Volume 14 (2016)
  Number 4

Journal full text: Vol14 No4

Contents


Pages

1247-1256 L.M. Abenavoli, F. Cuzzupoli, V. Chiaravalloti and A.R. Proto
Traceability system of olive oil: a case study based on the performance of a new software cloud
Abstract |
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Traceability system of olive oil: a case study based on the performance of a new software cloud

L.M. Abenavoli¹*, F. Cuzzupoli², V. Chiaravalloti¹ and A.R. Proto¹

¹Department of AGRARIA, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, Località Feo di Vito, IT 89126 Reggio Calabria, Italy
²CFadvanced – Mosorrofa, IT 89100 Reggio Calabria, Italy
*Correspondence: laben@unirc.it

Abstract:

For all the European agrifood establishments from the year 2005 it became mandatory the Regulation EC 178/2002 which obliges them to implement an internal system for tracking and tracing (T&T) of the products; the Regulations that has introduced an ‘obligatory route’ that consists of the construction of the ‘certified historic’ of a food or an ingredient along the supply chain. The Regulation concerns all food companies and in particular those in which there are different actors that contribute to obtaining the final product as in the case of the supply chain of olive oil.

Informatics with modern technology allows us to provide the company with a software solution, usable as a web application, everything housed on a system cloud server. The project goal was to implement a WebApplication based on Cloud Platform and centralize all information about to the context of the production of olive oil.
The results showed that the centralization of data provided by the software in question permit the various figures of the supply chain of olive oil to collaborate in an environment where you get all the information in real time. The system implements algorithms that provide notification messages that indicate if there are any delays in production/processing in terms of quality of the olive oil sought.
The operators and final customer will be equipped with an APP free for smartphones, which allow you to detect in a simple and immediate all data (in synchronize with the cloud system) and to get the product TRACEABILITY.

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1257-1265 J. Bradna, J. Malaťák and D. Hájek
The properties of wheat straw combustion and use of fly ash as a soil amendment
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The properties of wheat straw combustion and use of fly ash as a soil amendment

J. Bradna, J. Malaťák* and D. Hájek

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of
Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: malatak@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Agriculture is one of possible producers of by-products suitable for energy purposes,

such as rapeseed and wheat straw. But on the other hand, not only thanks to the support of energy
from biomass grown specifically for this purpose, arable land is exposed to intense cultivation of
wide-row crops indirectly supporting soil erosion and nutrient elution. The issue of recycling ash
from biomass combustion on agricultural and forest land is very important to resolve. Experience
with this problem is found in countries in Northern Europe such as Finland or Sweden, as well as
in North America. Due to ash characteristics, it is considered a valuable soil component and a
potential replacement for conventional fertilizers.
Elemental analyses of samples from wheat straw pellets were followed by combustion and
emission measurements. The effects of temperature and volume of air in the combustion of wheat
straw was analysed, focusing on emission concentrations and the ash content. Effect of excess air
coefficient on the composition of end products after combustion was assessed in three modes
(small, optimum and high coefficient of excess air). During the measurements, the excess air
coefficient ranged between the values from 3.95 to 14.89. The average net calorific value of the
wheat straw samples was 15.55 MJ kg-1 in the original state. Mineral composition analysis of
solid combustion products, necessary for using these residues as a fertilizer or soil component,
was performed as well.

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1266-1273 Z. Demirel, C. Demirkaya, E. Imamoglu and M. Conk Dalay
Diatom cultivation and lipid productivity for non-cryopreserved and cryopreserved cells
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Diatom cultivation and lipid productivity for non-cryopreserved and cryopreserved cells

Z. Demirel*, C. Demirkaya, E. Imamoglu and M. Conk Dalay

Ege University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Bioengineering, TR 35100 Bornova-Izmir, Turkey
*Correspondence: zelihademirel@gmail.com

Abstract:

Many freshwater and marine algae can be cryopreserved, but typically with lower post-thaw viability levels. However, most of the algae groups (dinoflagellates, cryptophytes, synurophytes, and raphidophytes) cannot be successfully cryopreserved in these days. Marine diatoms can be cryopreserved and frequently have shown great viability. The aim of this study is to compare the cultivation and lipid productivity for non-cryopreserved and cryopreserved marine diatom cells. Diatoms preserved in the EGEMACC (Ege University Microalgae Culture Collection) are usually maintained by serial sub-culturing. In this study, the cryopreservation of marine diatom algae (Amphora cf. capitellata, Cylindrotheca closterium, Nanofrustulum shiloi) using the passive freezing system procedure was studied. Investigation into the cause of the freezing injury at the cellular level was made at different salt concentrations. Passive freezing method used in sea salts liquid media at the percentage of 1%, 2% and 3% containing cryoprotectant of 10% Me2SO for six months in liquid nitrogen. C. closterium was obtained with the highest viability however N. shiloi was revival extended period of time. All of the diatom cells were grown in 1 L sterile bottle containing 900 mL of F/2 medium under the light intensity of 20 μmol photons m-2 s-1 at 22 ± 2 °C with the air flow rate of 1 L/min for 15 days. The growth rate and biomass productivity were determined at the end of the batch production process. Also, lipid content of A. capitellata was obtained at the highest concentration compared to that of the other diatoms.

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1274-1284 L. Dubova, A. Ruža and I. Alsiņa
Soil microbiological activity depending on tillage system and crop rotation
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Soil microbiological activity depending on tillage system and crop rotation

L. Dubova*, A. Ruža and I. Alsiņa

Institute of Soil and Plant Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Latvia University of Agriculture, Liela iela 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: laila.dubova@llu.lv

Abstract:

Soil management practices include various tillage systems that influence plant growth and activity of microorganisms. Minimum tillage without soil inversion is increasingly being used because the conventional soil tillage with soil inversion is a more energy-consuming operation and affects the biodiversity of agroecosystems. The present study was aimed to estimate the effect of conventional and minimum tillage systems on soil microbiological activity. The trials were established in the experimental fields of the Latvia University of Agriculture. The intensity of soil respiration and the ratio of microbial biomass between minimum tillage and conventional tillage were calculated from 2011 to 2013, and cellulose degradation intensity – from 2012 to 2014. The conventionally tilled plots were ploughed to the depth of 23 cm, but minimum tillage was done at the depth of 10–12 cm without soil inversion. Soil samples were collected at two depths: 0–10 cm, and 11–20 cm. The crops were cultivated both in a monoculture (winter wheat) and using crop rotation (winter wheat–rape). Soil microbiological activity was characterised by soil respiration, cellulose degradation intensity, and biomass of soil microorganisms. The results suggest that microbial biomass of soil increased in the fields under minimum tillage compared to those under conventional tillage. It was found that crop rotation had no significant effect on the microbial biomass and soil respiration intensity. Although the upper soil layer has a higher potential of microbiological activity, the cellulose degradation intensity showed a tendency to decrease at both soil depths in the experimental plots without crop rotation.

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1285-1292 M. Gaworski and Á. Garreth Ferraz Rocha
Method to monitor sand level changes in free-stall lying area for dairy cows
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Method to monitor sand level changes in free-stall lying area for dairy cows

M. Gaworski¹* and Á. Garreth Ferraz Rocha²

¹Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Department of Production Management and Engineering, Nowoursynowska str. 164, PL 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
²University Federal of Uberlândia, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnology, #1720, Pará Avenue – Campus Umuarama – Uberlândia, MG – ZIP 38400–902, Brazil
*Correspondence: marek_gaworski@sggw.pl

Abstract:

Understanding sand properties and proper sand management is critical to the selection and successful use of sand as a dairy bedding material. Use of sand as a bedding material is an alternative solution at many dairy farms instead of straw and other organic materials. In order to successfully use and manage sand as a bedding material for cows, it is necessary to consider monitoring of the sand amount in order to create the highest possible level of lying comfort for animals. The objective of the study was to investigate a modified approach to sand level measurements to find changes in the amount of sand covering the lying area in a barn with the free-stall keeping system. The method to measure sand level changes included use of a timber board (put on the neighbouring partitions at each lying stall) to determine the distance to the bedding surface in two zones of lying stalls. Results of the investigated method of monitoring sand level changes were discussed against the background of other results presented in the specialist literature. The discussion included the problem of measurement accuracy as well as simplicity of the proposed measuring method for practical use by farmers.

