Volume 14 (2016)
  Number 3

Journal Full Text: Vol14No3

Contents


Pages

641–649 A. Adamovics, S. Ivanovs and V. Stramkale
Investigations about the impact of norms of the fertilisers and cultivars upon the crop capacity biomass of industrial hemp
Abstract |
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Investigations about the impact of norms of the fertilisers and cultivars upon the crop capacity biomass of industrial hemp

A. Adamovics, S. Ivanovs* and V. Stramkale

Latvia University of Agriculture, Liela iela 2, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: semjons@apollo.lv

Abstract:

Field trials were carried out in 2012–2014, on the Research and Study Farm ‘Pēterlauki’ of the Latvia University of Agriculture. Eleven sorts of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) – ‘Bialobrzeskie’, ‘Futura 75’, ‘Fedora 17’, ‘Santhica 27’, ‘Beniko’, ‘Ferimon’, ‘Felina 32’, ‘Epsilon 68’, ‘Tygra’, ‘Wojko’ and ‘Uso 31’ were sown in a sod calcareous soil (pHKCl 6.7, P 52 mg kg-1, K 128 mg kg-1, the organic matter content 21–25 g kg-1). The total seeding rate was 50 kg ha-1. The plots were fertilised as follows: N-120, P2O5– 90, K2O- 150 kg ha-1. Hemp was sown in the middle of May, in 10 m2 plots, triplicate. Hemp was harvested when the first matured seeds appeared. The biometrical indices, the height and stem diameter, the harvesting time, the amount of fresh and dry biomass and the fibre content were evaluated.
Yield of dry matter on average comprised 15.06 t ha-1, depending on the cultivars. Cultivation year and cultivar notably affected hemp biomass yield. In 2012, the highest yield of dry biomass was produced from cultivars ‘Futura 75’ (21.33 t ha-1) and ‘Tygra’ (20.87 t ha-1), the lowest – from ‘Bialobrzeskie’ (11.95 t ha-1). Significantly higher average yield of dry biomass was obtained from cultivars ‘Futura 75’ (17.76 t ha-1), ‘Tygra’ (16.31 t ha-1), ‘Wojko’ (15.51 t ha-1) and ‘Epsilon 68’ (15.28 t ha-1), the lowest – ‘Bialobrzeskie’ and ‘Uso 31’ (13.53 t ha-1). Meteorological conditions influenced the dry biomass yield.
The aim of this study was find productive cultivar of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and clarify nitrogen fertiliser rates impact for biomass production in Latvia.

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650–660 A. Ayhan
Biogas potential from animal waste of Marmara Region-Turkey
Abstract |
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Biogas potential from animal waste of Marmara Region-Turkey

A. Ayhan

University of Uludag, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Biosystems Engineering,
TR16059, Nilüfer, Bursa, Turkey; e-mail: aayhan@uludag.edu.tr

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine the biogas production capacity from animal wastes in Marmara region of Turkey for the years 2005–2014. The wastes from the cattle and hen in the region were considered the resource for biogas production taking the number of animals and the collectability of the wastes into the account. Three scenarios were evaluated to estimate the biogas capacity by assuming that 100% (theoretical potential), 50%, and 25% of the total animal waste could be used for biogas production in the region. For theoretical biogas production from cattle wastes, the greatest potential in the year 2014 was calculated for Balıkesir province with 145.53 Mm3, followed by Çanakkale, Bursa, Sakarya, and other seven provinces. Balıkesir had the highest biogas potential in 2014 from the poultry waste, too, followed by Sakarya, Kocaeli, Bursa, and other seven provinces. Biogas potential (100%) of Marmara region increased by 15% from 2005 to 2014 with 1,242.17 Mm3 in 2014. The heat and electrical energy equivalents of the biogas were found to be 7,453.02 GWh and 2,608.56 GWhe, respectively. In the other two scenarios, depending on the utilization rate of theoretical biogas potential: biogas amount, heat and electric power values were determined proportionally.

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661–671 I. Balada, V. Altmann and P. Šařec
Material waste paper recycling for the production of substrates and briquettes
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Material waste paper recycling for the production of substrates and briquettes

I. Balada*, V. Altmann and P. Šařec

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of
Machinery Utilization, Kamycka 129, CZ 165 21, Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: baladai@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This Article is focusing on recycling waste paper, which became one of the main collecting commodities for its widespread use in many economic regions. The introduction provides an overview of the development of a segment of waste paper in the EU. The article presents information about product options, new materials from processed waste and waste paper. The first part of the article describesthe situation in the Central Bohemia region both in terms of production and in terms of processing capacities. The next part of the article contains the practical information and value gained from the process of production of briquettes from waste paper and the description and analysis of technologies as well as description and analysis of achieved physical characteristics of manufactured briquettes. Another mentioned option for using waste paper is the application in substrate production technology as an input material with excellent physical properties, which could become an indispensable component in the production of highquality substrates. The resulting values indicate a higher absorption capacity of fluids that are substrates of biodegradable materials. In both technologies there are present variations of the different samples and their ratios used to manufacture the final products and are shown in the resulting comparison.

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672–682 D. Berjoza, V. Pirs, I. Dukulis and I. Jurgena
Development and analysis of a driving cycle to identify the effectiveness of the vacuum brake booster
Abstract |
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Development and analysis of a driving cycle to identify the effectiveness of the vacuum brake booster

D. Berjoza¹*, V. Pirs¹, I. Dukulis¹ and I. Jurgena²

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Motor Vehicle,
5 J. Cakstes boulevard, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Economics and Social Development,
Institute of Business and Management Science, 18 Svetes str., LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: dainis.berjoza@llu.lv

Abstract:

In electric vehicles electric vacuum pumps are used instead of traditional vacuum generation devices – the vacuum pump or the intake manifold that are specific to vehicles with internal combustion engines. A special driving cycle has to be designed to identify the effectiveness of electric vacuum pumps. The initial experiments were carried out on a real road, intensively applying the breaks and exploiting the vacuum generation devices as long and intensively as possible. Basing on these experiments brake test cycle was developed. It consists of three braking regimes that involve smooth and uninterrupted braking, interrupted and repeated braking and multiple activation of the brake pedal. Using this cycle, it is possible to conduct research on the performance of various automobile components during braking.

