Volume 13 (2015)
  Number 1

Journal full text: Vol 13 No 1

Contents


Pages

7-16 L.M. Abenavoli and A.R. Proto
Effects of the divers olive harvesting systems on oil quality
Abstract |

Effects of the divers olive harvesting systems on oil quality

L.M. Abenavoli* and A.R. Proto

Department of AGRARIA, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, Italy; *Correspondence: laben@unirc.it

Abstract:

Three olives harvesting systems from the tree have been compared (manual, facilitated and mechanical) through experimental trials carried out respectively in three plots of a Calabrian olive orchard in the Province of Crotone. The grove is traditional and monovarietal, composed of Carolea cultivar with a planting density of about 150 plants ha-1. In this study, work productivity in three divers sites where harvesting was achieved according to different systems has been examined, as well as their effects on produced oil quality. Olives have been harvested by mean of sticks and nets in the manual harvesting (system I), by mechanical aids and nets in the facilitated harvesting (system II), and finally, by mean of trunk shaker and nets in mechanical harvesting (system III).The different work sites have been examined in terms of work productivity, as well as in terms of impact on final product quality, through the withdrawal of a series of oil samples extracted separately and analyzed in laboratory. From the effectuated trials, it has emerged that the site operating with mechanical harvesting has achieved the best results, both from quantitative and qualitative points of view. Indeed, olives harvested mechanically, certainly more intact than those harvested with other systems, produced oil with the best organoleptic parameters.

Key words:

, ,




17-24 Z. Aleš, J. Pavlů and V. Jurča
Maintenance interval optimization based on fuel consumption data via GPS monitoring
Abstract |
Full text PDF (316 kB)

Maintenance interval optimization based on fuel consumption data via GPS monitoring

Z. Aleš, J. Pavlů* and V. Jurča

Faculty of Engineering, CULS-Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: jindrichpavlu@seznam.cz

Abstract:

Properly performed preventive maintenance is one of the basic conditions for ensuring the operability of the mobile machines. There are basically two types of preventive maintenance: scheduled maintenance with pre-determined intervals and maintenance by the technical state. Common practice shows that maintenance intervals are often determined only by a qualified estimate of the machine manufacturer or maintenance manager, which results in costs increase. The authors proposed new method of using the modern technology of Global Positioning System, in order to reduce costs of preventive maintenance. Mentioned technologies allow users to monitor a number of operational parameters of mobile machinery in real time. Collected data obtained from the operation can be used for decision-making of maintenance activities. For ensuring the availability of mobile machinery it is important to determine the optimal maintenance interval. The authors proposed method for using data from satellite monitoring using the criterial function in order to determine the optimal interval for performing preventive maintenance. Proposed method is demonstrated on the example of accurate determination of preventive maintenance intervals for several mobile machines. Using data from satellite monitoring and subsequent data processing contribute to better maintenance planning and consequently to economical operation. Key words: maintenance interval, preventive maintenance, maintenance costs, satellite monitoring.

Key words:




25-32 L. Beneš, P. Heřmánek and P. Novák
Determination of power loss of combine harvester travel gear
Abstract |
Full text PDF (352 kB)

Determination of power loss of combine harvester travel gear

L. Beneš*, P. Heřmánek and P. Novák

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of
Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic;
*Correspondence: benesl@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This contribution aims at determining the power loss in hydraulic circuits of the John
Deere S680i combine harvester travel gear. The individual elements of the circuit were measured,
followed by an energy intensity analysis. The analysis includes the calculation of pressure losses
in direct piping, local resistance, as well as pressure losses in the individual elements of the
circuit. Subsequently, power loss was calculated based on pressure losses. In the case of the John
Deere S680i combine harvester, the power loss equals 16.95 kW.

Key words:

, , ,




33-45 V. Bulgakov, V. Adamchuk, J. Olt and D. Orszaghova
Use of Euler equations in research into three-dimensional oscillations of sugar beet root during its vibration-assisted lifting
Abstract |
Full text PDF (523 kB)

Use of Euler equations in research into three-dimensional oscillations of sugar beet root during its vibration-assisted lifting

V. Bulgakov¹, V. Adamchuk², J. Olt³⋅* and D. Orszaghova⁴

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15, Heroyiv Oborony Str., 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²National Scientific Centre ‘Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification’, 11, Vokzalna Str., Glevaкha-1, Vasylkiv District, 08631 Kiev Region, Ukraine
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; *Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee
⁴Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, 2, Trieda Andreja Hlinku, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia

Abstract:

Following the results of the research into the physical process of the vibratory interaction between the digging tool and the beet root, it has been found that the latter, while standing in soil, i.e. amid an elastic medium, has strong attachment to the soil in its lower (the densest and driest) part, which virtually implies one conventional fixed point. This finding provides the basis for examination of the three-dimensional motion of the beet root’s body during its lifting from the ground in case of its asymmetric interaction with one of the shares of the vibrating digging tool. We have studied the gyration of the beet root’s body about a point initiated by its interaction with the inclined face of the vibrating digging tool share that makes oscillatory movements in the longitudinal vertical plane. The aim of the study is to establish the values of the angular displacements of the root’s body at the moment of its getting in asymmetric contact with the vibrating digging tool followed by the breaking of its bonds with the surrounding elastic medium, i.e. to develop a new mathematical model of the vibration-assisted digging of a beet root out of the soil. Basing on the use of the original equations of Euler, a new differential equation system has been obtained, which facilitates the analytical treatment of the mentioned work process. That system of differential equations for the three-dimensional oscillations of the root caused by the action of a perturbing force comprises three dynamic and three kinematic equations. It is a determined system, which makes possible its solution, i.e. the numerical modelling of the process of root lifting from the ground under different digging conditions, because it includes all necessary parameters of the vibrating digging tool, the sugar beet root and the soil surrounding it.

