics of the ceramic and microstructural parameters of the ceramic material. Microstructural parameters of ceramic inserts are determined by non-destructive testing method, evaluating them by estimating the specific electric resistance of the material. As a result of research, a relation has been detected between operability of the inserts and the specific electric resistance of the insert material. Obtained results permit one to determine the stability range borders for lathing blanks with tools equipped by ceramic cutting inserts and to predict flawless work.

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279-284 V. Mironovs, M. Lisicins, I. Boiko, T. Koppel, V. Zemchenkovs,V. Lapkovskis, and A. Shishkin
Cellular structures from perforated metallic tape and its application for electromagnetic shielding solutions
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Cellular structures from perforated metallic tape and its application for electromagnetic shielding solutions

V. Mironovs¹, M. Lisicins¹, I. Boiko²⋅*, T. Koppel³, V. Zemchenkovs¹,V. Lapkovskis¹,* and A. Shishkin¹

¹Riga Technical University, Laboratory of Powder Materials, Azenes 16/20, LV-1048, Riga, Latvia 2Riga Technical University, Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Ezermalas 6k, LV-1006, Riga, Latvia; *Correspondence: irina.boiko@rtu.lv 3Tallinn University of Technology, Chair of Working Environment and Protection, Ehitajate tee 5, EE19086, Tallinn, Estonia

Abstract:

The current study is devoted to the manufacturing of cellular structures from perforated steel tapes, which are obtained as a waste during stamping of fine-sized details. Obtained cellular structures can be used for electromagnetic shielding solutions. The relevance of the current study can be characterized as in modern working and living environments there is an increasing need for electromagnetic shielding solutions. This need can be based on several points of view: 1) a need to protect workers from electromagnetic fields (EMFs) generated by working machinery, 2) a need to protect sensitive electronic devices from the surrounding EMFs, 3) minimizing health risk from EMFs in the living areas (high tension power lines, power transformers etc), 4) counter-espionage applications (preventing electronic surveillance). Besides, the recycling of metal wastes is one of the significant modern tasks of the industry. The different methods of manufacturing of protective shield from perforated materials by profiling and welding are studied. The methodology for manufacturing of lightweight and reliable (including strength and corrosion resistance) protective shield is elaborated and offered. The main directions for using of such protective shield are the following: protection from electromagnetic fields, solar radiation and noise. This study undertook shielding efficiency measurements in a controlled environment. Test materials were irradiated with various electromagnetic fields: 1) low frequency magnetic field, 2) low frequency electric field and 3) high frequency electromagnetic field. The results showed great differences in between different test samples. The best shielding factor was obtained with the samples where the electromagnetic absorbing material was thickest. Key words: perforated metallic waste, cellular structures, profiling, welding, electromagnetic fields, shielding.INTRODUCTION

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285-290 M. Müller and P. Valášek
The logistics aspects influencing the resultant strength of adhesives at practical application
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The logistics aspects influencing the resultant strength of adhesives at practical application

M. Müller* and P. Valášek

Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Czech University of Life Science, Kamýcká 129, 16521 Prague, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: muller@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Practical application of construction adhesives is required under various climatic conditions and in various environments. The temperature of an environment alone is regarded a limiting factor from the logistics point of view influencing the effectiveness of subsequent application, namely in winter months. The aim of the experimental part is to define the influence of temperature as an essential logistics factor subsequently influencing the resultant strength of the adhesive bond at its application. Further, redress of adhesives properties after extreme temperatures of storing, transit, etc. was investigated. Higher temperatures reached during the logistics flows negatively influence the adhesive bond strength. The temperature also influences change in the failure area.

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291-298 P. Valášek and M. Müller
EPDM rubber material utilization in epoxy composite systems
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EPDM rubber material utilization in epoxy composite systems

P. Valášek* and M. Müller

¹Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, Prague; *Correspondence: valasekp@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Observing of possibilities for secondary raw materials utilization should rank among the key interests of the society. Nowadays, there are a lot of modern workplaces which are devoted to the possibilities of collecting, processing and using rubber materials. EPDM waste rubber in the form of particles is one of the many products of these workplaces. One of the possibilities for recycling this waste particles material is their interaction with another polymeric material. A reactoplastic which is filled with these particles comes into consideration. This way of utilization of the material is inexpensive and simple. The paper focuses on chosen mechanical qualities of the Epoxy/EPDM waste rubber composite. The waste rubber was gained as one of the outputs of a recycling line of the firm Gumoeko, Ltd., the reactoplastic was represented by a two-component epoxy resin. Distraction of rubber particles in the epoxy matrix was achieved by mechanical mixing without using the technology of vacuum. In the paper, the porosity, tensile strength and shear strength of the composites with various concentrations of EPDM are described. The resulting composite systems may find their application in the field of agriculture – especially during joining and sealing materials of larger units where high quality connections are not required.

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