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683–688 B. Bernardi, S. Benalia, A. Fazari, G. Zimbalatti, T. Stillitano and A.I. De Luca
Mechanical harvesting in traditional olive orchards: oli-picker case study
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Mechanical harvesting in traditional olive orchards: oli-picker case study

B. Bernardi, S. Benalia*, A. Fazari, G. Zimbalatti, T. Stillitano and A.I. De Luca

University of Reggio Calabria, Department of Agraria, Feo di Vito, IT 89122 Reggio
Calabria, Italy; *Correspondence: soraya.benalia@unirc.it

Abstract:

Olive harvesting is one of the most laborious and expensive agricultural practices. Indeed, it absorbs 50% of the product value, and this is due to the continuous increasing of labour from one hand and to the lake of labourers from the other hand. Traditional olive orchards are characterized by the presence of large, century old trees and a very low planting density. These conditions make it difficult to plan sustainable and highly productive harvesting models, and therefore require the employment of partially or fully mechanized harvesting systems. In this context, experimental trials were carried out in a traditional olive orchard, situated in Calabria (Southern Italy), in order to assess technical and economic aspects of a commonly used harvester named oli-picker. This machine allows olive harvesting from tree canopy thanks to a spiked cylindrical comb mounted on a hydraulic articulated arm. Particularly, data about operational working time as well as working productivity were collected for technical purposes, whereas economic evaluation considered harvesting cost expressed in terms of cost per hour, cost per unit of product (1 kg of olives) and average cost per hectare. The obtained results highlighted that working productivity referred to the operative time, was 0.37 trees h-1 worker-1, while the cost per kg of harvested olives was 0.20 € kg-1. From the conducted study, it emerges that encouraging results may be reached by mechanizing harvesting operation even in century old orchards.

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689–710 V. Bulgakov, V. Adamchuk, M. Arak, V. Nadykto, V. Kyurchev and J. Olt
Theory of vertical oscillations and dynamic stability of combined tractor-implement unit
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Theory of vertical oscillations and dynamic stability of combined tractor-implement unit

V. Bulgakov¹, V. Adamchuk², M. Arak³, V. Nadykto⁴, V. Kyurchev⁴ and J. Olt³*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15, Heroyiv Oborony Str., UK 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²National Scientific Centre, Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification, 11, Vokzalna Str., Glevaкha-1, Vasylkiv District, UK 08631 Kiev Region, Ukraine
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
⁴Tavria State Agrotechnological University of Ukraine, Khmelnytskoho pr. 18, Melitopol, UK 72312 Zaporozhye region, Ukraine
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

 Currently, throughout the world quite extensive use is made of combined tractor-implement units, which are capable of performing several process operations in the same pass. At the same time, the state-of-the-art ploughing and general-purpose tractors that can carry as front- so rear-mounted implements and accordingly feature both the front and rear PTOs, also able to travel efficiently as forward so in reverse gear, are most suited for the performance of such operations. Authors developed and successfully tested a combined tractor-implement unit on the basis of a wheeled ploughing and general-purpose tractor, which can in one pass efficiently chop the after harvesting crop residues with a front-mounted rotary chopper and simultaneously perform tillage with a rear-mounted plough. The aim of this study is the elaboration of the theoretical basis for the process of vertical oscillation of the combined ploughing and chopping tractor-implement unit and the validation of its dynamic stability in the longitudinal and vertical plane. The research has been performed with the use of the methods of designing the analytical mathematical models of functioning of agricultural machines and machine assembly units based on the theory of tractor, the vibration theory, the theory of automatic control and dynamic stability and the methods of computer programme construction and PC-assisted numerical computation. The dynamics of the said unit have been studied basing on the analysis of the amplitude frequency characteristics of the unit as a dynamic system responding to external perturbations appearing in the form of soil surface irregularities. Following the results of the undertaken analytical study, first the equivalent schematic model of the discussed combined tractor-implement unit in the longitudinal and vertical plane was developed, the unit’s characteristic points were defined, the linear and angular displacements specified and acting forces applied. Each pneumatic-tyre wheel of the unit represented by its elastically damping model had point contacts with the soil surface irregularities defined by the respective elevations. Using the original dynamic equations in the form of the Lagrange equations of the second kind, first we defined the generalised coordinates and the formulae for the kinetic and potential energy, dissipation functions and generalised forces, then, after performing the necessary transformations, we set up the system of four differential equations, which described the motion of the dynamic system under consideration. Further, we applied the Laplace transformations to the obtained differential equation system, which provided for obtaining the system of equations in the operator form and preparing them for the representation suitable for PC-assisted numerical calculations with the use of the developed computer programme. In accordance with the numerical computation results, graphs were plotted for the amplitude and phase frequency response characteristics of the tractor’s vertical oscillations at different stiffness coefficients of its steering wheels, the amplitude frequency response characteristics of the chopper’s oscillations depending on its mass and its support wheel tyres’ stiffness coefficient as well as the characteristics of the plough’s oscillations at different stiffness coefficients of its pneumatic-tyre ground support wheel.

