Volume 13 (2015)
  Number 4

Journal full text: Vol 13 No 4

Contents


Pages

863-878 T. Antal
Comparative study of three drying methods: freeze, hot air- assisted freeze and infrared-assisted freeze modes
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Comparative study of three drying methods: freeze, hot air- assisted freeze and infrared-assisted freeze modes

T. Antal

College of Nyíregyháza, Institute of Engineering and Agricultural Sciences, Department of Vehicle and Agricultural Engineering, Kótaji Str. 9–11., H-4400 Nyiregyhaza, Hungary; e-mail: antalt@nyf.hu

Abstract:

The dehydration tests were conducted at three drying methods to evaluate the drying curves and the energy uptake. Apple (Malus domestica L.) cubes were dried under different processing conditions applying freeze drying (FD), freeze drying assisted by hot air and freeze drying assisted by infrared radiation. Control samples were produced using regular freeze drying without the pre-drying. Hot air combined with freeze drying (HAD-FD) at 60 and 80°C air temperatures was investigated. The infrared-freeze drying (IR-FD) is a relatively new processing method. The Idared apple cubes were dried with 5 kW m-2 IR power intensity. It was observed that the infrared power level and hot air temperature affected the drying rate and time of freeze drying. The infrared radiation heating had a higher drying rate than hot air during the pre-dehydration. The water activity, colour, firmness and rehydration ratio (RR) of finished products were measured. The dried material produced with IR-FD had desirable colour, higher rehydration rate and lower firmness than dried by HAD-FD ones. The quality of single-stage FD samples was close to IR-FD materials. It was observed that the IR-FD method drastically decreased the energy consumption, compared to FD and HAD-FD drying treatments. The mathematical models such as Henderson-Pabis and third-degree polynomial are used to describe the drying kinetics of food material. It was found that those mathematical models performed adequately in predicting the changes of moisture ratio.

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879-891 U. Antone, J. Zagorska, V. Sterna, A. Jemeljanovs, A. Berzins, and D. Ikauniece
Effects of dairy cow diet supplementation with carrots on milk composition, concentration of cow blood serum carotenes, and butter oil fat-soluble antioxidative substances
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Effects of dairy cow diet supplementation with carrots on milk composition, concentration of cow blood serum carotenes, and butter oil fat-soluble antioxidative substances

U. Antone¹*, J. Zagorska², V. Sterna¹, A. Jemeljanovs¹³, A. Berzins³⁴, and D. Ikauniece¹⁴

¹Agency of the Latvia University of Agriculture ‘Research Institute of Biotechnology and Veterinary Medicine ‘Sigra’’, Instituta 1, Sigulda, LV- 2150, Latvia
²Faculty of Food Technology, the Latvia University of Agriculture, Liela 2, Jelgava, LV 3001, Latvia
³Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, the Latvia University of Agriculture, K.Helmana 8, Jelgava, LV 3004, Latvia
⁴Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment ‘BIOR’, Lejupes 3, Riga, LV 1076, Latvia
*Correspondence: u.antone@gmail.com

Abstract:

Fat-soluble constituents of milk – β-carotene and α-tocopherol – are essential for quality and nutritional value of milk and dairy products. Provision of fat-soluble antioxidants and vitamins such as carotenoids and vitamin E necessary for cow organism and milk synthesis depends on their concentration in fodder. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of cow feed supplementation by carrots on the total carotene concentration in cow blood serum, on fat, protein, lactose concentration in milk, and milk yield, as well as to investigate the effects on β-carotene and α-tocopherol concentration in butter oil and intensity of its yellow colour. A total 20 cows of Latvian brown (n = 8) and Danish red (n = 12) breed were divided into control (CG) and experimental group (EG). In the EG, cow feed was supplemented with seven kg of carrots per cow per day for six weeks at the end of the indoor period (March–May). Milk samples from indoor period (n = 100) and grazing (n = 20) were used for butter oil extraction. The carotene concentration observed in blood of animals before the experiment was insufficient taking into account that the recommended β-carotene concentration in serum is above 3.0 mg l-1 level. During indoor period the increase in carotene concentration in blood of cows was significant in both groups (P < 0.05) but in EG it was more eplicit showing the positive effect of carrot supplementation. Carrot supplementation did not change milk fat, protein, lactose concentration, and yield (P > 0.05). At the same time it contributed in more stable β-carotene, as well as 30% higher α-tocopherol concentration and more intense yellow colour of butter oil samples during the indoor period of the experiment (P < 0.05).

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892-899 D. Arslan
Effects of degradation preventive agents on storage stability of anthocyanins in sour cherry concentrate
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Effects of degradation preventive agents on storage stability of anthocyanins in sour cherry concentrate

D. Arslan

Division of Food Sciences, Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey e-mail: dears@konya.edu.tr

Abstract:

In this study the effects of sugar (sucrose, 25%), gallic acid (700 mg kg-1) and ascorbic acid (700 mg kg-1) were used in sour cherry concentrate in order to prevent the degradation of main anthocyanin compounds (cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside (Cy-3GR), cyanidin-3-rutinoside (Cy-3R) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3G)) which are natural bioactive pigments responsible for red, blue and purple color of many fruits and vegetables. Thermal degradation of anthocyanins was evaluated by determination of anthocyanin content and calculation of the reaction rate constant, half-life of degradation, activation energy. Anthocyanin content decreased at all of the storage temperatures, as an example; there were 75, 51 and 55% reductions in Cy-3G contents of control samples (with no preventive agent) stored at 45, 24 and 4°C, respectively. The values of half-life time were above 200 days in most cases at all storage temperatures for sugar treated samples. Cy-3-GR (activation energy values 35.6-84.4 kJ mol-1) was found to be the most unstable among the other anthocyanins. The most contributing agent on anthocyanin stability was sugar, whereas ascorbic acid exhibited the lowest effect in terms of preventing anthocyanin degradation.