Key words:

, , , ,




46-52 J. Čedík,, M. Pexa, R. Pražan, K. Kubín and J. Vondřička
Mulcher energy intensity measurement in dependence on performance
Abstract |
Full text PDF (236 kB)

Mulcher energy intensity measurement in dependence on performance

J. Čedík¹,*, M. Pexa¹, R. Pražan², K. Kubín² and J. Vondřička¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamycka 129, 16521, Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i., Drnovská 507, 16101, Prague 6, Czech Republic *Correspondence: cedikj@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Conventional impact grass cutting and chopping is energy intensive and therefore it is important to reduce energy demands of such a device. In the paper the energy demands of three-rotor mulcher with vertical axis of rotation was measured and analyzed in dependence on the mass performance of the mulcher. Different mass performance was achieved by different ground speed and yield of the grass cover. The measurement was performed on clover-grass meadow hay, from which the samples were taken and analyzed in order to determine the yield and moisture content of the vegetation. The results showed relatively high energy demands of the mulcher. In dependence on the mass performance of the mulcher it is necessary to deliver in average 10.4–22.6 kW m-1 of the width of the machine. Specific energy consumption varied in average from 3.35 to 6.34 kWh t-1 of the processed material and unit fuel consumption varied in average from 2.56 to 0.94 kg t-1.

Key words:

, , ,




53-62 J. Čedík and R. Pražan
Comparison of tyres for self-propelled sprayers
Abstract |
Full text PDF (474 kB)

Comparison of tyres for self-propelled sprayers

J. Čedík* and R. Pražan

Research institute of Agriculture Engineering, Drnovská 507, 161 01, Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: cedik@vuzt.cz

Abstract:

This article deals with comparison of two types of tyres (MITAS VF and MITAS AC 85) for self-propelled sprayers in terms of their grip properties and effect on soil. The MITAS VF tyre has a new construction allowing it to work with lower inflation pressure and in higher speed than standard tyre. In order to compare the grip properties there was measured dependence of slippage on tractive force. In order to compare the effect on soil there will be measured footprint area of tyre, specific pressure on base (material), compaction of topsoil by means of wire profilograph and penetration resistance of soil by means of penetrometer. The measurement has been taken place on medium-heavy soil, on stubble after wheat cultivation. The MITAS AC tyres showed lesser tread pattern than the MITAS VF tyres. The VF tyres showed also better grip properties and lesser effect on the topsoil. The soil cone index showed statistically not significant difference in comparison with non-compacted soil and it was approximately the same in case of both variants.

Key words:

, , , ,




63-72 D. Gutu, J. Hůla, P. Kovaříček and P. Novák,
The influence of a system with permanent traffic lanes on physical properties of soil, soil tillage quality and surface water runoff
Abstract |
Full text PDF (813 kB)

The influence of a system with permanent traffic lanes on physical properties of soil, soil tillage quality and surface water runoff

D. Gutu¹, J. Hůla¹, P. Kovaříček² and P. Novák¹,*

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: novakpetr@tf.czu.cz
²Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering ,p.r.i. , Drnovska 507, 161 01 Prague 6 – Ruzyne, Czech Republic

Abstract:

The system with permanent driving tracks at the module of machines working width 6 metres, practised in a 10-ha field, allowed to consistently separate the area designed for restricted traffic lanes of farm machines from the production area of the field. The aim of the study is to assess the selected indicators of the condition of topsoil, which is characterized by soil porosity, indicators of soil workability, soil ability to absorb water from rainfall and soil loss by wash after four years of controlled traffic system application in a field trial. Indicators of soil condition were evaluated in four variants with different wheel impacts of tractors and other machines on the soil. A field trial was established in the spring 2010; the measured values in the study are from 2013 and 2014. The results show an advantage, which represents concentration of passages into permanent tracks aimed at protection of most part of a plot from soil compaction. Hardness of clods after tillage in autumn 2013 was five times higher in places with random traffic (356.7 kPa) than outside traffic lanes in the system of controlled traffic (70 kPa). An important result is that the system with permanent traffic lanes made it possible to increase the soil capacity of taking up water under intensive rainfall – in comparison to a part of the land with random passes. The results of measurements with a rainfall simulator in April 2014 showed that cumulative surface runoff after sixty minutes was 7.6 l m-2 on the land with random passes while 3.9 l m-2 outside the traffic lanes (32% of the area of the field). The soil loss by wash during water surface runoff was also lower with controlled traffic compared to the variant with random passes. Therefore it is to assume that suitable application of the controlled traffic farming system may be a contribution to soil protection from water erosion.