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711–724 V. Bulgakov, V. Adamchuk, V. Gorobey and J. Olt
Theory of the oscillations of a toothed disc opener during its movement across irregularities of the soil surface
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Theory of the oscillations of a toothed disc opener during its movement across irregularities of the soil surface

V. Bulgakov¹, V. Adamchuk², V. Gorobey² and J. Olt³*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15, Heroyiv Oborony Str., UK 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²National Scientific Centre, Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification, 11, Vokzalna Str., Glevaкha-1, Vasylkiv District, UK 08631 Kiev Region, Ukraine
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

 The paper presents the main provisions of the new theory of oscillations of the versatile combined opener assembly of the breeding seed drill with a spring-suspended furrow opening toothed disc in the vertical longitudinal plane during its movement across irregularities of the soil surface. Basing on the improved design of the opener assembly, an equivalent schematic model has been developed, which takes into account the forces applied to the structural components of the opener, forces in the springs as well as the reaction of the soil acting on the toothed disc, the hoe-type seed conductor and the packing wheel. The system of differential equations has been set up, which describes the movement of the opener across irregularities of the soil surface depending on the opener’s design parameters and the kinematic modes of performing the drilling work process. The derived mathematical model makes it possible to determine the amplitudes and frequencies of the translational oscillations of the device in order to assess their impact on the drilling work process. The developed theory provides also tools for the assessment and lowering of the energy characteristics of the versatile breeding seed drill related to the oscillating movements of its openers in soil.

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725–732 D. Černý, J. Malaťák and J. Bradna
Influence of biofuel moisture content on combustion and emission characteristics of stove
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Influence of biofuel moisture content on combustion and emission characteristics of stove

D. Černý*, J. Malaťák and J. Bradna

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ 165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: david.cerny@dotacenazeleno.cz

Abstract:

 The research aim was to study the effect of moisture in solid fuel on combustion in a stove and its emissions. Analysed samples were from spruce woodchips. Four samples were prepared with different moisture contents and furthermore spruce wood was used as a reference sample. Combustion device used was a stove with a fixed fire grate. Studied parameters were ambient temperature, temperature of flue gases, coefficient of excess air, and contents of oxygen and carbon monoxide in flue gases. Laboratory measurement was performed on an analyser of flue gases whose function is based on electro-chemical converters. Measured values were first converted to a referential oxygen content in flue gases. Evaluation of these values was then made by regression analyses. The course of combustion process and its quality can be seen well in functional dependence of carbon monoxide on excess air coefficient. The area of combustion was the smallest with the least moist sample (3.2%) and increases with increasing moisture. A sample with high moisture (31.1%) was already causing the fire to gradually extinguish. Because flue gas temperature is in the same range for all samples, the overall efficiency of the stove decreases sharply with fuel moisture due to specific heat of flue gases. It has been thus confirmed that fuel moisture content has a substantial influence on combustion, especially in the chosen combustion device, which has been verified by comparison with the reference fuel.

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733–744 M. Dlouhy, J. Lev and M. Kroulik
Technical and software solutions for autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) navigation in case of unavailable GPS signal
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Technical and software solutions for autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) navigation in case of unavailable GPS signal

M. Dlouhy¹, J. Lev² and M. Kroulik¹*

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Physics, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: kroulik@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

 The article presents autonomous navigation for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) without GPS support flying in extremely low altitudes (1.5 m – 2.5 m). Solution via visual navigation as an alternative to missing GPS position was proposed. MSER (Maximally stable extremal regions) was used as a navigation algorithm for detection of navigations objects. While GPS is useful for waypoints specification there are scenarios where GPS has unreliable signal (orchards) or is not available at all (indoor machinery halls or greenhouses). For that reason existing installed camera which is already needed for the task of inspection was used. The navigation algorithm was tested in two scenarios. The first experiment was done with dashed line marked on the floor of the hall. 8-loop testing track was created approximately 10 meters long so it was possible to fly it several times. Then outdoor experiments were performed on the university campus and park roads.
One of the discoveries was that MSER algorithm, proposed for finding correspondences between images, is possible to run in real-time. High reliability of the navigation algorithm was found during the indoor testing. The incorrect detection of the dashed line was found only in 1% of cases and those failures did not cause failure of navigation.
Although outdoor road recognition is difficult in general due to various surfaces and smoothness, MSER was able to find suitable candidates. When the UAV was fed with the parameter of road width it could verify that information with estimated distance and camera pose to accept or reject the detected pattern. The road was successfully recognized in 40% cases. Similar to the indoor algorithm in the case of navigation failure navigation along the absolute trajectory (line) was used.

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745–753 V. Dubrovskis and I. Plume
Microalgae for biomethane production
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Microalgae for biomethane production

V. Dubrovskis* and I. Plume

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Energetics, Cakstes blvd 5, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia; *Correspondence: vilisd@inbox.lv

Abstract:

 Competition for arable land between food and energy producers has begun in Latvia. Biogas producers are seeking to use the hitherto unused land. There is a need to investigate the suitability of various biomasses for energy production. Maize is the dominating crop for biogas production in Latvia, but it is expensive to grow. The cultivation of more varied biomass with good economics and low environmental impact is thus desirable. Microalgae can be grown in pipes, basins and also in open ponds. This paper shows the results from the anaerobic digestion of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris, cultivated with fertilizer Varicon in open pond and harvested on 27 October and centrifuged (Study 1). The anaerobic digestion process was investigated for biogas production in sixteen 0.75 l digesters, operated in batch mode at temperature 38 ± 1.0 °C. The average methane yield per unit of dry organic matter added (DOM) from digestion of Chlorella vulgaris was 0.331 l gDOM-1. The second investigation (Study 2) used fresh biomass of Chlorella vulgaris harvested on 10–15 June with low dry matter content, as it was obtained from 4 m deep open pond without centrifugation. Anaerobic digestion process was provided in 4 digesters with volume of 5 l each. Average methane yield from the digestion of Chlorella vulgaris was 0.290 l gDOM-1, which is comparable to methane yield obtainable from maize silage or other energy crop silages. Microalgae Chlorella vulgaris can be successfully cultivated for biogas production from May to October or at least 170–180 days in a year under the agro-ecological conditions in Latvia.