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900-906 C.M.A. Barone,, R. Di Matteo, L. Rillo, C.E. Rossetti, F. Pagano andD. Matassino
Pork quality of autochthonous genotype Casertana, crossbred Casertana x Duroc and hybrid Pen ar Lan in relation to farming systems
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Pork quality of autochthonous genotype Casertana, crossbred Casertana x Duroc and hybrid Pen ar Lan in relation to farming systems

C.M.A. Barone¹,*, R. Di Matteo¹, L. Rillo², C.E. Rossetti², F. Pagano¹ andD. Matassino²

¹University of Naples Federico II. Department of Agriculture, Via Università100, 80055 Portici (NA), Italy. 2ConSDABI. National focal point-FAO. Piano Cappelle, 82100 Benevento, Italy. *Correspondence: carmela.barone@unina.it

Abstract:

In the last decades, the development of livestock has coincided with improvements of the animals performance. The swine has been strongly selected for several traits that determined a significant spread of some genetic types, more productive than the old autochthonous genetic types (AGT). Therefore, the AGT suffered a growing demographic contraction. The AGT are able to reduce the loss of genetic variability, potentially useful for the new generation and they play an important economic role for their productive capacity in harsh environments; furthermore, they can be used to obtain natural and ‘traditional’ products. In the current research the black AGT Casertana (CT) was compared with the crossbreed CT×Duroc in relation to gender (castrated males and entire females) and farming systems: Open Air and Outdoor (plus access to the bush) for some qualitative properties of meat. In addition ‘Fiocco’ ham, a traditional product, from CT, CT×DU and Pen ar Lan pigs was analyzed. The results showed that the CT pigs had a significantly higher percentage of fat, a thicker adipose tissue, and their meat had lower values of hardness, chewiness, shear force, and appeared significantly redder than other genotypes meat. The farming systems and gender did not affect the carcass composition and physical traits of meat.

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907-918 H. Daba, and S. Saidi
Detection of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria from milk in various farms in north-east Algeria by a new procedure
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Detection of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria from milk in various farms in north-east Algeria by a new procedure

H. Daba¹,* and S. Saidi¹

¹University of Setif 1, Nature and Live Sciences Faculty, Department of Microbiology, 19000, Setif, Algeria; *Correspondence: dabhoc@yahoo.fr

Abstract:

Twelve samples of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria were isolated from raw milk. The screening procedure has the advantage of differentiating directly on agar plates active colonies among thenatural microbial population without subsequent culture. Five of milk isolates had effective inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus, Bacillus and all Listeria monocytogenes strains tested. In addition, two bacteriocinogenic isolates were effective against Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The action of the bacteriocins was eliminated by a proteolytic enzyme. Simulation tests in liquid medium showed a 3 log reduction of Listeria growth in presence of bacteriocin during a period stockage of 14 days at 4°C.

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919-928 N. Ertaş,, D. Sert and M.K. Demir
Functional properties of tarhana enriched with whey concentrate
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Functional properties of tarhana enriched with whey concentrate

N. Ertaş¹,*, D. Sert¹ and M.K. Demir¹

¹Department of Food Engineering, Engineering & Architecture Faculty, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, 42060, Turkey; *Correspondence: dr.nilgunertas@gmail.com

Abstract:

Whey concentrate is often sold as a nutritional supplement and include proteins, minerals, vitamins and other components (low levels of fat and low levels of lactose). Whey concentrates is well known for their high nutritional value and versatile functional properties in food products. The aim of this study was to enrich tarhana by using whey concentrate (WC) instead of yoghurt. Foaming capacity and foam stability, water and oil absorption capacity, emulsifying activity as a functional properties, colour properties and sweetness, body-texture, colour-appearance, mouthfeel, acerbity, homogeneity, consistency and overall acceptability as a sensorial characteristics of tarhana samples were determined. The highest foaming capacity values were obtained with 50% WC substitution, but 50% WC addition gave the lowest foam stability values. Oil absorption capacity and emulsifying activity values of tarhana samples were decreased by increasing WC levels. Tarhana samples containing WC were lighter according to colour values than the control tarhana samples made with yoghurt. Tarhana soup prepared with 12.5% WC addition was similar to the control in homogeneity and overall acceptability.

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929-938 R. Galoburda,, M. Kuka, I. Cakste and D. Klava
The effect of blanching temperature on the quality of microwave-vacuum dried mushroom Cantharellus cibarius
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The effect of blanching temperature on the quality of microwave-vacuum dried mushroom Cantharellus cibarius

R. Galoburda¹,*, M. Kuka², I. Cakste² and D. Klava¹

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Food Technology, Liela iela 2, LV-3001, Jelgava, Latvia 2Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Chemistry, Liela iela 2, LV-3001, Jelgava, Latvia *Correspondence: ruta.galoburda@llu.lv

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of blanching temperature on structure, colour, chemical composition, and rehydration capacity of microwave-vacuum dried chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius). Fruiting bodies of chanterelle were collected from the forests in Jelgava region of Latvia. Prior to drying, fresh mushrooms were blanched in water at various temperatures of 70, 80, 90 and 100ºC for 3 min, then cooled in water (20ºC). After blanching mushrooms were dried in a microwave-vacuum drier according to the specially designed program. The content of dry matter of chanterelle was 9.5 ± 0.5%. The results revealed that weight loss at 70–90ºC was significantly smaller compared to blanching at 100ºC temperature. The results indicated the tendency of smaller changes in microstructure, weight loss and colour for samples blanched at 70–80°C temperature comparing to the samples unblanched or blanched at higher temperatures. Electrical conductivity in water extract of microwave-vacuum dried chanterelle decreased with increased blanching temperature. Titratable acidity of chanterelle significantly reduced after blanching due to leakage of soluble acids into blanching water.

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939-947 D. Herak
Analysis of mechanical behaviour of Jatropha curcas L. bulk seeds under compression loading with aid of reciprocal slope transformation method and tangent curve method
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Analysis of mechanical behaviour of Jatropha curcas L. bulk seeds under compression loading with aid of reciprocal slope transformation method and tangent curve method

D. Herak

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kamycka 129, 16521, Prague, Czech Republic; e-mail: herak@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This study is focused on the utilization of the reciprocal slope transformation method (RST) and tangent curve method (TCM) for description of mechanical behaviour of Jatropha bulk seeds under compression loading. The experimental data derived from a compression test was done using compression device and pressing vessel with diameter 60 mm at compression speed of 1 mm s−1 and compressive force between 0 kN and 100 kN. Measured dependency between compressive force and deformation was fitted by RST method and TCM method and they were statistically analysed by ANOVA. Comparison of both methods in individual pressing regions is an integral part of this manuscript. It was determined that reciprocal slope transformation method describes precisely the beginning of deformation characteristics and it can cover the reorganizing process in the bulk seeds. From the conducted study it also follows that tangent curve method is suitable for description of mechanical behaviour at bulk deformations in which the reorganization process in the bulk seeds is finished yet.