Key words:

, , ,




73-82 S. Ivanovs, A. Adamovics and A. Rucins
Investigation of the technological spring harvesting variants of the industrial hemp stalk mass
Abstract |
Full text PDF (432 kB)

Investigation of the technological spring harvesting variants of the industrial hemp stalk mass

S. Ivanovs*, A. Adamovics and A. Rucins

Latvia University of Agriculture, Ulbroka, LV-2130, Latvia
*Correspondence: semjons@apollo.lv

Abstract:

One of the simplest technological solutions of hemp harvesting applied in practice in Latvia and some other countries is harvesting of the hemp stalks in spring. Implementation of this technology does not require expensive specialised machinery. However, there are significant losses of the mass and quality of the product. The loss of hemp stalk mass in two-stage harvesting (Option А: harvesting of the seedy part of the yield by means of grain harvesting combines and subsequent gathering of the stalks in spring) constitutes approximately 50–80%. The basic possible solution for reducing these losses is raising the cutting height of the stalks when the seedy part of the yield is harvested. With spring harvesting, Option B, the mass of the stalks is preserved, while the seedy part of the yield is completely lost. A rational solution for spring harvesting can be established by calculations, considering the crop volume and the prices of the seeds and stalks sold, as well as the value of technological losses. In the tests conducted during a subsequent harvest in spring the tensile strength of the fibres of the uncut hemp stalks was 25–52% lower than the strength of the fibres harvested in autumn.

Key words:

, ,




83-88 T. Jehlička and J. Sander
Use of combined pneumatic conveying in the processing of granular waste materials
Abstract |
Full text PDF (438 kB)

Use of combined pneumatic conveying in the processing of granular waste materials

T. Jehlička* and J. Sander

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: jehlickat@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the structural design, verification and operational functions of combined pneumatic and mechanical transport systems in processing granular materials. A pilot plant was designed in laboratory conditions, and the combined pneumatic and mechanical transport system was tested in operation. Subsequently, transport possibilities for granular waste materials, which varied in size and specific particle weight, were evaluated. A combined pneumatic and mechanical transport system was designed as a transport line for pneumatic conveying at low pressure in combination with a mechanical towing component. The combination of both modes was designed so that the towing component in the form of an axis-less helix was inserted into the conveying pipe. Transport efficiency was monitored by comparing common pneumatic transport and combined pneumatic transport (pneumatic and mechanical transport). Both systems were tested under the same operating conditions with various granular waste materials, which varied in size and specific particle weight. Crushed electric waste was used as granular material to assess the operational functions used. Properties of the proposed transport system were tested by constructing and operating the system. The evaluation of transport options featuring pneumatic and combined (pneumatic and mechanical) transport systems proved that the system was reliable and highly efficient for the transportation of dry granular waste.

Key words:

, ,




89-94 T. Jokiniemi, T. Oksanen and J. Ahokas
Continuous airflow rate control in a recirculating batch grain dryer
Abstract |
Full text PDF (191 kB)

Continuous airflow rate control in a recirculating batch grain dryer

T. Jokiniemi*, T. Oksanen and J. Ahokas

University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 28, 00014, University of Helsinki, Finland;
*Correspondence: tapani.jokiniemi@helsinki.fi

Abstract:

As the energy efficiency requirements in agriculture increase, offers grain drying opportunities for substantial energy saving. Earlier work indicated that energy savings in grain drying can be achieved by controlling the drying airflow rate during the drying process. Aim of this study was to design an embedded control system, based on microcontroller, for continuous airflow rate control in a recirculating batch grain dryer, and to test it in a scaled-down research dryer. The control system proved to be working as designed, reducing the dryer airflow rate smoothly towards the end of the process. However, additional research of the energy efficiency and performance of the dryer using the airflow rate control is needed.

Key words:

, , , ,




95-100 M. Kroulík, J. Chyba and V. Brant
Measurement of tensile force at the fundamental tillage using tractor’s build-in sensor and external sensor connected between machines and their comparison
Abstract |
Full text PDF (363 kB)

Measurement of tensile force at the fundamental tillage using tractor’s build-in sensor and external sensor connected between machines and their comparison

M. Kroulík*, J. Chyba and V. Brant

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, Prague 6 – Suchdol, 165 21, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: kroulik@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The value of tensile force during soil tillage is crucial for estimating the energy performance of trailed machines. For tensile force measurements, a mouldboard plough with working width of 4 m was used. The ploughing speed was approximately 7 km h-1. Measurements were carried out on two plots with different soil texture. Loam-sandy soil dominated on the first plot, whereas clay soil dominated on the second one. The slopes of the plots are 1.1° and 2.4° respectively. Both plots have been left without stubble modification after harvest. The dynamometer LUKAS type S-38 was used for measuring tensile force. The dynamometer was placed on a hinge, which was positioned between two tractors. As a second method of tensile force measurement, electro-hydraulic hitch sensors were used, from which the values were recorded. The obtained values of tensile force were approximately 30 kN on the first plot and 54.3 kN on the second plot. The interdependence values of tensile forces between internal and external sensors showed a high coefficient of determination R2 = 0.91 in regression data analysis. The comparison of tensile force measurements using a special dynamometer and electro-hydraulic tractor sensor proved that the outputs of serial sensors can be used for the continuous monitoring of tensile forces during operating the machine. The automated storage of data collected from tractor sensors during tillage can greatly simplify this work, while no additional expenses are incurred to obtain data. Thus, the findings can be used to determine the variability of the land.