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754–767 T. Horschig, E. Billig and D. Thrän,
Model-based estimation of market potential for Bio-SNG in the German biomethane market until 2030 within a system dynamics approach
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Model-based estimation of market potential for Bio-SNG in the German biomethane market until 2030 within a system dynamics approach

T. Horschig¹*, E. Billig² and D. Thrän¹,²

¹DBFZ – Deutsches BiomasseForschungszentrum gGmbH, Department of Bioenergysystems, Torgauer Straße 116, DE 04347 Leipzig, Germany
²UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Bioenergysystems, Permoserstraße 15, DE 04347 Leipzig, Germany
*Correspondence: thomas.horschig@dbfz.de

Abstract:

 One option for energy provision from renewables is the production and grid injection of synthetic natural gas from lignin-rich biomass like wood and straw. Bio-SNG (biological produced synthetic/substitute natural gas) is the product of the thermochemical production of methane via gasification and methanation of lignin-rich biomass. The first commercial bio-SNG plant went successfully into operation in the end of 2014, in Gothenburg (Sweden). Regarding the huge potential of lignin-rich biomass bio-SNG is expected to have a high potential for a sustainable and greenhouse gas reducing contribution in power, heat and fuel markets. Being a future technology with great advantages like storability and transportability within a gas grid but recently too high prices for market implementation, possible future market shares are uncertain because bio-SNG has to compete with anaerobic biomethane as well as fossil alternatives. With the combination of an extensive techno-economic evaluation for present and future costs of bio-SNG depending on the feedstock supply chain and economy of scale, Delphi-Survey and a quantitative market simulation we determined future market shares for biomethane and bio-SNG for Germany under varying scenarios like incentive schemes, economy of scale and feedstock prices. Results indicate that substantial governmental support in terms of either R&D effort to lower bio-SNG prices or direct subsidies for a further capacity development is necessary to achieve significant market shares for biogenic methane.

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768–778 M. Hromasová and M. Linda
Analysis of rapid temperature changes
Abstract |
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Analysis of rapid temperature changes

M. Hromasová* and M. Linda

Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Kamycka 129, CZ165 21 Praha – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: hromasova@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

 The analysis of rapid temperature changes in the dynamic system is described in the paper. Temperature changes are in range of tens of milliseconds. The sensor we used has a significant influence on the dynamic system. In these cases we need to use thermocouples that have appropriate transfer characteristics and can be manufactured with a low time constant. The time constant directly corresponds with weight and size of the sensor. The quality factor is usually in a range between 0.98 and 0.995. Information about the temperature course is particularly important in the field of dynamic systems, e.g. agricultural machines where the switching components are overloaded by pulse switching of technology systems. For the object analysis we use the thermocouples with diameter 0.012 mm with non-encapsulated finish and 0.12 mm with suppression of interference impact and comparative temperature fluctuation. For the analysis of dynamic temperature changes we conduct a measurement with a load factor change, which is the mean value of power change, expressed as ratio of the pulse duration to the delay between pulses, this way we will affect the measurement conditions. As a solution we use measurement methods for a steady state, an impulse test and a method of local measurement of temperature. Compared to a real principle of a component we do not increase temperature of the environment during experiments. The results of measurement can be applied for design and implementation of switching systems for electronic circuits with signal modulation and power load.

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779–782 A. Ince, Y. Vurarak and S.M. Say
An approach for determination of quality in hay bale and haylage
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An approach for determination of quality in hay bale and haylage

A. Ince¹*, Y. Vurarak² and S.M. Say³

¹Çukurova University, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural Machinery and Technologies Engineering Department, TR 01330 Balcali-Adana, Turkey
²Eastern Mediterranean Agricultural Research Institute, P. Box: 45 Adana, Turkey
³Çukurova University, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural Machinery and Technologies Engineering Department, TR 01330 Balcali-Adana, Turkey
*Correspondence: aince@cu.edu.tr

Abstract:

 In this study, a new approach for faster determination of quality in hay bale and haylage was aimed. To this end, the relationships between bale densities, dry matter (DM), pH content and penetrometer values in hay bale and haylage were investigated. The mixture of caramba (Lolium multiform cv Caramba) and berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L) was used as forage material. It was harvested by using two different harvesting methods and stored as dry hay and haylage. The penetrometer values were measured at four different points on bales. It was obtained that the pH content decreased with increase in bale density (R2 = 0.86) and with decrease in DM content (R2 = 0.86). The values measured at vertical-middle point gave higher correlation with density and pH contents.

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783–789 P. Jindra, M. Kotek, J. Mařík and M. Vojtíšek
Effect of different biofuels to particulate matters production
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Effect of different biofuels to particulate matters production

P. Jindra¹*, M. Kotek¹, J. Mařík¹ and M. Vojtíšek²

¹Czech University of Life Science Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýcká 129, CZ 16521 Prague, Czech republic
²Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Center of Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility, Technická 4, CZ 16607 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: jindrap@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

 In recent years the European Union has exhibited a significant interest in the reduction of crude oil usage. Biofuels can be used in conventional engines but the biofuels should reduce the emissions produced by internal combustion engines. This article deals with analysis of particulate matters (PM) production in chosen biofuels burned in internal combustion engine Zetor 1505. The conventional emission analysers are capable to detect gaseous emission components but they are not able to classify PM. Analysis of PM was performed with a TSI Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer 3090 which is able to classify particles from 5.6 nm to 560 nm. The device analysed different blends of alcohol–based biofuels tested under NRSC cycle conditions. The given size of PM can be taken as an impact on human organism’s cells consequently human health. PM create an ideal medium for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), their composition and structure. Analysis of PM should become a standard component of every emission parameter assessment.

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790–800 J. Jobbágy, K. Krištof and P. Findura
Soil compaction caused by irrigation machinery
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Soil compaction caused by irrigation machinery

J. Jobbágy, K. Krištof* and P. Findura

Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Systems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK 94976 Nitra, Slovakia, *Correspondence: koloman.kristof@uniag.sk

Abstract:

 This contribution is focused on the analysis of soil compaction with chassis of a wide-span irrigation machine, Valmont. The sprinkler had 12 two-wheeled chassis (size of tyre 14.9”×24”). During the evaluation of soil compaction, we monitored the values of penetration resistance and soil moisture during the operation of the sprinkler. Considering the performance parameters of the pump, the sprinkler was only half of its length (300 m) in the technological operation. In this area, also field measurements were performed in 19 monitoring points spaced both in tracks and outside the chassis tracks. The analysis showed the impact of compression with sprinkler wheels. The results of average resistance ranged from 1.20 to 3.26 MPa. The values of the maximum resistance ranged from 2.30 to 5.35 MPa. The results indicated a shallow soil compaction; however, it is not devastating.