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948-955 S. Kalnina, T. Rakcejeva, D. Kunkulberga, and R. Galoburda
Rheological properties of whole wheat and whole triticale flour blends for pasta production
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Rheological properties of whole wheat and whole triticale flour blends for pasta production

S. Kalnina*, T. Rakcejeva, D. Kunkulberga, and R. Galoburda

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Food Technology, Liela Street 2, LV-3001, Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: solvita.kalnina@inbox.lv

Abstract:

Whole grain flour can be considered as a good candidate for pasta fortification due to the health benefits. In the literature it is mentioned, that when pasta dough is fortified with non-traditional ingredients, it behaves differently. Therefore, the purpose of the current research was to investigate the rheological properties of the whole wheat and whole triticale flour blends for pasta production. Whole grain flour made from triticale and wheat grains was used in the present research. Wheat flour type ⁴0⁵ was used as a control. The blends were made from whole triticale and whole wheat flour in combination with wheat flour (type ⁴0⁵) in various proportions (from ¹0% to ¹00%). The following quality parameters were analysed by using standard methods: the rheological properties of dough were analysed using Brabender Farinograph-AT; moisture content of flour samples was determined according to AACC (²000) Method No. ⁴⁴-¹⁵A. The results of the present research demonstrate that the rheological properties of dough become worse by increase the amount of whole grain flour in a blend. Water absorption is higher and dough development time of dough with whole grain flour addition is longer than the parameters of control wheat flour (type ⁴0⁵). The same results were obtained during analysing dough stability and development time. However, higher dough stability was obtained for the blends with whole wheat flour, compared to blends with whole triticale flour, what possibly is due to the higher gluten content in whole wheat flour.

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956-968 A. Kirse and D. Karklina
Integrated evaluation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and maple pea (Pisum sativum var. arvense L.) spreads
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Integrated evaluation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and maple pea (Pisum sativum var. arvense L.) spreads

A. Kirse* and D. Karklina

Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Technology, Latvia University of Agriculture, 2 Liela Street, LV3001, Jelgava, Latvia *Correspondence: asnate.kirse@gmail.com

Abstract:

The aim of this research was to develop pea spreads using local legumes and complete integrated evaluation of the spreads to find the most suitable pea spreads for shelf-life investigation. A total of twelve pea spreads were made of ground re-hydrated cooked seeds of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) or maple peas (Pisum sativum var. arvense L.), to which salt, citric acid, oil and different spices were added. Standard analytical methods were employed to determine overall preference and physicochemical composition (protein, fibre, ash, pH, etc.) of spread samples. Principles of integrated evaluation were used to select the most suitable spreads for pea spread shelf-life investigation. The overall preference of cowpea and maple pea spread samples ranged from 2.8 to 4.9 with significant differences among spreads (P < 0.05). Physicochemical evaluation was completed with only sensory satisfactory samples. There were no significant differences in protein, ash and dry matter content among pea spread samples (P > 0.05). Pea spreads were good sources of total dietary fibre (10.72 to 14.81 g 100 g-1). Addition of spices had a significant impact on the lightness (L*) and firmness of pea spreads (P < 0.05). Cowpea spread with bruschetta spice (15.43) and maple pea spread with bruschetta spice (22.09) had the lowest integrated evaluation values among spreads from the same legume. It was concluded that shelf-life investigation should be completed with the most suitable spread (the lowest integrated evaluation value) and control sample, i.e., cowpea spread and maple spread with bruschetta spice and without spices.

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969-978 L. Klavina
A study on bryophyte chemical composition–search for new applications
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A study on bryophyte chemical composition–search for new applications

L. Klavina

University of Latvia, Department of Environmental Science, Raina Blvd. 19, Riga, LV-1586, Latvia; e-mail: laura.klavina@lu.lv

Abstract:

Bryophytes are the taxonomic group in the plant kingdom represented with about 25’000 species. They contain a high number of biologically active compounds; however their use as a food source is negligible. The aim of this paper is to evaluate bryophyte chemical composition and new possible applications. In order to evaluate bryophyte potential usage as a raw food material, bryophyte basic chemical content and the secondary metabolite profile was determined. To obtain best results bryophyte secondary metabolite extraction options has been studied. Couple of extraction methods were used (conventional, ultrasound, microwave, supercritical CO2 extraction etc.) and different solvents (ethanol, water etc.). A total concentration of polyphenols and substances determining free radical scavenging activity has been determined. The extracts obtained from bryophytes have remarkable antioxidant activity, the extent of which depends on the extraction conditions and bryophyte species. Comparison of five extraction methods and several solvents indicates that microwave assisted extraction and supercritical CO2 extraction is the most promising approach to obtain highest yields of extractives.

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979-991 L. Kuznetsova,, M. Domoroshchenkova and L. Zabodalova
Study of functional and technological characteristics of protein concentrates from lupin seeds
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Study of functional and technological characteristics of protein concentrates from lupin seeds

L. Kuznetsova¹,*, M. Domoroshchenkova² and L. Zabodalova¹

¹Institute of Refrigeration and Biotechnologies, ITMO University, Lomonosova street 9, 191002, Saint-Petersburg, Russia 2All-Russia Scientific Research Institute of Fats, 10, Chernyakhovsky Street, 191119, Saint-Petersburg, Russia *Correspondence: mamaeva.ludmila@mail.ru

Abstract:

The purpose of the research was to study functional and technological characteristics of concentrated protein preparations produced from lupin seeds and to demonstrate a feasibility of their usage as functional ingredients in food products. The method of production of concentrated protein preparations from seeds of Lupinus angustifolius was developed based on an acidic water extraction of non-protein compounds of lupin flour in presence of an optimized multi-enzyme composition composed of 1.1 ± 0.2 unit g-1 of Celluclast and 5.2 ± 0.4 units g-1 of Pentopan Mono and 2.5 ± 0.2 units g-1 of Amilosubtilin. It was shown that crude protein content of protein concentrate preparations obtained with enzymatic treatment of polysaccharides increased to (63.2 ± 1.3) % on m.f.b. versus (50.4 ± 1.3) % on m. f. b. in the control preparation produced without an enzymatic treatment. Process parameters of infrared drying of lupin protein concentrate wet residues in the short wavelength range up to 2.5 µm were studied. The comparative analysis of functional and technological characteristics of lupin protein preparations, lupin flour and soy flour was carried out. Water-holding capacity, fat-holding capacity and emulsifying capacity of lupin protein concentrates produced via enzymatic treatment have been increased versus the control sample. The process and the formulation of fermented dairy product with inclusion of lupin protein additives in a range of 0.5% to 2.0% (% w w-1) were developed. Sensory, physico-chemical and structural-mechanical properties of a dairy product enriched with lupin protein were analyzed. It was shown that usage of lupin protein preparations as nutritional supplements was beneficial for human gastrointestinal tract. 1.5% (% w w-1) inclusion level of the lupin preparation in the food formulation provided the best consumer properties of finished products. It was shown that the lupin protein concentrate preparation can be used as a functional ingredient in fermented dairy products.

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1002-1009 T. Michlová,, H. Dragounová and A. Hejtmánková
Stability of vitamin A and E in powdered cow’s milk in relation to different storage methods
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Stability of vitamin A and E in powdered cow’s milk in relation to different storage methods

T. Michlová¹,*, H. Dragounová² and A. Hejtmánková¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcká 129, 165 21, Prague, Czech Republic 2Dairy Research Institute Ltd, Ke dvoru 791/12A, 160 00, Prague, Czech Republic *Correspondence: michlova@af.czu.cz

Abstract:

In this article, the influence of different ways of storage on the content of vitamin A and E in powdered cow´s milk was studied. The cow´s whole milk powder was taken directly from the manufacturer and stored for one year in 4 different ways – in the light at room temperature, in the dark at room temperature, in a refrigerator at 8°C and in a freezer at -20°C. The content of vitamins was measured 4 times during the first month and then once a month. The samples were stored for one year. Vitamins A and E were determined by HPLC using DAD and FLD detectors. Vitamin A was identified in all samples but only α-tocopherol (out of various forms of vitamin E) was detected in all samples. In all cases steeper decline of both vitamins in first 14 days of storage was identified. The highest losses of vitamin A and E in powdered milk occurred during storage in the light at room temperature. The value decreased by 91 resp. 95% of the original value.

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1004-1111 E. Straumite, Z. Kruma and R. Galoburda
Pigments in mint leaves and stems
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Pigments in mint leaves and stems

E. Straumite*, Z. Kruma and R. Galoburda

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Food technology, Liela Street 2, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia *Correspondence: evita.straumite@llu.lv

Abstract:

Mint is the genus belonging to the Labiatae family and includes a huge diversity of varieties with different sensory properties. An important quality parameter is its colour, and the compounds responsible for it are pigments such as chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids etc. The aim of the current research was to determine the pigment content in the leaves and the stems of different mint varieties grown in Latvia. Mint of nine varieties (Mentha suaveolens ‘Apple mint’, Mentha suaveolens ‘Variegata’, Mentha spicata ‘Marokko’, Mentha piperita ‘Swiss’, Mentha piperita ‘Granada’, Mentha piperita f. citrate ‘Grapefruit’, Mentha piperita ‘Chocolate’, Mentha piperita ‘Almira’, Mentha piperita ‘Bavarian’) collected in Latvia was analysed. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids were determined spectrophotometrically in the acetone extracts of fresh leaves and stems at various wavelength 470, 645 and 662 nm. To analyse a relationship between chlorophyll a and b in the leaves and the stems a calculation of ratio a/b was performed. Additionally the colour of samples was measured in CIE L*a*b* system. For the statistical analysis – linear correlation, analysis of variance, hierarchical cluster analysis was performed. The differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. Among studied mint leaves the highest content of chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids was determined in the ‘Bavarian’ mint. The colour component L* value for variety ‘Bavarian’ leaves was one of the lowest among studied samples (showing a darker colour intensity). The stems of the mint variety ‘Bavarian’ had a high content of chlorophyll especially chlorophyll b. The highest content of carotenoids was determined in Mentha spicata ‘Marokko’. Analysing a relationship between the colour components L*a*b* and the content of pigments no significant correlations were determined.

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1010-1019 L. Nadtochii,, L. Zabodalova and M. Domoroshchenkova
Development of cheese product with hydrolyzed soybean emulsion
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Development of cheese product with hydrolyzed soybean emulsion

L. Nadtochii¹,*, L. Zabodalova¹ and M. Domoroshchenkova²

¹ITMO University, Institute of Refrigeration and Biotechnologies, Lomonosov St. 9, 191002, Saint-Petersburg, Russia; *Correspondence: l.tochka@mail.ru 2All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Fats, Chernyakhovsky St. 10, 191119, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

Abstract:

The expediency of production of food products based on complex raw material compositions is currently proved. According to the modern concept of a healthy nutrition it is important to optimize the composition of the product considering the content of biologically valuable substances in raw materials during a development of such products. This paper deals with the studies demonstrating an option of usage of soybean emulsion as a raw material of plant origin for development of a high-protein food product similar to a soft cheese. Soybean food emulsion (SFE) was developed and produced by All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Fats. For minimizing activity of antigenic factors of soybeans (such as glycinin and β-conglycinin) SFE was subjected to partial proteolysis by a complex enzyme preparation. At the Department of Milk Technology and Food Biotechnology of ITMO University recipes and technology of a cheese product with HSFE were developed. Experimental samples were prepared with different doses of HSFE in recipes. The degree of hydrolysis of the HSFE was varied from 6% to 12% with intervals of 2%. Amino acid score for essential amino acid was calculated, the absence of limiting amino acids in developed products confirms their high biological value. Key words: cheese product, soybean emulsion, hydrolyzed soybean emulsion, degree of hydrolysis, biological value of protein, amino acids.INTRODUCTION

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1020-1030 L. Nilova, O.Orlova and J. Nasonova
The role of cyclic amides in the formation of antioxidant capacity of bakery products
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The role of cyclic amides in the formation of antioxidant capacity of bakery products