Key words:

, , , ,




101-108 M. Krupička and A. Rybka
Dependency of hop material fall through on the size of gaps between rollers of the roller conveyor in separating machine
Abstract |
Full text PDF (710 kB)

Dependency of hop material fall through on the size of gaps between rollers of the roller conveyor in separating machine

M. Krupička* and A. Rybka

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, 165 21, Praha 9 - Suchdol, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: krupicka@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This paper deals with a roller conveyor which forms a part of the separating machine for hops harvested from low trellises. One of the parameters that influences the correct operation of this conveyor is tested, namely the gap between the rollers. The aim of the test was to discover whether the fact that hop matter falls through the rollers depends on the size of the gap between the rollers. For testing purposes a model of the roller conveyor was designed, made, and subsequently tested in a series of experiments with the purpose of integrating it into a separating machine. The measurements were carried out using a sample of hop matter harvested from low trellises. The dependency of falling matter upon the gaps was determined in view of eight gaps between the rollers. The measurements revealed that the gap size has an influence on the falling of hop cones and small-sized admixtures only if the gap size is larger than the size of the hop cones. At the same time, this parameter has no substantial influence on the separation of medium-length and long stems which were separated perfectly.

Key words:

, ,




109-114 J. Krupička, P. Šařec and P. Novák
Measurement of electrical conductivity of DAP fertilizer
Abstract |
Full text PDF (524 kB)

Measurement of electrical conductivity of DAP fertilizer

J. Krupička*, P. Šařec and P. Novák

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamycka 129, 16521 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: krup@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Paper deals with the measurement of electrical conductivity of significant size groups of mineral fertilizer DAP divided in the air stream. Samples of these groups were dissolved in distilled water and the values of electrical conductivity recorded. Measurements will be used to monitor the electrical conductivity of other mineral fertilizers and to create a standard for qualitative assessment of fertilizer solutions.

Key words:

, , , ,




115-123 Z. Kviz, F. Kumhala and J. Masek
Plant remains distribution quality of different combine harvesters in connection with conservation tillage technologies
Abstract |
Full text PDF (227 kB)

Plant remains distribution quality of different combine harvesters in connection with conservation tillage technologies

Z. Kviz*, F. Kumhala and J. Masek

Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague, Faculty of Engennering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamycka 129, Prague 6 – Suchdol, 165 21, Prague, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: kviz@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Conservation tillage technologies are nowadays a part of modern agriculture. These technologies are used in plant production all around the world. Typical feature for these shallow soil tillage technologies is that all plant residues are left on the soil surface or in the treated (tilled) upper soil layer. The plant residues can significantly influence the next plant germination and growth, especially when they are unevenly placed on the field surface. Today’s modern combine harvesters are able to crush and distribute all plant remains quite evenly with satisfactory results but all their mechanisms have to be properly set and sometimes some small improvements have to be done. This paper describes and evaluates the husk and straw distribution quality – the distribution pattern, on two very commonly used combine harvesters – CASE IH and JOHN DEERE. The measurement was carried out on serially manufactured machines without any change on them and with a small improvement on distribution mechanisms. The measurement of husk and straw distribution pattern was carried out on CASE IH combine harvester with an axial threshing system and on John Deere with a conventional tangential threshing system. Thereby it was possible to compare two completely different systems of threshing process and to observe a possible influence on straw and husk distribution quality (distribution pattern). The most important outcome of the measurement of straw and husk distributors’ work quality on combine harvesters is that cross irregularity of husk and straw distribution depends on instantaneous material feedrate through the harvester.

Key words:

, , , ,




124-129 J. Lev
Sensitivity of capacitive throughput sensor to the change of material relative permittivity
Abstract |
Full text PDF (487 kB)

Sensitivity of capacitive throughput sensor to the change of material relative permittivity

J. Lev

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Physics, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague 6 Suchdol, Czech Republic; e-mail: jlev@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The capacitive throughput sensors have been tested in many applications (e.g. the throughput measurement of potatoes, sugar beet, chopped maize and hops). The results showed that the capacitive throughput sensors can be very perspective in some cases. The capacitive sensor for the throughput measurement can be described as a parallel plate capacitor where the dielectric is a mixture of air and the measured material. The equivalent dielectric constant increases with the increasing thickness of the material layer between the plates and the electric capacitance of the capacitor is increasing as well. The thickness of the material layer between the plates can be then determined via the electrical capacitance measurement. The main goal of this work is to describe the relationship between the relative permittivity of the material and the sensor output. The sensor values output directly depend on the sensor impedance and it is influenced by the electric field between the electrodes. The electric field is most influenced by the dielectric properties of the material and the distribution of the material. It was found that the influence of the relative permittivity change is significant only for less values (approximately 10 and less). These results mean that the material with the higher relative permittivity is useful for the capacitive throughput sensor. Also this behaviour can explain why the influence of the moisture is less significant for the moister material, because moister materials have higher relative permittivity.

Key words:

, ,




130-140 C. Lühr, R. Pecenka and H.-J. Gusovius
Production of high quality hemp shives with a new cleaning system
Abstract |

Production of high quality hemp shives with a new cleaning system

C. Lühr*, R. Pecenka and H.-J. Gusovius

Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim (ATB), Max- Eyth-Allee 100, 14469 Potsdam, Germany; *Correspondence: cluehr@atb-potsdam.de

Abstract:

A shortage as well as a rise in costs for raw materials as used for production of derived timber products and fibre composites can be observed for quite some time. Especially the use of wood as energy source has led to an increased demand for cellulose raw materials. Non wood resources e.g. from agricultural production are coming into consideration as alternatives or as replenishment to conventional raw material stock. Therefore, there is an increasing demand for high-grade hemp and flax fibres as a raw material e.g. for production of natural fibre reinforced composites. Within this context also the non-fibrous fraction of fibre plants – shives or hurds – are suitable for different applications in composite or fibre board industry. At present, approx. 50% of the income of a hemp fibre processor is generated by marketing quality shives. There is still a substantial need for efficient shive processing and cleaning technologies. Cleaned high quality hemp shives can be used not only for animal bedding, but also for particle board or composite production. Hence, ATB has developed a simple but efficient technology for cleaning of shive-fibre mixtures. It allows classification and cleaning of shives as well as recovering of short fibres in only one processing step. On basis of these results, the developed fractionating system has been patented and scaled up to an industrial system in cooperation with a machine supplier for hemp processing equipment. The machine has been successfully tested with different machine settings as well as different varieties of input material.