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801–810 F. Kurtulmuş,, S. Öztüfekçi and İ. Kavdir
Identification of worm-damaged chestnuts using impact acoustics and support vector machine
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Identification of worm-damaged chestnuts using impact acoustics and support vector machine

F. Kurtulmuş¹,*, S. Öztüfekçi² and İ. Kavdir³

¹Uludag University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Biosystems Engineering, TR 16059 Bursa, Turkey
²Uludag University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, TR 16059 Bursa, Turkey
³Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery and Technologies Engineering, Çanakkale, Turkey
*Correspondence: ferhatk@uludag.edu.tr

Abstract:

Chestnut has both economically and nutritional values, and its production in the World is about 2 Mt. Turkey is one of the important chestnut producers with a production amount of about 60,000 t. Worm damage is one of the reasons which may reduce economical value of chestnut. Aim of this study was to reveal possibilities of distinguishing of worm-damaged chestnuts from healthy ones using impact acoustics and sound analysis methods. A Turkish local variety called ‘Osmanoglu’ was chosen for the study. A sound acquisition station was comprised, and acoustic emissions of worm-damaged and healthy nuts were acquired at a sampling quality of 192 kHz and 16 bit. Each sample was labelled according to worminess situation by shattering the nut after acoustic measurements. A band-pass filter between cutoff frequencies of 70 Hz and 100 kHz was designed and applied to sound samples to alleviate negative effects of unwanted noise. Various signal features such as variance, standard deviation, kurtosis, zero crossing rate, and spectral centroid were calculated. A relevant feature subset was determined using feature selection technics. An identification model was trained using Support Vector Machine and cross-validation rules. Performance of the classification system was measured on a test set. In this study, reporting the preliminary results of an ongoing and comprehensive research project1, promising results were obtained for identification of worm-damaged chestnuts with proposed system.

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811–820 A. Laurs, Z. Markovics, J. Priekulis and A. Aboltins
Research in farm management technologies using the expert method
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Research in farm management technologies using the expert method

A. Laurs¹*, Z. Markovics², J. Priekulis¹ and A. Aboltins¹

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Agriculture Machinery, J. Čakstes bulv. 5, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Riga Technical University, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Institute of Computer Control, Automation and Computer Engineering, Daugavgrīvas iela 2, LV-1048 Rīga, Latvia
*Correspondence: armins.laurs@promedia.lv

Abstract:

 The task of the research was to state the most popular peculiarities of farm management technologies depending on the size of the herd in order to use the research results in calculations of greenhouse gas emissions. The research was performed applying the expert methods based on the farm management technologies as they are closely related to the size of the herd and the kind of the obtained farm manure. The expert method can be applied for research in farm management technologies of different animal species and groups, but in the present article only milk cow management technologies will be discussed as they produce the biggest amount of greenhouse gas emissions. The practice shows that on small farms the cows are tied, on medium farms – either tied or loose, but on large farms – only loose. On the farms where the cows are tied solid litter manure is obtained, but where the cows are handled loose – liquid manure is obtained. Besides, on the farms with a small herd the cows are pastured in summer and in this period manure spread in the pastures is produced. Stating the maximal size of the herd that is pastured and the length of the pasture period as well as the marginal size at which the transition from tied to loose handling takes place and additionally using the statistical data on the total number of cows in the country and the proportion of animals according to the size of the herd, it is possible to state from which proportion of milk cows solid litter is produced and from which – liquid manure. Therefore, the experts were given the task to name the marginal values of the above mentioned technology parameters based on the value intervals stated in advance. Thereupon that the experts had to state only one chosen value, it was not possible to apply the traditional expert evaluation methods and this method had to be adapted in accordance to the existing situation. The research results showed that in Latvia the critical size of the milk cow herd at which the transition from tied to loose handling takes place is 85 cows, the herds that are not larger than 90 cows are pastured but the pasture period lasts in average for 165 days.

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821–830 J. Lellep and A. Liyvapuu,
Natural vibrations of stepped arches with cracks
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Natural vibrations of stepped arches with cracks

J. Lellep¹ and A. Liyvapuu¹,²*

¹University of Tartu, Institute of Mathematics and Statistics, J. Liivi 2, EE50409 Tartu, Estonia
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Department of Agricultural and Production Engineering, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: liyvapuu@ut.ee

Abstract:

Natural vibrations of elastic circular arches are studied. The arches are assumed to be of constant width and piece wise constant height. It is assumed that at the re-entrant corners of steps stable surface cracks are located. The aim of the paper is to assess the sensitivity of the eigenfrequencies on the geometrical and physical parameters of the arch including the length and location of each crack.

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831–835 M. Lisicins, V. Lapkovskis and V. Mironovs
Utilisation of industrial steel wastes in polymer composite design and its agricultural applications
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Utilisation of industrial steel wastes in polymer composite design and its agricultural applications

M. Lisicins, V. Lapkovskis* and V. Mironovs

Riga Technical University, Scientific Laboratory of Powder Materials, Kipsalas str. 6B, LV–1048 Riga, Latvia; *Correspondence: lap911@gmail.com

Abstract:

 A constant development of agricultural activities is linked inherently to generation of significant amount of chemically aggressive organic wastes. This paper outlines a synergistic opportunity for industrial metalworking and plastic wastes recovery and re-use, with clear final product – composite steel-polymer material. Experimentally obtained composite polypropylene-perforated steel material is characterized by structural strength and stiffness provided by perforated steel tapes, and corrosion resistance assured by polypropylene layers, which protect steel from aggressive environment. Authors suppose that waste-based composite material could be applied for certain agricultural constructions, and namely, for boundary construction of farm animal feed lines and storage facilities for organic wastes and minerals.