L. Nilova¹, O.Orlova² and J. Nasonova³⋅*

¹Saint-Petersburg State University of Trade and Economics, Novorossiyskaya Street 50, 194021, Saint-Petersburg, Russia; 2Institute of Refrigeration and Biotechnologies, ITMO University, Lomonosova Street 9, 191002, Saint-Petersburg, Russia; 3Institute of Refrigeration and Biotechnologies, ITMO University, Lomonosova Street 9, 191002, Saint-Petersburg, Russia; * Correspondence: oousova@list.ru

Abstract:

This paper discusses the possibility of using of additives of vegetable raw materials in the manufacture of bakery products with antioxidant capacity. The optimal doses of additives in the recipe of bakery products were established. These were 3% for blueberry powder and 6% for pine nuts flour. Antioxidant capacity of hydrophilic fractions of blueberries powder, pine nuts flour, bakery crusts and crumbs were studied in vitro by chemiluminescence technique. Cyclic amides (lactams) were also identified. The antioxidant capacity of hydrophilic fraction of crust of bakery products with pine nuts flour was in 1.7 times higher than that obtained by calculation, for crumb in 1.5 times. For crust of bakery products with blueberry powder the antioxidant capacity of hydrophilic fraction was in 2.2 times higher, and for crumb in 1.3 times higher. The antioxidant capacity of hydrophilic fraction of crust of bakery products with blueberry powder was in 1.2 times higher and for bakery products with pine nuts flour, conversely was higher the antioxidant capacity of the hydrophilic fraction of crumb – in 1.3 times. The antioxidant capacity of hydrophilic fraction of crumb of bakery products with pine nuts flour was in 1.1 times higher in comparison with bakery products with a blueberry powder. The amount of mono-heterocyclic γ-lactams in the crumb of bakery products with pine nuts flour was higher than in the product with blueberries powder, but less than in the control sample. Thus, the formation of antioxidant capacity of hydrophilic fractions of crumb and crust occurs due to Maillard reaction intermediates. Key words: bakery products; blueberry powder; pine nuts flour; antioxidant capacity; cyclic amides (lactams).

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1031-1039 A. Pastukhov
Automatic control and maintaining of cooling process of bakery products
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Automatic control and maintaining of cooling process of bakery products

A. Pastukhov

ITMO University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia;
e-mail: artem.pastukhov¹⁹⁸⁴@gmail.com

Abstract:

During the development of automation control of the bakery products cooling process using a ‘cooler’ it is necessary to build an integrated control system, which allows to optimize the process parameters in case of a variety of work situations that may occur in the bakery enterprise. The main task for control of such multifactorial object is to reach a certain temperature in the center of the product by maintaining the temperature of the cooling air near the surface of the loaf set in the limits t ± Δt, its velocity v ± Δv and humidity φ ± Δφ, and maintain the speed of the conveyor within Vc ± ΔVc using the frequency converters. Simultaneous exposure to multiple channels of control allows selecting the optimal combination of the cooling process control commands, yielding the product with necessary temperature and mass. Automatic control and regulation of the cooling process is based on the fact that the current value of the adjustable parameters in mismatch block is compared with predetermined values of the corresponding parameters, and the mismatch signals are formed, which are amplified to a value sufficient to trigger actuators that provide executive regulators. Novelty of the paper consists in the development of the process control system based on the mathematical model which allows calculating the temperature at the center of freshly baked products by the surface temperature of the product at any time of location in the cooling zone. Experiments were carried out on the bread made in the laboratory and cooled after baking, by natural and forced convection. Baking was conducted in a special parallelepiped tins with lids. Thus, the output product had a parallelepiped shape. Process of cooling by natural convection was implemented in a cooling chamber, which allowed to measure temperature and relative humidity. Temperatures changing in the center of the loaf and weight loss were recorded during the experiments. Cooling time was determined by the time required to achieve the temperature in the center of the loaf 30°C. On the basis of the experimental data a mathematical model and the computer system, allowing calculating the parameters of cooling and in time to make a regulatory influence on one of the control channels and thus optimize the process parameters were built.

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1040-1052 A. Põldvere,, A. Tänavots, R. Saar, T. Torga,T. Kaart, R. Soidla, T. Mahla, H. Andreson and L. Lepasalu
Effect of imported Duroc boars on meat quality of finishing pigs in Estonia
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Effect of imported Duroc boars on meat quality of finishing pigs in Estonia

A. Põldvere¹,³⋅*, A. Tänavots², R. Saar¹, T. Torga¹,T. Kaart², R. Soidla¹, T. Mahla¹, H. Andreson¹ and L. Lepasalu¹

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Department of Food Science and Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56/5, 51014, Tartu, Estonia 2Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, Kreutzwaldi 62, 51014, Tartu, Estonia 3Estonian Pig Breeding Association, Aretuse 2, 61411 Märja, Tartumaa, Estonia; *Correspondence: aarne.poldvere@emu.ee

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the carcass and meat quality characteristics of Duroc-sired progeny marketed in May and June 2014. Carcasses of the following genotypes were evaluated: purebred Landrace (LxL), crossbred Large White x Landrace (LWxL) and LWxL crosses with Duroc (DxLW/L) and Duroc x Landrace (D/LxLW/L) terminal boars. Carcass characteristics recorded: hot carcass weight, carcass length, backfat thickness and loin eye area (LEA). The following physicochemical parameters determined in the Longissimus thoracis muscle were pH value, colour, electroconductivity, water-holding capacity, drip loss, cooking loss, and dry matter, protein, fat and ash content. Duroc-sired pigs were slaughtered at the older age, but at about the same live weight as those of other genotypes. The study revealed that genotypes incorporating Duroc breed had significantly shorter carcasses (D/LxLW/L – 95.38 ± 0.98 cm and DxLW/L – 96.88 ± 0.95 cm; P < 0.01), but a larger LEA (D/LxLW/L – 51.75 ± 1.44 cm2 and DxLW/L – 52.24 ± 1.39 cm2; P < 0.05) compared to white-coloured genotypes (carcass length: LxL – 101.12 ± 0.95 cm and LWxL – 101.82 ± 0.98 cm; LEA: LxL – 46.35 ± 1.39 cm2 and LWxL – 47.04 ± 1.44 cm2). Duroc sire had a significant effect on the muscle protein and intramuscular fat (IMF) content. DxLW/L genotype had the greatest IMF level (2.71 ± 0.21%; P < 0.05), while it was the lowest in the LxL and LWxL (1.23 ± 0.21% and 1.71 ± 0.22%, respectively). Genotype combinations had no effect on carcass fat deposition. The differences that exist between the breeds of pigs make it possible to modify breed-specific traits such as growth performance, leanness and meat quality. It can therefore be concluded that Duroc boars provide Estonian pig breeders with a valuable source of genetic material for improving the carcass and meat quality of finisher pigs. Key words: Duroc, Landrace, Large White, crossbreeding, carcass quality, meat quality, leanness, backfat. Abbreviations: D – Duroc, L – Landrace, LW – Large White, FLA – fat layer area, IMF –intramuscular fat, LEA – loin eye area, WHC – water-holding capacity.