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1293-1299 T. Jehlička and J. Sander
Modification of the rheological properties of the honey in the honeycombs prior to its extraction in the production conditions
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Modification of the rheological properties of the honey in the honeycombs prior to its extraction in the production conditions

T. Jehlička¹* and J. Sander²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ 165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ 165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: jehlickat@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This paper addresses the issue of honey extraction in difficult conditions (prevailing cold weather) and the extraction of highly viscous honey from the honeycombs. The objective was to design and validate a technology that will reduce the viscosity of honey in the honeycombs by warming up by infrared radiation and shorten the total time of honey extraction. To verify the proposed procedure three groups of samples of the capped honeycombs were selected that contained honey of different botanical origin and rheological properties. The honeycombs were warmed up to the targeted temperature (from 15 °C to 40 °C). Warming was carried out by two low-temperature emitters of the infrared radiation. The time dependence of honey extraction on the temperature of the pre-heated honeycombs was monitored. The measured values indicate that the dependence of the rheological properties of honey on temperature is technologically significant. Operational monitoring shown that the optimal rheological properties for the processing of the honeycombs are at a temperature above 30 °C as the time necessary for the honeycombs extraction reaches its minimum value. The optimal temperature for the honeycomb extraction can be considered the temperature above 30 °C which corresponds to the extraction time for about 4 minutes. The evaluation of the obtained results demonstrates the operational reliability of the proposed technology. Measurements proved that the infrared radiation is suitable for warming up of the honeycombs, warming up is quick and results in time reduction of honey extraction from honeycombs is dependent on temperature.

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1300-1306 S. Kalle and J. Paju
Comparative study of the noise levels: impact of renovation
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Comparative study of the noise levels: impact of renovation

S. Kalle¹* and J. Paju¹²

¹Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn School of Economics and Business Administration, Department of Business Administration, Academia road 3, EE12618, Tallinn, Estonia
²Tallinn University, School of Natural Sciences and Health, Narva road 25, EE10120, Tallinn, Estonia
*Correspondence: sigrid.kalle@ttu.ee

Abstract:

Health effects from different noise exposures have been studied by many researchers. According to the frequency of the noise, the complaints induced differ. Some studies have shown that low frequency noise may have serious health effects from annoyance to sleeping disturbances. Using a sound analyser with 1/3 octave band sound spectrum analysis capability, measurements were conducted on a scientific research vessel. Measurements were carried out in cabins, mess hall and engine room. The results were then compared to the Estonian and International Maritime Organization’s recommendations on noise as well as results from a previous study on the same vessel (previous study was conducted before the renovations to modernise both the engine and the cabins was conducted). The renovations did not have the desired effect on the overall noise levels of the vessel as a working environment; the noise values obtained after the renovations do not agree with the normative values during sailing. The situation has improved in several cabins on the vessel but the improvement is rather insignificant.

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1307-1320 M. Keskin and Y.E. Sekerli
Awareness and adoption of precision agriculture in the Cukurova region of Turkey
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Awareness and adoption of precision agriculture in the Cukurova region of Turkey

M. Keskin* and Y.E. Sekerli

Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Mustafa Kemal University, TR 31040 Antakya, Hatay, Turkey
*Correspondence: keskin@mku.edu.tr, mkeskinhatay@gmail.com

Abstract:

Adoption of precision agriculture (PA) technologies has an increasing trend in developed countries. However, it is not well known in developing countries including Turkey. No study was reported on the awareness of PA in Turkey before. The objectives of this study were to assess the awareness of PA in the Cukurova region of Turkey using an interview survey study and also to briefly inform each survey participant about these technologies. The study was conducted with 164 participants that were agricultural engineers, farm equipment dealers and farmers. 90.2% of all participants reported that they followed new trends in agriculture. However, 51.8% of all participants indicated that they did not hear the term ‘PA’ before. Only 29.3% of the participants who heard the term ‘PA’ knew its concept. Internet was the most important means to gather information on new technologies. Most three well-known technologies by all participants were satellite positioning (GPS) (81.7%), geographical information systems (GIS) (69.5%) and remote sensing (61.0%) as the least known two ones were variable rate application (33.5%) and soil sampling and mapping (34.8%). In addition, a training brochure was handed out to each participant and the PA technologies were explained. 97.6% of the participants expressed that these technologies would be somehow beneficial for agriculture in Turkey. 88.4% of the participants wanted to get more detailed training on these technologies. Also, information on recent developments in the adoption of PA technologies is included in the paper.

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1321-1331 V. Kirsanovs, A. Žandeckis and C. Rochas
Biomass gasification thermodynamic model including tar and char
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Biomass gasification thermodynamic model including tar and char

V. Kirsanovs*, A. Žandeckis and C. Rochas

Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University, Azenes iela 12/1, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: vladimirs.kirsanovs@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Biomass gasification is a thermochemical process in which feedstock is heated to high temperatures in a condition of absence of oxygen. As a result, biomass is converted into the combustible syngas, which typically consists of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), nitrogen (N2) and water vapour (H2O). Biomass gasification process simulation plays an important role in gasification process comprehension and optimization. Typically, gasification models have only one output flow in the process mass balance, which represents the amount of the produced syngas. Tar and char also are significant products of gasification process. This study presents a thermodynamic biomass gasification model. The fundamental distinction of the proposed model, comparing to other available models, is that tar and char also are taken into account in developed model. Gasification process is affected by many factors. Similarly, the amount of produced tar and char can significantly vary depending on gasifier operation conditions. Literature review on the previous studies is done to determinate the most critical factors which affect tar and char formation. Results show that temperature in the gasifier, equivalence ratio and fuel properties have dominant effect on the products yield. Two regression models are elaborated to present the amount of the produced tar and char depending on independent variables. The achieved mathematical equations are added to the developed thermodynamic model of the gasification process. Biomass gasification process is simulated with different values of fuel moisture and equivalence ratio. The results show that produced syngas amount, calorific value and biomass energy conversion efficiency are more realistic after tar and char including in the model.

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1332-1341 M. Kotek, P. Jindra and J. Mařík
Speed limits and their impact on emissions production and fuel consumption
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Speed limits and their impact on emissions production and fuel consumption

M. Kotek, P. Jindra* and J. Mařík

Czech University of Life Science Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague, Czech republic
*Correspondence: jindrap@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The article deals with emissions and fuel consumption of road vehicles in real traffic conditions. The aim of this study was to prove or disprove correctness of the decision of Prague city government to change the speed limits from 70 km h-1 to 50 km h-1 on the parts of one main road leading to/from Prague. For measurements in real traffic conditions was used 2 typical Czech cars Skoda with manual transmission (Fabia 1.2 MPI with petrol engine and Octavia 2.0 TDI with diesel engine). Measurements were performed on both of directions on defined road segment.

At speed 50 km h-1 the measurement was repeated 5 times at 3rd and 5 times on 4th gear. Similarly at speed 70 km h-1 the measurement was repeated 5 times at the 4th and 5th gear. The aim was to operate the vehicle in the normal engine loads.
The results demonstrate the fundamental assumption that at the higher allowed vehicle speed the engine is more loaded and therefore produces a higher amount of emissions, but according to a higher vehicle speed the emissions are produced on the defined segment for the shorter time. A similar trend is evident even in fuel consumption. The results also indicate the depending on the power reserve of specific vehicle. When the vehicle is more powerful, higher permitted speed is preferable.