Key words:

, , , ,




141-147 M. Maante, E. Vool, R. Rätsep and K. Karp
The effect of genotype on table grapes soluble solids content
Abstract |
Full text PDF (264 kB)

The effect of genotype on table grapes soluble solids content

M. Maante*, E. Vool, R. Rätsep and K. Karp

Department of Horticulture, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 64, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; *Correspondence: mariana.maante@student.emu.ee

Abstract:

Sugar concentration in fresh consumed table grapes is mainly connected with technological maturity and primarily expressed by soluble solids content. The EU Regulation has laid down maturity requirements for Vitis vinifera L. cultivars (OJ L 157, 15.6.2011). The lowest allowed soluble solids content is 13 °Brix for seeded cultivars and 14 °Brix for seedless cultivars. In cool climate there are mainly cultivated grape hybrid cultivars which refractometric index is not regulated with this regulation. The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the accumulation dynamics and content of soluble solids from the beginning of veraison to harvest in table grapes with protected cultivation condition. The research was conducted with 3 black (‘Osella’, ‘Kosmonavt’, ‘Mars’), 3 red (‘Swenson Red’, ‘Somerset Seedless’, ‘Canadice’) and 2 white (‘Arkadia’, ‘Supaga’) vine cultivars in 2013 and 2014. The results of the study indicated, that fruits of all table grape cultivars achieved the minimum content of soluble solids required for table grapes. Two years mean of soluble solids content varied among black, red and white grape cultivars respectively from 15.0 to 22.1 °Brix, from 15.6 to 22.5 °Brix and from 13.9 to 18.9 °Brix. The highest soluble solids content was observed in both years among black cultivars in Osella, among red cultivars in Somerset Seedless and among white in Supaga.

Key words:

, ,




148-157 V. Nadykto, M. Arak and J. Olt
Theoretical research into the frictional slipping of wheel-type undercarriage taking into account the limitation of their impact on the soil
Abstract |
Full text PDF (247 kB)

Theoretical research into the frictional slipping of wheel-type undercarriage taking into account the limitation of their impact on the soil

V. Nadykto¹, M. Arak² and J. Olt²⋅*

¹Tavria State Agrotechnological University, Khmelnytskoho pr. 18, Melitopol, 72312 Zaporozhye region, Ukraine
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; *Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The frictional slipping of the tractor’s wheels causes great damage to the soil fertility. To ensure the minimal disturbance of its structure, it has been proposed to determine the maximum slippage of driving wheels taking into account the value of their permissible pressure on the soil in the horizontal plane. As a result, it has been established that for the substantial reduction of the soil structural damage during the spring agricultural field operations the maximum permissible frictional sliding δmax of the wheel-type undercarriage of tractors classified into drawbar pull categories 5, 3 and 1.4 (drawbar pull based classification approach is used in Ukraine and some other countries) has to be equal to 15%, 12% and 9% respectively. In the summer/autumn period, the values δmax can be greater and, accordingly, be equal to 20%, 16% and 13%. Wheeled tractors in drawbar pull category 5 equipped with single standard tyres can be used for field operations only in the summer/autumn period. For their operation in spring they must certainly be equipped with twin tyres. The implementation of this design solution is appropriate for all wheeled tractors.

Key words:

, , , , , ,




158-166 P. Novák,, M. Müller and P. Hrabě
Application of overlaying material on surface of ploughshare for increasing its service life and abrasive wear resistance
Abstract |

Application of overlaying material on surface of ploughshare for increasing its service life and abrasive wear resistance

P. Novák¹,*, M. Müller² and P. Hrabě²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague, Czech Republic *Correspondence: novakpetr@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Soil processing is one of the most basic operations in vegetable production. This research project focuses on extending the service life of ploughshares by covering the tools with an oblique deposited overlaying material which is resistant to abrasive wear. The overlaying material was put in place parallel to the ploughshare’s head, both to the front part as well as the back. The new functional profile of the conventional tool was created with overlaying electrodes so that the processed soil could drop from the tool. Carbide type (Soudokay A43-0, OK Tubrodur 14.70, OK Tubrodur 15.82) and martensitic type (Filarc PZ 6159) materials were used. Tested variants (overlays OK Tubrodur 15.82 and Filarc PZ 6159 above all) proved that the service life of the area at the top of the ploughshare’s cutting edge was prolonged. This parameter is essential for effective ploughing.