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1053-1063 U. Sannik, L. Lepasalu, R. Soidla, A. Põldvere,,R. Saar, A. Tänavots and V. Poikalainen,
Calculation model for the assessment of animal by-product resources in Estonian meat industry
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Calculation model for the assessment of animal by-product resources in Estonian meat industry

U. Sannik¹⋅², L. Lepasalu¹, R. Soidla¹, A. Põldvere¹,³,R. Saar¹, A. Tänavots⁴ and V. Poikalainen¹,*

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Department of Food Science and Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56/5, 51014, Tartu, Estonia; *Correspondence: vaino.poikalainen@emu.ee 2Competence Center of Food and Fermentation Technologies, Akadeemia tee 15A, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia 3Estonian Pig Breeding Association, Aretuse 2, 61411 Märja, Tartumaa, Estonia 4Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, Kreutzwaldi 62, 51014, Tartu, Estonia

Abstract:

Aim of current study was the elaboration of a calculation model for monitoring system which makes it possible to assess the animal by-product (ABP) resources in cooperation with companies and state authorities. Data about quantities of processed animals by species were collected from existing public databases, Estonian Animal Waste Processing Plant and meat processing enterprises of Estonia. Data from scientific literature and available statistics as well as data about the quantities of meat and slaughtering products observed in slaughterhouses was used for estimation the average of ABP quantities per animal by species. Based on these two datagroups – number of animals (by species) and yield of ABP per animal during meat processing, functionality of the general calculation model for monitoring was tested. Inputs for this model are numbers of animals by species and outputs accordingly the quantities of ABP by risk-categories and types. During evaluation of the calculation model it was estimated that nearly 22 thousand tons of ABP are generated in the recognized slaughterhouses of Estonia annually. 1,900 tons of it consists of 1st category ABP, 3,400 tons 2nd category and over 17,000 tons 3rd category ABP. On the other hand quantities of ABP delivered from meat industry to the reprocessing as a 1st category was 4,900 tons which exceeded the estimated (by calculation model) amounts about 3.5 times. Thus a great deal of other ABP categories had also been sent for reprocessing as the most dangerous waste. This fact indicates to the insufficient use of 2nd and 3rd category ABP as raw material in Estonian meat industry. Existence of an efficient monitoring system will promote the management of ABP recourses in slaughterhouses and meat processing companies. For this the relevant databases, procedures and methods should be worked out.

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1064-1073 S. Senhofa, E. Straumite, M. Sabovics, D. Klava, R. Galoburda andT. Rakcejeva
The effect of packaging type on quality of cereal muesli during storage
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The effect of packaging type on quality of cereal muesli during storage

S. Senhofa*, E. Straumite, M. Sabovics, D. Klava, R. Galoburda andT. Rakcejeva

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Food Technology, Liela Street 2, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia *Correspondence: santa@musli.lv

Abstract:

Cereal-derived breakfast products (cereal flakes, bread, and muesli) are increasingly consumed because they are an important source of energy for adults and children. Shelf-life of foods is highly dependent on the permeability characteristics of the packaging materials, which emphasize the importance of packaging design. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes of physically-chemical, microbiological and sensory parametrs of cereal muesli with chocolate and apricots during storage. Samples of muesli with chocolate and apricots were packaged in 3 different types of packaging–paper bag, paper tubes and Doypack (stand-up pouches) and stored for 9 months (at 20 ± 2°C temperature and relative air humidity – 55 ± 3%). During the storage moisture content, water activity, total plate count of mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms (MAFAm), mould and yeast, volatile compounds and sensory quality were evaluated in analysed muesli samples. The lowest moisture content after 9 months storage was determined for muesli samples stored in paper bag. Total number of mesophilic aerobic facultative anaerobic microorganisms (MAFAm, mould and yeast) of muesli in all samples during storage slightly increased. After 9 months storage muesli with chocolate and apricots in the Doypack had the best sensory properties. In muesli with chocolate and apricots there were identified 18 volatile compounds. The results indicated that paper bags were the least suitable for packaging of cereal muesli with chocolate and apricot, because of essential quality changes of samples during their storage. The shelf-life of 9 months can be recommended for cereal muesli with chocolate and apricots packaged in paper tube or Doypack.

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1074-1085 B. Shershenkov and E. Suchkova
Upgrading the technology of functional dairy products by means of fermentation process ultrasonic intensification
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Upgrading the technology of functional dairy products by means of fermentation process ultrasonic intensification

B. Shershenkov* and E. Suchkova

ITMO University, Institute of Refrigeration and Biotechnologies, Department of Technology of Milk and Food Biotechnology, Lomonosov str., 9, 191002, St. Petersburg, Russia; *Correspondence: boris.shershenkov@list.ru

Abstract:

Intensification of milk fermentation without negative influence on product quality is a priority research direction in dairy industry. One of the perspective tools for solving this problem is usage of ultrasound. Careful selection of ultrasonic treatment regimens allows to activate lactic-acid bacteria metabolic activity and to improve the efficiency of dairy production. A number of cultivations were carried out for ultrasonic processing effect estimation on Lactococcus mixed culture, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus symbiotic cultures that are often used for dairy fermentation. Milk with added starter culture was treated with ultrasound by means of ultrasonic homogenizer at a frequency of about 30 kHz. Processing duration varied from 1 to 3 minutes and ultrasound power varied from 2 to 8 W. Ultrasonication regimens of fermenting milk allowed accelerating of fermentative process by 10% and improving the quality of final product.