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836–845 G. Macrì, G. Zimbalatti, D. Russo and A.R. Proto
Measuring the mobility parameters of tree-length forwarding systems using GPS technology in the Southern Italy forestry
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Measuring the mobility parameters of tree-length forwarding systems using GPS technology in the Southern Italy forestry

G. Macrì*, G. Zimbalatti, D. Russo and A.R. Proto

Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, Department of AGRARIA, Feo di Vito, IT 89122 – Reggio Calabria, Italy
*Correspondence: giorgio.macri@unirc.it

Abstract:

The introduction of modern forwarders to Apennines forest operations must account for the traditional forwarding units used by local logging contractors. They generally use the same machine for extraction and intermediate off-road transportation on mountain trails, inaccessible to heavy road vehicles. Conventional forwarders are not designed for fast transportation on trail and cannot replace conventional. This research set up a long-term follow-up study to determine the use pattern of three conventional tractor-trailer units (Forwarder, forestry trailer and articulated truck). The goal of this study was to gauge the potential of these machines. In particular, the study determined for both machine types: monthly usage, incidence of travelling time over total time, distance covered and travel speed. The null hypothesis was that use pattern, average travel distance and speed distribution did not differ between traditional tractor and trailer units and high-speed forwarders. For this purpose, Global Positioning System/Global System for Mobile Communications data loggers were installed for continuous real-time collection of the main work data, including position, status, speed and fuel consumption. The study showed that new forwarders could actually travel at a speed higher than 24 km h−1, and they performed both extraction and intermediate transportation. They were capable of independent relocation, which made them suitable for small-scale forestry. Both machine types were used intensively, but the annual usage of forwarders was almost twice as large as that of tractor-trailer units. Furthermore, forwarders had a 27% higher hourly productivity and a 50% higher fuel consumption per hour, compared with tractor-trailer units.

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846–852 A. Nautras, B. Reppo and J. Kuzmin
Pulse-video method for determining the workload and energy expenditure for assessing of work environment
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Pulse-video method for determining the workload and energy expenditure for assessing of work environment

A. Nautras*, B. Reppo and J. Kuzmin

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; *Correspondence: arles.nautras@emu.ee

Abstract:

 Examining the humans work load and energy consumption allows us to identify the energy used for working postures and techniques and thereby create solutions how to make work technology and work environment better and altogether improve an employees work ability. There are several methods in which human energy consumption is determined by working postures, type of work and handling of loads, they all take account only the physical load factors ignoring mental or microclimate factors in the work environment. In recent times there are also used the mathematical models, in which the energy consumtion is determined on the basis of pulss frequency. The methods are complicated to realize them in the work situation because they do not allow to determine the dynamics of the work load in the work process. The aim of this research was to develop a method that enables to use a computer to determine and analyse the work process on screen at real time and that shows the employee’s heart rate, work load and energy consumption momentary load values as well as their dynamics. The method is based on continuous measuring the employees pulse rate in the working process without disturbing him and at the same time also filming work process to make a video to demonstrate the results. We introduce the methodology how to measure an employees pulse rate, work load and energy consumption dynamics to make a compiled video. There are shown the fragments of research results about a farmer’s and glassblower’s work.

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853–861 U. Neimane, J. Katrevics, L. Sisenis, M. Purins, S. Luguza2 and A. Adamovics
Intra-annual dynamics of height growth of Norway spruce in Latvia
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Intra-annual dynamics of height growth of Norway spruce in Latvia

U. Neimane¹*, J. Katrevics¹, L. Sisenis², M. Purins¹, S. Luguza2 and A. Adamovics¹

¹Latvian State Forest Institute ‘Silava’, Rigas 111, LV 2169 Salaspils, Latvia
²Latvia University of Agriculture, Forest Faculty, Akademijas 11, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: una.neimane@silava.lv

Abstract:

 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) is a tree species with the highest economic importance in northern Europe. Therefore, it is important to improve knowledge of the potential effects of climatic changes on the growth of this tree species. An essential part of the information is the tree’s intra-annual growth cycle. There are comprehensive studies describing the formation of radial increments of coniferous trees; however, information on height growth in hemiboreal forests is scarce. The aim of our study was to characterize the intra-annual height growth of Norway spruce in Latvia. The data was collected from two Norway spruce trials located in in former arable and forest land in the central part of Latvia, including 89 and 68 open-pollinated families (respectively) of plus-trees. Weekly height increment measurements of 20 trees per family were carried out during the 9th growing season. Growth intensity culminated in 10 ± 0.2 mm day-1, following similar trend, but resulting consistently in significantly different values between the trials; the higher growth intensity was observed in higher trees and families, which also showed higher frequency of lammas shoots, boosting their height superiority even further. Significant family effect on all coefficients of shoot elongation curves, described by Gompertz model, was found. Both tree height and height increment at family mean level was strongly correlated with the asymptote parameter (rfam = 0.93, P<0.01) and the growth rate parameter (rfam = -0.70, P<0.01).

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862–872 D. Novák,, J. Pavlovkin, J. Volf and V. Novák
Optimization of vehicles’ trajectories by means of interpolation and approximation methods
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Optimization of vehicles’ trajectories by means of interpolation and approximation methods

D. Novák¹,*, J. Pavlovkin¹, J. Volf² and V. Novák²

¹Matej Bel University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Technology, Tajovského 40, SK 974 01 Banská Bystrica, Slovakia
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Kamýcká 129, CZ 16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: daniel.novak@umb.sk

Abstract:

 The need to optimize the trajectory of vehicles is still highly topical, regardless weather the means of transport are robots, forklifts or road vehicles. It is not only important the safety by passing obstacles, but also the energy balance, i.e. the energy expended on the movement of the vehicle and on the change of its direction. This paper presents a mathematical approach to solving this problem through interpolation and approximation curves.