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1342-1350 A. Krofová and P. Kic
Ventilation and microclimatic conditions in the laboratory of adhesive bonding
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Ventilation and microclimatic conditions in the laboratory of adhesive bonding

A. Krofová¹* and P. Kic²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ 165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: kofovaa@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present the results of the research focused on the ventilation and microclimatic conditions in the laboratory of adhesive bonding. This special large underground laboratory is used for the research and teaching purposes during the whole year. The experiments provided in the laboratory require the use of different chemicals, adhesives and glues for the preparation of specimens for the testing various methods of adhesive bonding of metals and wood. There are intensively released chemical pollutants into the indoor environment of the laboratory during those processes. If there are taking place in the lab at the same time the classes with students (maximum 26 persons) there are also produced in that space products of the metabolism. To ensure the hygienic conditions for researchers and students, the laboratory must be adequately ventilated, but it is also necessary to ensure the desired thermal state of the environment. The results of measurements of indoor microclimate in this laboratory during the adhesive bonding processes are also presented in this paper. The experience and new knowledge useful for the future research and practical designs are summarized in the conclusions of this paper.

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1351-1360 M. Kučera, Z. Aleš and M. Pexa
Detection and characterization of wear particles of universal tractor oil using a particles size analyzer
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Detection and characterization of wear particles of universal tractor oil using a particles size analyzer

M. Kučera¹*, Z. Aleš² and M. Pexa²

¹Technical University in Zvolen, Faculty of Faculty of Environmental and Manufacturing Technology, Department of Mechanics, Mechanical Engineering and Desing, Študentská 26, SK 96053, Zvolen, Slovak Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamycka 129, CZ 16521, Praque 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: marian.kucera@tuzvo.sk

Abstract:

Oil contamination is the most common and serious source of machine failure. Therefore, lubrication oil testing and analysis is one of the most important condition monitoring (CM) techniques for machinery maintenance and failure diagnosis. Oil analysis consists of determination of physical-chemical properties, contamination and wear debris analysis (WDA). One of the modern methods how to detect wear particles is LaserNet Fines (LNF). The technology is an extension of effective laboratory microscope analysis and was developed specifically to address the shortfalls of monitors that measure only particle size or elemental concentration. Universal tractor oil (UTTO) is the multipurpose oil for the lubrication of the transmission, rear axle, differential, wet brakes, and hydraulic system fed by the common oil reservoir.

The aim of this work is detection and characterization of friction particles during lifetime of two different universal tractor transmission oils samples with using of laser particle counter LaserNet Fines-C and their comparing, synthetic ester-based UTTO oil and mineral-based UTTO oil.

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1361-1371 M. Kučera M. Helexa and J. Čedík
Link between static radial tire stiffness and the size of its contact surface and contact pressure
Abstract |

Link between static radial tire stiffness and the size of its contact surface and contact pressure

M. Kučera¹* M. Helexa¹ and J. Čedík²

¹Technical University in Zvolen, Faculty of Environmental and Manufacturing Technology, T.G. Masaryka 24, SK 960 53 Zvolen, Slovak Republic.
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ 165 21, Praha – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: marian.kucera@tuzvo.sk

Abstract:

The article is devoted to the description of the experimental results regarding the measurement of static radial deformation characteristics of the selected tire and its impact on the size of the contact surface and contact pressure. The given measurement was carried out on the diagonal tire Mitas TS05 10.0/75-15.3 PR10 in the area of the soil test channel. The radial deformation characteristics of the tires in question were determined for inflation pressures of 300 kPa, 220 kPa, 160 kPa and 100 kPa, with a radial stress of the tire varying in the range of 567.9 kg to 1025.09 kg. The prints of the tire’s contact surfaces were made at the same time for the corresponding inflation pressure and the corresponding radial stress. The size of these prints was subsequently planimeterized by the digital polar planimeter Koizumi KP-90N. The values of the medium contact pressure on a solid support were subsequently calculated from the tire radial stress values and the obtained contact surfaces. The calculated static radial stiffness values were obtained through the linearization of the measured deformation characteristics according to Jante. The course of the deformation characteristics and the calculation of static radial stiffness imply that static radial stiffness is significantly dependent on the tire inflation pressure. A suppler tire structure at a lower inflation pressure allows for greater values of the contact surfaces and lower values of contact pressures. This feature can be used when selecting appropriate tire inflation pressures when driving off-road to reduce soil degradation and improving the vehicle’s passability through the terrain.