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1086-1095 E. Skripleva, and T. Arseneva
Optimization of the recipe of yoghurt with additives and control of some quality attributes of new yoghurt recipe
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Optimization of the recipe of yoghurt with additives and control of some quality attributes of new yoghurt recipe

E. Skripleva¹,* and T. Arseneva²

¹Institute of Refrigeration and Biotechnologies, ITMO University, Lomonosova street 9, 191002, Saint-Petersburg, Russia; *Correspondence: 4ernamurka@rambler.ru 2Institute of Refrigeration and Biotechnologies, ITMO University, Lomonosova street 9, 191002, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

Abstract:

According to the data and the results of clinical trials received in Nutrition Institute of ‘Russian Academy of Medical Sciences’, it was found that 80% of Russians suffer from lack of selenium. Saint-Petersburg University Innovation Company ‘Littoral’ has developed a biologically active food supplement ‘Selenium Alga plus’. The aim of this research was to investigate the possibility of using dietary supplement ‘Selenium Alga Plus’ in yoghurt manufacture. Almost all groups of the population consume such fermented milk drink as yogurt, so that it is considered that this method increasing selenium as the most effective. People suffering from diabetes may have lack of selenium in the organism, as well as healthy people. Since traditional yogurt contains 11% of sucrose, it is necessary to choose sweetening components with vegetable origin. Selecting sweetening components of vegetable origin we pursued the dual purpose. Firstly, we created a sweet product, which would be a source of organic selenium. Therefore the sucrose was replaced with the plant origin sweeteners such as syrup of Jerusalem artichoke and stevioside. Secondly, it was the development of technology and composition of functional food product, intended not only for mass consumption, but also for people suffer from diabetes. It becomes possible due to the absence of sucrose, the presence of selenium and Jerusalem artichoke, which are able to reduce the blood sugar level.

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1096-1103 V. Strazdina,, V. Sterna, A. Jemeljanovs, I. Jansons and D. Ikauniece
Investigation of beaver meat obtained in Latvia
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Investigation of beaver meat obtained in Latvia

V. Strazdina¹,*, V. Sterna², A. Jemeljanovs³, I. Jansons¹ and D. Ikauniece¹

¹Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment BIOR, Instituta street 1, Siguldas nov., Latvia, LV 2150; *Correspondence: vitastrazdina@inbox.lv 2Department of Agro–ecological Research, State Stende Cereals Breeding Institute, ‘Dižzemes’, Dižstende, Lībagi parish, Talsi County, Latvia 3Faculty of Veterinary medicine, Latvia University of Agriculture, K. Helmaņa street 8, Jelgava, Latvia, LV 3004

Abstract:

There is a high interest on the part of consumers to obtain meat from animals which have been reared as close to natural conditions as possible. Game meat, characterised by high nutritional value and specific organoleptic qualities, complies also to this claim. Game animals, including beaver, meat provide an excellent investment, diversification of many consumer meals. The meat of wild animals is more favourable for human health because it has lower saturated fatty acids. Investigations about biochemical composition of beaver meat are not very common worldwide. The aim of study was evaluate biochemical composition of beaver meat hunted in Latvia. Therefore protein, amino acids, fat, ash, cholesterol content and fatty acid composition of beaver meat samples were done. Conclusion was made that beaver meat samples protein content was 20.07–22.68% and fat content 3.31–5.27%. The sum of essential amino acids in beaver meet samples was determined from 0.99 mg 100 g-1, less than other game meat. While the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in meat samples of beaver (42.54%) was significantly higher than content of saturated (26.80%) or monounsaturated (27.42%) fatty acids. Ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids n–6 : n–3 in beaver meat samples were 1.26, PUFA : SFA in beaver meat samples were 1.60 and cholesterol content 49.51 mg 100 g-1 was lower in comparison of domestic or wild animals meat. From this point of view beaver meat is very healthy source of fat.

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1112-1119 V. Tatar, H. Mootse, A. Sats, T. Mahla, T. Kaart and V. Poikalainen
Evaluation of size distribution of fat globules and fat and protein content in Estonian Goat milk
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Evaluation of size distribution of fat globules and fat and protein content in Estonian Goat milk

V. Tatar*, H. Mootse, A. Sats, T. Mahla, T. Kaart and V. Poikalainen

Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia, *Correspondence: vilma.tatar@emu.ee

Abstract:

The objectives of this study were to investigate size distribution of fat globules, fat and protein content in Estonian goat milk. The bulk milk samples were collected from three different crossbreed goat herds. These herds consist of 30% of the Saanen breed and 70% did not belong to any certain breed. Lactation of goats was scattered over the year. Goat milk samples were examined weekly during a 10 month period. Fat and protein content in goat milk ranged from 3.09% to 5.04% and from 2.74% to 3.96% respectively. Fat content in cow milk ranged from 3.77% to 4.75% and protein content ranged from 3.14% to 3.75%. The average fat content in goat milk (3.88%) was less than the mean fat content in cow milk (4.0%). The average protein content in goat milk (3.41%) was higher than the mean protein content in cow milk (3.38%). Depending on the season, fat and protein content in goat milk varied by as much as 0.38% and 0.28% accordingly. The diameter of milk fat globules (MFG) was estimated using microscope Nikon SMZ 1000, equipped with the digital camera Nikon DS-U2/L2 USB and the software NIS-Elements D3.1. The average diameter of fat globules was 2.22 μm, ranging from 0.34 to 6.99 μm. The average size distribution of MFG had unimodal and slightly right skewed shape: 5.7% of globules were in range 0.5–1.0 μm, 15.9% in range 1.0–1.5 μm, 22.1% in range 1.5–2.0 μm, 21.0% in range 2.0–2.5, 16.1% in range 2.5–3.0 μm, 10.0% in range 3.0–3.5 μm, 4.3% in range 3.5–4.0 μm, 0.9% in range 4.5–5.0 μm.