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873–882 J. Pavlu, V. Jurca, Z. Ales and M. Pexa
Comparison of methods for fuel consumption measuring of vehicles
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Comparison of methods for fuel consumption measuring of vehicles

J. Pavlu*, V. Jurca, Z. Ales and M. Pexa

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: jindrichpavlu@seznam.cz

Abstract:

 Essential task for companies in these days is to reduce operating costs and optimization of workflow processes of machines, in order to increase the competitiveness and productivity. Telematics systems is relatively widespread and utilized for fleet management and enables collecting a wide range of operating parameters. One of the monitored parameters of operating costs is fuel consumption of machines. The collection of data on fuel consumption can be realized using various methods. By default, the fuel consumption data is transmitted from CAN–BUS which does not always coincide with the value of the real fuel consumption. Another possible way of fuel consumption monitoring is realized via installation of capacitance probe mounted directly into the fuel tank. The principle of measurement of these two methods is different, and each method has its own specifics. For instance, a capacitive probe enables detection of non-standard decreases of fuel level in the fuel tank. The aim of this paper is to compare the methods of fuel consumption measuring via the CAN–BUS and utilization of capacitive fuel probe. Measuring unit Gcom was used for collecting data which sends data of fuel consumption to the server in real–time. The purpose of this paper is to prove or disprove the hypothesis that measured fuel consumption is statistically significant between measuring via CAN-BUS compared to capacitance probe.

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883–895 R. Pecenka, H.-J. Gusovius, J. Budde and T. Hoffmann
Efficient use of arable land for energy: Comparison of cropping natural fibre plants and energy plants
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Efficient use of arable land for energy: Comparison of cropping natural fibre plants and energy plants

R. Pecenka*, H.-J. Gusovius, J. Budde and T. Hoffmann

Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim (ATB), Max-Eyth-Allee 100, DE 14469 Potsdam, Germany
*Correspondence: rpecenka@atb-potsdam.de

Abstract:

 With focus on renewable energy from agriculture governments can either support the growing production of energy crops or it can invest in technology or measures to reduce the energy consumption. But what is more efficient with regard to the use of the limited resource arable land: to insulate a building with fibre material grown on arable land to reduce the heating demand or to use such land for growing energy plants for the sustainable energy supply of a building? To answer this question, a long term balance calculation under consideration of numerous framework parameters is necessary.
Based on traditional fibre plants like hemp, flax, and woody fibre crops (e.g. poplar), these agricultural plants and their processing to insulation material were examined. Based on available data for the typical building structure of detached and semi-detached houses in Germany, models of buildings were developed and the accessible potentials for heating energy savings by using suitable insulation measures with natural fibre materials were determined. As a comparable system for the supply of renewable energy, bio-methane from silage maize was chosen, since it can be used efficiently in conventional gas boilers for heat generation. The different levels of consideration allow the following interpretations of results: in a balance calculation period of 30 years, the required acreage for heating supply with methane can be reduced by approx. 20%, when at the beginning of the use period fibre plants for the insulation of the houses are grown on the arable acreage. Contrariwise, to compensate only the existing loss in heating energy due to inadequate insulation of older detached and semi-detached houses (build prior to 1979) an annual acreage of approx. 3 million ha silage maize for bio-methane would be required in Germany. Therefore, from the land use perspective the production of biogas plants in agriculture for heating should be accompanied by the production of fibre plants for a reasonable improvement of the heat insulation of houses.

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896–906 I. Riivits-Arkonsuo, A. Leppiman and J. Hartšenko
Quality labels in Estonian food market. Do the labels matter?
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Quality labels in Estonian food market. Do the labels matter?

I. Riivits-Arkonsuo*, A. Leppiman and J. Hartšenko

Tallinn University of Technology, Faculty of Economics, Institute of Business Administration, Ehitajate tee5, EE 19086 Tallinn, Estonia
*Correspondence: Iivi.riivits@ttu.ee

Abstract:

 The current study investigates the consumers’ perception of quality labels for Estonian food. Based on empirical findings from a representative population survey, this paper analyzes and discusses consumers’ attitudes and the behavioural consequences towards two quality labels and related campaigns: the best Estonian foodstuff and the sign of national flag. The representative survey was fielded annually, at first in 2009 following in the years 2011–2015. Every wave comprises the answers of 1,000 Estonian inhabitants. Employing the same methodology over the time the current study achieves an understanding of development in consumer awareness the quality labels and the impact of those labels on the purchasing behaviour. The paper enables to estimate the effectiveness of launching quality labels for foodstuffs and concludes that the labels serve their purposes.

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907–916 H. Roubík and J. Mazancová
Small- and medium-scale biogas plants in Sri Lanka: Case study on flue gas analysis of biogas cookers
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Small- and medium-scale biogas plants in Sri Lanka: Case study on flue gas analysis of biogas cookers

H. Roubík* and J. Mazancová

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Department of Sustainable Technologies, Kamýcká 129, CZ-165 00 Prague, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: roubik@ftz.czu.cz

Abstract:

 Biogas technology has received attention in Sri Lanka already from the initial days of the energy crisis in 1973. Biogas production by anaerobic fermentation is a promising method of producing energy while achieving multiple environmental benefits. The study was carried out in the different areas of Sri Lanka at the level of biogas plants owners (n = 51) and local consultants (n = 4) in August 2014. Methods of data collection included semi-structured personal interviews and questionnaire survey. Further, at 51 biogas plants flue gas analysis was done through the portable device TESTO 330-2, which is capable of capturing the gas concentration of CO and NO; consequently by recalculating the concentration of CO2 and NO2. Surprisingly, the quite high concentration of CO was detected c(CO) = 1,008.92 mg m-3, which might be caused by one and/or various combinations of the following factors such as insufficient burning, inappropriate biogas cookers and inappropriate maintenance. The concentration of NO is under the value of 0.046 mg m-3, which is under the permissible exposure limit of nitric oxide. Average temperature of flue gas is within the typical flue gas exit temperature for burning in biogas cookers (TS = 449.16 °C) and flue gas excess air (4.0%), however the air/gas efficiency (54.0%) was recognized at lower value than the optimal one for small- and medium-scale biogas plants. Easy energy access is a trigger for development, especially in terms of human, social and economic development and biogas plants represents a boon for farmers and rural people to meet their energy needs. However, further factors must be also examined and evaluated, such as exploration of gas composition and its microbiological content, emission analysis exploring particle size distribution, emission rates and potential harmful exposures.