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1372-1379 J. Kuht, V. Eremeev, L. Talgre, H. Madsen, M. Toom, E. Mäeorg and A. Luik
Soil weed seed bank and factors influencing the number of weeds at the end of conversion period to organic production
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Soil weed seed bank and factors influencing the number of weeds at the end of conversion period to organic production

J. Kuht*, V. Eremeev, L. Talgre, H. Madsen, M. Toom, E. Mäeorg and A. Luik

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia *Correspondence: jaan.kuht@emu.ee

Abstract:

In 2008 an experiment was set up on the field in Eerika experimental station (Estonian University of Life Sciences) as a 5-field crop rotation: red clover, winter wheat, pea, potato and barley undersown with red clover. The objective of the study was to measure the content of weed seeds in the soil and to evaluate the diversity of the species at the end of the period of converting to organic production. In conventional farming systems without fertilizer (Conv I) and conventional farming with mineral fertilizer (Conv II) herbicides were used for weed control. All the crops in Conv II system received P 25 kg ha-1 and K 95 kg ha-1, but the application rates of mineral nitrogen fertilizer differed. In organic systems (Org I – organic farming based on winter cover crop and Org II – organic farming based on winter cover crop and manure), the winter cover crops (ryegrass after winter wheat, winter oilseed rape after pea, winter rye after potato) were sown after the harvest and were ploughed into the soil as green manure in spring. The content of annual weed seeds was the lowest in red clover that had 17.7% less weed seeds in the soil of Org II system compared to control (Conv I). In winter wheat the content of winter annual weed seeds was 50–76% higher compared to other crops. By the end of 2009 the content of organic carbon (Corg %) in the soil had increased significantly in both organic systems which results in higher activity of organisms that decrease the viability of weed seeds.

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1380-1385 F. Kumhála, J. Chyba, M. Pexa and J. Čedík
Measurement of mulcher power input in relation to yield
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Measurement of mulcher power input in relation to yield

F. Kumhála¹*, J. Chyba¹, M. Pexa¹ and J. Čedík²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ 165 21 Prague-6 Suchdol, Czech Republic
²Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i., Drnovská 507, CZ 161 01 Prague-6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: kumhala@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Mulching is one of relatively energy-demanding operations in plant production. That is why the knowledge of mulcher power input is very interesting and can be used e.g. for mulcher design improvement etc. Field experiments were arranged in order to measure mulcher power input also in relation to yield. The field of about 1.25 ha area was harvested by mulcher MZ6000 produced by BEDNAR FMT Co. This machine has three rotors with vertical axis, working width 6 m and was aggregated with JD 7930 tractor. Power input was measured by torque dynamometer Manner MFI 2500 placed at tractor PTO shaft. Measured data were processed by A/D converter Labjack U 6 and saved. After the harvest, the samples of harvested material from area 6 x 1.65 m were weighted by hands on 102 places in almost regular grid. Average measured mulcher power input was relatively high, 76 kW, with peaks reaching up 145 kW. The yield of harvested material on experimental field was very unbalanced and varied from 0.6 to 13 tonnes per hectare. The amount of measured data allowed the creation of power input and yield maps. By comparing the results from power input and yield measurement it was found that power input significantly depended on the yield. Information of mulcher power input can be used also for harvested material yield mapping.

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1386-1394 M. Libra, T. Olšan, V. Avramov and V. Poulek
Low degradation of a-Si solar panels of the building integrated PV power plant in Prague historical area
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Low degradation of a-Si solar panels of the building integrated PV power plant in Prague historical area

M. Libra¹*, T. Olšan¹, V. Avramov² and V. Poulek¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Physics, Kamycka 129, CZ 16521 Prague, Czech Republic
²ENESA, joint-stock company, Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: libra@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The unique photovoltaic power plant installed in Prague on the roof of the new buildings of National Theatre in Prague has been investigated. As the new buildings are very close to the old historical building of National Theatre designed in late 19th century, the PV power plant has to be totally invisible from the streets of Prague to not disturb historical panorama of the city. Flexible a-Si photovoltaic foils in the nearly horizontal position have been used because the placing is in the urban conservation area in the historical city centre. The operation started in the autumn 2009. The photovoltaic power plant is described in this paper and results of its operation are presented. The energy production data indicate that the degradation of the nearly horizontally installed a-Si panels is below 5% within 5 years period.