Key words:

, ,




167-172 T. Oksanen
Laser scanner based collision prevention system for autonomous agricultural tractor
Abstract |
Full text PDF (570 kB)

Laser scanner based collision prevention system for autonomous agricultural tractor

T. Oksanen

Aalto University, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Otaniementie 17, 02150 Espoo, Finland; e-mail: timo.oksanen@aalto.fi

Abstract:

In manned agricultural vehicles, the automated systems assist the driver by reducing the workload. This is achieved e.g. by using an automatic guidance system to steer the tractor along the desired path. However, increasing automation tends to cause a reduction of awareness, so risks to collide obstacles in the field are higher. In this study, an autonomous tractor was equipped with front side laserscanner (LIDAR) to sense the environment in front. The laserscanner scans the environment at 50 Hz rate. The theoretical maximum range of the sensor is 25 m, but it was found in the tests, that in agricultural field conditions, the feasible range is not more than 7 m, due to the sunlight disturbance. Agricultural vehicles weigh tons, so the deceleration is limited and the limited range causes challenges to detect the obstacle and decelerate without colliding it. The developed algorithm is able to detect solid objects, like electricity poles in the trajectory. The deceleration algorithm is based on the known dynamics and actuator delays of the tractor locomotion system, by taking into account the maximum deceleration rate. In field tests, the system was evaluated in grass fields. In the first test, the system was tested with real electricity poles with no implement. In the second test, the system was tested with a mower and by using artificial obstacles placed into the grass. The system was able to detect the obstacles with high accuracy and stop precisely, but in the corners of the field the system caused false positives when the sensor was sensing beyond the edges of the field plot.

Key words:

, , , , , ,




173-185 M. Pennar, V. Palge, E. Kokin, K. Jürjenson, E. Ideon and A. Annuk
Temperature distribution analysis inside the strawberry flower head
Abstract |
Full text PDF (452 kB)

Temperature distribution analysis inside the strawberry flower head

M. Pennar*, V. Palge, E. Kokin, K. Jürjenson, E. Ideon and A. Annuk

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014
Tartu, Estonia; *Correspondence: madis.pennar@emu.ee

Abstract:

Different studies by numerous researchers were carried out recently to describe different heat flux components of heat balance equations for radiation frost condition in plants. The aim of most of the papers was to present more simple and clear mathematical algebra to show the plant heat balance formulas. To achieve this aim several simplifications were made. Nevertheless there are studies reporting different flower damage rates during spring frost sessions that mentioned studies cannot explain. This leads us to the need to find the temperature distribution inside the flower to understand why during the similar energy flux conditions the flowers act against frost stress differently. It’s easy to measure the flower surface temperature but rather difficult to measure temperature distribution inside the flower head due to very small flower head scale compared to sensor sizes. To help to overcome these difficulties the authors make simplification by substituting the strawberry flower head with spherical homogeneous body though it is clear that the flower head is not homogeneous because of varying flower structure. The aim of this study is to present mathematical formulas for temperature distribution calculation inside the spherical body in terms of heat transfer conditions characteristic to radiation frost. Transient numerical methods are implemented for different conditions in case of spherical body. This approach enables us to decide if suggested mathematical solution is usable for nonhomogeneous body. Computer program was prepared to analyse the results. Key words: radiation frost, temperature distribution, plant, transient numerical method.

Key words:

, , ,




186-191 P. Procházka, P. Novák, J. Chyba and F. Kumhála
Evaluation of measuring frame for soil tillage machines draught force measurement
Abstract |
Full text PDF (700 kB)

Evaluation of measuring frame for soil tillage machines draught force measurement

P. Procházka¹, P. Novák², J. Chyba² and F. Kumhála²⋅*

¹BEDNAR FMT s.r.o., Lohenická 607, Prague-9 Vinoř, 190 17 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural machines, Kamýcká 129, 16521 Prague-6 Suchdol, Czech Republic;
*Correspondence: kumhala@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The knowledge of energy demands of the machines for soil tillage is useful factor for machinery design and also farm management. Currently used methods of draught force measurement are based on the use of the measuring rod. Basic part of this measurement apparatus is strain gauge load cell which is protected against damage by steel cage so that the forces were applied only in tension or compression. The main disadvantage of this solution is the necessity of using two tractors for the measurement: pulling one and pulled one equipped with soil tillage machine. To avoid this disadvantage, measuring frame for soil tillage machines draught force measurement was developed. For the evaluation of measuring frame function consequent measurement arrangement was used: crowled tractor John Deere 8320 RT as a pulling device, measuring frame mounted on its three point hitch, measuring rod connecting measuring frame and pulled wheel tractor New Holland T7050 and Köckerling Exact Gruber Vario soil tillage machine with 5 m working width. When comparing draught force results from strain gauge load cell placed into measuring frame with those from measuring rod it was found that there existed no statistically significant difference between the data from measuring frame and measuring rod. Measuring frame can be used for the aim of soil tillage machines draught force measurement and pulled tractor is not necessary in this case.

Key words:

, ,




192-201 A.V. Shcherbakov, E.Yu. Kuzmina, E.D. Lapshina, E.N. Shcherbakova,,L.N. Gonchar and V.K. Chebotar
Taxonomic diversity of bacterial populations inhabiting gametophytes of Sphagnum mosses from different geographic regions of Russia
Abstract |

Taxonomic diversity of bacterial populations inhabiting gametophytes of Sphagnum mosses from different geographic regions of Russia

A.V. Shcherbakov¹⋅²*, E.Yu. Kuzmina³, E.D. Lapshina⁴, E.N. Shcherbakova¹,⁵,L.N. Gonchar⁵ and V.K. Chebotar¹⋅²

¹All-Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology, Shosse Podbelskogo 3, 196608 Pushkin, St. Petersburg, Russia; *Correspondence: avsherbakov@bisolbi.ru
²ITMO University, Lomonosova Str. 9, St. Petersburg, 191002, Russia
³Komarov Botanical Institute, Professora Popova Str. 2, 197367 St. Petersburg, Russia
⁴Ugra State University, UNESCO chair, the Scientific and study centre ‘Environmental dynamics and global climate change’, Chehova Str. 16, 628012 Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia
⁵National University of Life and Environmental Science of Ukraine, Geroev oborony Str. 15, 03041 Kiev, Ukraine