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917–928 K. Soots, T. Leemet, K. Tops and J. Olt
Development of belt sorters smoothly adjustable belt drums
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Development of belt sorters smoothly adjustable belt drums

K. Soots*, T. Leemet, K. Tops and J. Olt

Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; *Correspondence: kaarel.soots@emu.ee

Abstract:

 Belt sorters are used to sort different type of objects according by their size. Making belt sorter easily and quickly adjustable in desired range has positive influence on it’s functionality and productivity. One solution for that is to use one or more adjustable belt drums. This option allows to change the distance between belts evenly and through this change the mesh size so to speak. Greater benefits will be obtained if belt drum is smoothly adjustable. The aim of this research paper is to compare technical peculiarities of two patented technical solutions for smoothly adjustable drum and identify if the newer has benefits compared with the older one. In this study comparative tests are performed using real prototypes. Both prototypes have key structure that determine the range of their adjustability. Prototype with older technical solution contains CNC milled key structure and prototype with improved solution contains 3D printed key structure. Prototype’s mechanical parameters like belt pulleys backlash relative to the fixing point, backlash between two neighboring belt pulleys and required torque to regulate slot width between belt pulleys are studied. Also, it is considered how both technical solutions influence the sorting quality. During this study different measuring instruments are used included laser scanner. Obtained results are used to develop better and more reliable technical solution for belt sorters that can be used in berry processing lines.

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929–947 K. Stankevica, Z. Vincevica-Gaile and M. Klavins
Freshwater sapropel (gyttja): its description, properties and opportunities of use in contemporary agriculture
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Freshwater sapropel (gyttja): its description, properties and opportunities of use in contemporary agriculture

K. Stankevica, Z. Vincevica-Gaile and M. Klavins*

University of Latvia, Faculty of Geography and Earth Sciences, Department of Environmental Science, Jelgavas street 1, LV-1004, Riga
*Correspondence: maris.klavins@lu.lv

Abstract:

 Sapropel (gyttja or dy) is a type of fine-grained and loose sediments, rich in organic matter, deposited in freshwater bodies. Properties of sapropel and quite wide possibilities of extraction makes it as an important natural resource that can be used predominantly in agriculture, horticulture, forestry, farming. Sapropel and its processing products are environmentally friendly, non-toxic, with a definite content of nutrients. The aim of the current paper was to gather the available information about the sapropel properties and its application in agriculture as soil fertilizer or soil amendment, indicating the efficiency and possible ways amounts of application. Another reason why the investigation of sapropel is important in the Baltic States and northern Europe is its wide distribution and availability in freshwater bodies that leads to find out new ways of extraction and bioeconomically-effective utilization of this highly valuable natural resource, obtainable in economically significant amounts, with high opportunities of its use in agriculture. Contemporary agriculture strongly desiderates in new products of high effectivity enhancing soil and crop productivity and quality hand in hand with sustainable development and careful attitude to the nature and surrounding environment.

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948–958 P. Šařec and N. Žemličková
Soil physical characteristics and soil-tillage implement draft assessment for different variants of soil amendments
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Soil physical characteristics and soil-tillage implement draft assessment for different variants of soil amendments

P. Šařec* and N. Žemličková

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamycka 129, CZ 165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: psarec@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

 The article discusses the results of measurement of soil physical properties and implement draft that has been done within field trial established at Sloveč in the year 2014. Different variants of treatment with substances for soil (PRP Sol) and manure (PRP Fix) amendment with organic fertilisers of various origins have been examined in terms of their influence on several parameters including energy demand for soil tillage. In the first stage, soil physical properties, i.e. soil bulk density and cone index, were measured. The results indicate that at soil upper layer, cone index of all the trial variants dropped relative to control regardless of the manure origin, manure treatment with PRP Fix, or the application of PRP Sol. Concerning soil bulk density, observed drop in values can be discerned with the application of cattle manure, and with majority of variants using pig manure where there are high dosage rates, but the drop was found also with PRP Sol alone. Subsequently, draft of chosen tillage implements was measured in order to assess potential decrease in energy demand of treated variants. There was almost 3% drop in aggregate unit draft after manure, and soil and manure activators’ application compared to the control. The decrease was attained in all variants except three. Two of them were the variants of untreated manure (cattle and poultry origin) application and the third was the variant of poultry manure treated with PRP Fix with additional application of PRP Sol. Here though, the difference was minor only.

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959–966 K.E. Temizel
Mapping of some soil properties due to precision irrigation in agriculture
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Mapping of some soil properties due to precision irrigation in agriculture

K.E. Temizel

University of Ondokuz Mayıs, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Structures and Irrigation, Samsun, Turkey; e-mail: ersint@omu.edu.tr

Abstract:

Precision Agriculture (PA) is a whole-farm management approach using information technology, satellite positioning (GNSS) data, remote sensing and proximal data gathering. These technologies have the goal of optimizing returns on inputs whilst potentially reducing environmental impacts. This study was conducted out to determine the acidity, salinity, field capacity, permanent wilting point and water holding capacity in precision agriculture by analyzing soil samples taken from the field in 32 points. Maps were drawn by obtaining data from the field. The purpose of this research is to use the geographic information system for comparing the obtained data from soil more quickly and easily than before and also the water amount in order to make precise decisions for agriculture progress and applying the appropriate inputs which is related to water. The present results also indicated that water holding capacity maps. These maps are usage for the irrigation management and the information from different points of the field. These data obtained the field has an important role in the management of precision agriculture.

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