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1395-1405 R. Majdan, Z. Tkáč, R. Abrahám, M. Szabó, M. Halenár, M. Rášo and P. Ševčík
Proposal for filtration system for biodegradable lubricants in agricultural tractors
Abstract |
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Proposal for filtration system for biodegradable lubricants in agricultural tractors

R. Majdan¹*, Z. Tkáč¹, R. Abrahám¹, M. Szabó¹, M. Halenár¹, M. Rášo² and P. Ševčík²

¹Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Transport and Handling, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK 949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
²Slovnaft, a. s., member of MOL Group, Vlčie hrdlo 1, SK 824 12 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
*Correspondence: radoslav.majdan@gmail.com

Abstract:

This paper presents a filtration system for universal tractor transmission oils (UTTO) to eliminate contamination, namely all kinds of particles and water. The aim of the research is the proposal of a universally useful filtration system for increasing the cleanliness level of biodegradable oils. The filtration systems consist of a filter housing with filter element, hoses, quick couplings and a measurement device to set the flow rate and pressure of the filtered oil. A measurement device (CS 1320) was used to monitor the cleanliness level of oil during filtration. The quality of the filtration system was evaluated according to kinematic viscosity at 40 °C, total acid number, concentration of additives (Ca, S and Mg) and content of chemical elements (Fe, Cu, Si, Al, Pb, Ag, Ni and Mn). The filtration system was designed for all tractor types because it can be connected to implement hydraulic circuit by houses and quick couplings. The filtration system was tested in the new type of tractor Zetor Forterra 114 41 after completing 900 engine hours (oil contamination exceeded limits). On the basis of the performed filtration, it can be concluded that this a simple and affordable filtration system reduces the concentration of the most dangerous contamination: iron (Fe) by up to 32.95% and silicium (Si) by up to 22.23%. There was only a slight decrease in the concentration of additives recorded after use of the filtration system. The kinematic viscosity and the total acid number didn’t exceed the prescribed limits.

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1406-1416 D.G. Maksimov and H. Kalkis
Software development for Qualimetrical ergonomics of a workplace
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Software development for Qualimetrical ergonomics of a workplace

D.G. Maksimov¹* and H. Kalkis²

¹Institute of Economics and Management, Udmurt State University, Universitetskaya str. 1, bld. 4, RU 426034 Izhevsk, Russia
²Faculty of European Studies, Riga Stradins University, Dzirciema str. 16, LV-1007 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: maksim.dan.gen@gmail.com

Abstract:

Ergonomics is the science investigating the person and the activity within the process management aiming at improvements of labor conditions and labor process at workplace. The microelement analysis as part of ergonomics allows in quantitative measures estimate time that is expended and to analyse effective use of time, as one of the major indicators. Along with an indicator of time it is necessary to consider and other indicators influencing man during commission of labor process which can be presented in the quantitative form, using science a qualimetry. The aim of the research is to analyze scientific literature on qualimetrical ergonomics of a workplace and develop software for practical evaluation of qualimetrical ergonomics. At the crossroads of a qualimetry and ergonomics the system of the microelement analysis was discovered. The research provides approach in software development for the microelement norm-fixing at the beginning of process automation.

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1417-1426 E. Merisalu, M. Männaste, K. Hiir and A. Traumann
Predictors and prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among sewing machine operators
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Predictors and prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among sewing machine operators

E. Merisalu¹*, M. Männaste¹, K. Hiir¹ and A. Traumann²

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
²TTK University of Applied Sciences, Pärnu mnt. 62, EE10134 Tallinn, Estonia *Correspondence: eda.merisalu@emu.ee

Abstract:

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are a common and most often disabling problem among sewing machine operators and associated to work related factors. The aim of study was to determine work related and individual risk factors and the prevalence of MSDs among sewing machine operators and describe relationships between risk factors and MSDs. The data were collected in random sample method, using parts of a standardized CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability) questionnaire. The questions were focused on occurrence of MSDs in different body regions, in the past year and past month. The respondents assessed pain in the neck, lower back, and both on the right and left side of shoulders, elbows, wrists/hands and knees. The questions about individual, physiological and psychological risk factors and health behaviour were included.