Abstract:

In this study we have analyzed the diversity of the endophytic bacterial community associated with Sphagnum mosses from Nort-West Region and Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District of Russia during the years 2009–2012. We isolated a more then 400 strains which were identified by means of phenotypic tests and by 16S rRNA sequences. The ribosomal data showed that the isolates belonged to genera Pseudomonas (20–57%), Colimonas (7–10%), Flavobacterium (6–8%), Burkholderia (5–6%), Serratia (3%). The data reported in this work are consistent with the results of research performed by the Berg group with samples of mosses of the Austrian Alps. It was found that Sphagnum mosses are a promising source for the isolation of beneficial microorganisms.

Key words:

, , ,




202-211 Xu Ma, R.H. Driscoll and G. Srzednicki
Development of in-store dryer model for corn for varying inlet conditions
Abstract |
Full text PDF (657 kB)

Development of in-store dryer model for corn for varying inlet conditions

Xu Ma, R.H. Driscoll and G. Srzednicki*

UNSW Australia, School of Chemical Engineering, Sydney NSW 2032 Australia;
*Correspondence: g.srzednicki@unsw.edu.au

Abstract:

Many thin layer drying models have been developed for constant inlet conditions. During deep bed drying, drying air conditions vary with position in the bed and also vary with time, so models developed for thin layers under constant conditions are not valid for deep bed drying analysis. A new thin layer drying rate model (called the two-layer model) is presented which allows for varying air conditions. The model was applied to corn by retro-fitting the model to Page’s mode as fitted by Li and Morey (1984). The model was then incorporated into a deep bed simulation, and the results compared with pilot plant drying data. During drying experiments, constant air conditions and varying air conditions were both tested. For constant conditions, all models gave reasonable agreement, but for varying drying conditions, the diffusion model showed an ability to respond better to changes.

Key words:

, , , ,




215-222 A. Aboltins, and P. Kic
Forced convection in drying of poultry manure
Abstract |
Full text PDF (504 kB)

Forced convection in drying of poultry manure

A. Aboltins¹,* and P. Kic²

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Institute of Agricultural Machinery, Cakstes blvd. 5, Jelgava, LV–3001, Latvia; *Correspondence: aivars.aboltins@inbox.lv
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamycka 129, 165 21, Prague 6, Czech Republic

Abstract:

Pollution of environment by animal waste can be problem of intensive animal production in many countries with high density of animal farms. The aim of this paper is to inform about the experimental and theoretical investigations of moisture content reduction from poultry manure by forced convection. The experimental data created the background for calculation and modelling, which resulted in definition of the theoretical drying coefficient, useful for description and modelling of the drying process. The theoretical model has been verified and compared with experimental results obtained from the measurement. The laboratory equipment was used for test the forced convective drying of poultry manure due to vertical air streams going from bottom through supporting trays with holes and therefore through the manure up. Changed opened area of trays with different density has been used for definition of main parameters, which can serve especially in designing and construction of the new equipment for housing of poultry or improvement of the use of drying tunnel or in similar applications. The experimental data show that the air flow significantly increase the amount of moisture carried away from the material. Holes´ size does not significantly affect water runoff by convection without additional air flow.

Key words:

, , , ,




223-230 M. Gaworski, and A. Leola
Comparison of dairy potential in Europe and its effect on assessment of milking systems
Abstract |
Full text PDF (351 kB)

Comparison of dairy potential in Europe and its effect on assessment of milking systems

M. Gaworski¹,* and A. Leola²

¹Department of Production Management and Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska str. 164, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
²Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: marek_gaworski@sggw.pl

Abstract:

The development of milking systems is one of the most important examples proving the dynamic improvement of dairy production on the basis of a technical infrastructure. Farm milking systems incorporate many technical solutions—this provides a basis for analysing and assessing different milking systems in use today. Milking systems can be evaluated on the basis of a set of data and indices directly connected with the work of milking installations. The purpose of the analysis is to show how different kind of milking systems can be assessed in view of milk and its selected features, especially the value of the milk.

Key words:

, , ,




231-236 J. Hart,, Z. Štěrbová and V. Nídlová
Security methods for livestock buildings including assessment aspects
Abstract |
Full text PDF (435 kB)

Security methods for livestock buildings including assessment aspects

J. Hart¹,*, Z. Štěrbová² and V. Nídlová³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS), Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague, Czech republic; *Correspondence: janhart77@gmail.com
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS), Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague, Czech republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS), Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague, Czech republic

Abstract:

The problem of security methods affects a large proportion of intrusion and hold-up alarm systems (I&HAS). In a time of increasing property crime, it is highly important for the security methods of livestock buildings to be able to achieve efficiency, reliability and faultlessness. In case it is proposed to place detectors, it is essential to determine the position of the detectors, the types of the detectors, but also to guarantee their capability of detection for use in livestock production buildings. The security proposals, which have been conducted, examine both the normal security methods in livestock production as well as cost and long-term financial expenses (investment in the communicator, private security guards etc.). These security proposals are important both from an informative perspective and also because of the possibility of using individual proposals in securing livestock production in practice. The aim was to compare the two kinds of security methods for a livestock building object. The compared values become the acquisition costs of security system.