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1120-1130 L. Tomsone and Z. Krūma
Stability of rapeseed oil with horseradish Amorica rusticana L. and lovage Levisticum officinale L. extracts under medium temperature accelerated storage conditions
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Stability of rapeseed oil with horseradish Amorica rusticana L. and lovage Levisticum officinale L. extracts under medium temperature accelerated storage conditions

L. Tomsone* and Z. Krūma

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Food Technology, Liela iela 2, LV-3001, Jelgava, Latvia *Correspondence: lolita.tomsone@llu.lv

Abstract:

This study examined the antioxidant activity of horseradish leaves and lovage leaves and stems extracts added to crude rapeseed oil, under medium temperature accelerated storage conditions. To evaluate efficiency of plant extracts they were added to oil in different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%). As a control rapeseed oil without extracts where analysed. For comparison 0.01% butylatedhydroxytoluene (BHT) were added to oil. Efficiency of extracts in oil where tested at +60 ± 1°C in the dark for 22 days. For all samples peroxide value, acid value and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrozyl (DPPH˙) activity were determined. In all steps of the experiments for samples with extract peroxide value was significantly (P < 0.05) lower comparing to the control. The control sample without extract reached 15meq O2 kg-1 oil (maximal allowed value in Latvian legislation) in 3 days. The best results showed the horseradish leaves extract (1%) and the lovage leave extract (1.5%) reaching this value in 8.3 days and 7 days, respectively. DPPH˙ activity of the oil was compared after 3 days (when blank sample reached maximal allowed a peroxide value) and it shown that for all samples it was higher compared to the control sample. The highest activity showed the samples with horseradish leave extracts. A acid value in oil samples changed slightly. Lovage leave as stem and horseradish leave extracts could be successfully used for retarding of oxidation of rapeseed oil and in further experiments their activity in meat products will be tested.

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1131-1142 A. Tänavots, A. Põldvere, J. Torp, R. Soidla, T. Mahla, H. Andreson andL. Lepasalu
Effect of age on composition and quality of Longissimus thoracis muscle of the moose (Alces alces L.) harvested in Estonia
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Effect of age on composition and quality of Longissimus thoracis muscle of the moose (Alces alces L.) harvested in Estonia

A. Tänavots¹*, A. Põldvere²⋅³, J. Torp², R. Soidla², T. Mahla², H. Andreson² andL. Lepasalu²

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, Kreutzwaldi 62, 51014, Tartu, Estonia; *Correspondence: alo.tanavots@emu.ee 2Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Department of Food Science and Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56/5, 51014, Tartu, Estonia 3Estonian Pig Breeding Association, Aretuse 2, 61411 Märja, Tartumaa, Estonia

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the biochemical composition and technological parameters of muscle (Longissimus thoracis) from adult and calf moose (Alces alces L.) hunter-harvested in the forest of southern Estonia. The experiment was based on 13 hunted moose, of which seven were adults (two males and five females) and six calves (two males and four females). The highest intramuscular fat (IMF) level was found in adult female moose muscles (1.50%), and the lowest in adult male moose muscle (0.46%). Adult moose muscles had higher IMF level (1.14%) than calves (0.98%) (P = 0.451). The protein content found in the muscle samples of adult moose was 0.64% higher than that in calves (21.80%) (P = 0.045). The moisture content of muscle from adult moose was lower (75.30%) and varied more than that of calves (76.07%) (P = 0.051). The initial (5.00–5.59) and ultimate (5.40–5.64) pH in muscle samples were within the normal range, both in adults and calves, except in one of the hunted female calf that had high pH values (pH45min = 6.60 and pH72hr = 6.90), obviously because of stress. The WHC of moose muscles was considerably high (60.50–75.20%), and cooking loss for thermally processed moose muscle ranged between 19.10% and 33.39%. Muscle sample from adult moose had the highest cooking loss (29.69%) while that from the calves was the lowest (26.42%) (P = 0.191). More force (32.54 N) was needed to share muscle samples from adult moose compared to cutting the samples from calves (23.92 N) (P = 0.374). Based on the results of the experiments it can be concluded that the meat from younger moose had better technological quality and tenderness.

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1143-1151 S. Velotto, F. Pagano, C.M.A. Barone, M. Esposito, G. Civale and A. Crasto
Effect of aging technologies on some qualitative characteristics of Longissimus dorsi muscle of Marchigiana beef
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Effect of aging technologies on some qualitative characteristics of Longissimus dorsi muscle of Marchigiana beef

S. Velotto, F. Pagano, C.M.A. Barone, M. Esposito, G. Civale and A. Crasto*

University of Naples, Department of Agriculture, Via Università, 100 – 80055 Portici (NA), Italy; *Correspondence: crasto@unina.it

Abstract:

In order to determine sensory preference and value of fresh beef steak differing in aging technique, this study evaluated two aging methods: dry and wet; a quality grade on physic-chemical traits of instrumental tenderness, color, and sensory properties of Longissimus dorsi beef muscle of Marchigiana bovine, correlated to calpain proteolytic activity too. Dry-aged loins had higher (P < 0.0001) weight loss than wet aged loins. Wet aged loins had higher (P < 0.01) L* values than dry aged loins. Warner-Blatzer shear force of steaks was not affected (P > 0.05) by aging method. We made a sensory panel evaluation too that showed no effect (P > 0.05) of aging method on myofibrillar tenderness, juiciness, connective tissue amount, overall tenderness or off flavor intensity.

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1152-1159 E. Viirlaid, R. Riiberg, U. Mäeorg and T. Rinken
Glyphosate attachment on aminoactivated carriers for sample stabilization and concentration
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Glyphosate attachment on aminoactivated carriers for sample stabilization and concentration

E. Viirlaid*, R. Riiberg, U. Mäeorg and T. Rinken

University of Tartu, Institute of Chemistry, Ravila 14A, 50411, Tartu, Estonia *Correspondence: edith.viirlaid@ut.ee

Abstract:

Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) is the most widely used non-selective postemergence herbicide for weed and vegetation control. The need for monitoring glyphosate levels in environmental samples and agricultural products proceeds from its extensive use due to the unregulated application and contradictory information about its toxicity on living organisms. In order to achieve high sensitivity and reliability of glyphosate assessment, stabilization and preconcentration steps are generally required for its determination in different samples. The aim of the present study was to develop and optimize possibilities for effective glyphosate stabilization and concentration using aminoactivated nano- and microparticles of different materials. The results show that the usage of aminoactivated iron (II,III) oxide magnetic nanoparticles for the attachment and concentration of glyphosate is a prospective option to be integrated with in situ analytical technologies (e.g. biosensors), as the whole processes of glyphosate attachment was efficiently and reproductively carried out within 20 minutes.

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