Key words:

, , ,




237-244 M. Mangalis, Dz. Jaundžeikars and J. Priekulis
Cow crowding in waiting yard using mechanical drivers and its influence on productivity of rotary type milking equipment
Abstract |
Full text PDF (259 kB)

Cow crowding in waiting yard using mechanical drivers and its influence on productivity of rotary type milking equipment

M. Mangalis*, Dz. Jaundžeikars and J. Priekulis

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Engineering, Cakstes blvd.5, LV – 3001 Jelgava, Latvia; *Correspondence: maris.mangalis@inbox.lv

Abstract:

At present rotary type milking equipment is popular in Latvia. It is used almost on all farms where there are 400 and more cows. Nevertheless, the maximal productivity of work can be reached if the cows are continuously driven from the waiting yard to the milking equipment and if sufficient intensity of animal traffic is ensured. Therefore, the rotary type milking equipment is usually supplemented with a mechanical cow driver that crowds the cows in the waiting yard at the same time driving them towards the milking parlour.In the research it has been stated that using the heavy type mechanical cow drivers Cow Mander 640 or Cow Mander 740 the maximal cow crowding in the waiting yard reaches 1.1–1.2 m2 calculating per one cow and it ensures the cow traffic intensity 8–11 s cow-1. If, in turn, the medium heavy driver Cow Mander 015 is used, the cow crowding is only 1.5–1.7 m2 cow-1 and the cow traffic intensity reaches 15–23 s cow-1. Using rotary type milking equipment with 20–30 milking places such cow traffic intensity is sufficient but if the rotary milking equipment has 50 and more milking places the necessary cow traffic intensity cannot any more be ensured by increasing the cow crowding. Therefore, the exploitation work productivity of the rotary type milking equipment with 50 and more places is by 30–40% less than its technological productivity of work that is obtained by means of calculations.

Key words:

, , , ,




245-252 J. Papez and P. Kic
Heating and ventilation in milking parlours
Abstract |
Full text PDF (216 kB)

Heating and ventilation in milking parlours

J. Papez* and P. Kic

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamycka 129, 16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: papez@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to show the results of the measurement of main microclimatic parameters (temperature and relative humidity) in milking parlours and compare the obtained results with values recommended in relevant standards. Temperature and relative humidity can affect animal welfare as well as the well-being of workers. These parameters were measured in three rotary milking parlours with herringbone type of stalls, each for 24 dairy cows. Two of these milking parlours were built in 2001 and one was built in 2009. Measurements were taken during the winter and summer periods, under extremely cold or high temperature conditions. Measurements were taken during the milking process for about two hours using suitable sensors for measurement of indoor temperature and relative humidity. The data of outside temperature and relative humidity were also obtained and compared with indoor data. The final results of the research were generalized. It is obvious from the results of measurements of selected milking parlours that heating and ventilation of milking parlours is insufficient. To set up adequate heating power, the heat balance of milking parlours was calculated. For adequate ventilation, the necessary flow of fresh air was calculated for both winter and summer periods. Also the methods of how to achieve these air flows are presented.

Key words:

, , ,




253-260 M. Prikryl,, P. Vaculik, A. Smejtkova, J. Hart and P. Nemec
Producing the vacuum in modern drawn milking systems
Abstract |
Full text PDF (384 kB)

Producing the vacuum in modern drawn milking systems

M. Prikryl¹,*, P. Vaculik¹, A. Smejtkova¹, J. Hart¹ and P. Nemec²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague 6-Suchdol, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: prikryl@tf.czu.cz
²PREDA CZ, s.r.o., U popovic 618, 393 01 Pelhřimov, Czech Republic

Abstract:

This paper deals with the measurement of the modern method of producing and regulating the vacuum in milking equipment which is currently in use. Individual measurements are primarily focused on evaluating the latest knowledge in the design, management and stabilization of the vacuum in modern milking systems. In the evaluation, emphasis was placed on economic efficiency with regard to energy consumption, environmental friendliness, high performance, operational reliability and ease of operation in the creation and control of the vacuum. The basic element of every milking system is the vacuum pump. This feature of the machine provides a vacuum for milking, milk transportation and for the activities of other devices whose task is, e.g., scanning the milking equipment or controlling movable barriers at milking parlours.
In this paper, a frequency converter was used, which is, used in milking technology for regulating and controlling the vacuum through changing the rotational speed of the vacuum pumps which do not require the use of centrifugal force to seal the working space to create a vacuum. The aim of the measurements using the above-mentioned inverter was to check the performance of the pump at different speeds and different vacuum levels to determine the actual air flow need over the milking cycle.

Key words:

, , , , ,




261-268 M. Rajaniemi, M. Turunen and J. Ahokas
Direct energy consumption and saving possibilities in milk production
Abstract |
Full text PDF (420 kB)

Direct energy consumption and saving possibilities in milk production

M. Rajaniemi, M. Turunen and J. Ahokas*

University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Agricultural Sciences, PL 28 (Koetilantie 5), 00014 Helsingin yliopisto, Finland; *Correspondence: jukka.ahokas@helsinki.fi

Abstract:

Direct energy consumption in milk production varies largely because of machinery, production systems, working habits and maintenance. There are good possibilities to save energy in milk production. The magnitude of energy savings are in the order of tens of percent, which means that energy saving potential is quite high. Energy saving can be achieved with efficient system and machinery choices. Also adjustments and maintenance have an effect on energy consumption. To save energy the farmers should have means to measure energy and follow energy consumption. There should also be more information of energy saving possibilities and machinery energy consumptions.

Key words:

, , , , ,