The response rate was 43.9%, from 130 sewing machine operators fifty seven of them responded to the questionnaire. They all were women, in mean age 44.4 ± 8.6 years and with average body mass index (BMI) 26.8 ± 6.6 kg m-2. The majority had work experience more than 5 years. Sewing work is monotonous, in steady sitting position, with repetitive movements in elbow, wrist and fingers during a whole workday. The most of respondents (93%) have reported poor autonomy to decide over the working schedule and 75.4% had low decision latitude over what and how to do work. The majority of sewing machine operators get support from the colleagues and management.
Musculoskeletal pain at least in one body site was measured in 91.2% of cases in the past 12 months and among 82.5% of respondents in the past month. More than half of participants reported pain in three or more body sites. The most often pain regions were lower back (66.7%), neck (61.4%), wrist/hand (50.9%) and shoulders (42.1%) in the past year, and neck (45.6%) in the past month. Pearson correlation analysis showed positive relationships between lower back pain and poor autonomy (p = 0.02) and BMI (p = 0.05) and repetitive elbow bending was related to neck and wrist/hand pain (p = 0.05, in both). Regular smoking was related to wrist/hand pain (p = 0.003). In conclusion, high prevalence of MSDs among the sewing machine operators has observed, whereas lower back, neck, wrist and shoulders were the most often reported pain regions. Lower back pain correlated positively with BMI and autonomy, smoking with wrist/hand pain and repeated upper limb movements with neck and elbow pain.

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1427-1434 L. Mezule, M. Strods and B. Dalecka
Influence of Mechanical Pre–treatment on Fermentable Sugar Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass
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Influence of Mechanical Pre–treatment on Fermentable Sugar Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass

L. Mezule*, M. Strods and B. Dalecka

Riga Technical University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Research Centre for Civil Engineering, Water Research Laboratory, Kipsalas 6a–263, LV–1048 Riga, Latvia *Correspondence: linda.mezule@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Mechanical pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass has been extensively applied in biofuel production despite its high energy requirements. To balance the consumed energy with the energy produced, careful selection and evaluation of pre-treatment parameters, equipment and desired outcome is needed. The study aims to determine optimal hay and barley straw biomass particle size in view of sugar yields, energy consumption and treatment time. The results show that there is no significant difference (p > 0.05) in sugar yields from hay biomass with particle sizes 0.25 mm, 1 mm and 10 mm. Energy requirements for the production of 1 kg of sugar from hay range from 1.8–10.7 MJ. At the same time barley straw proved to be inappropriate for sugar extraction due to low sugar yields (below 40 mg g-1 dry mass) and high energy consumption (18.5–76.2 MJ to produce 1 kg sugar). Thus, after the careful selection of biomass, mechanical pre-treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis can be an effective technique in biofuel production from biomass.

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1435-1449 V. Pille, K. Reinhold, P. Tint and J. Hartšenko
Comparison of musculoskeletal disorders development in Estonian office and garment industry workers
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Comparison of musculoskeletal disorders development in Estonian office and garment industry workers

V. Pille*, K. Reinhold, P. Tint and J. Hartšenko

Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate 5, EE19086 Tallinn, Estonia *Correspondence: piia.tint@ttu.ee

Abstract:

The aim of the paper was to investigate the structure of the factors influencing the development of the work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in two different employee groups: office and garment industry workers. The work conditions in these two workplaces are different. The first group is mostly exposed to psychological distress and less to physiological risk factors. The second group is more affected by non-ergonomics factors. Several different research methods were used in the study: the work conditions were assessed using a flexible risk assessment method; the ergonomic risks were assessed with the ART-tool; the workers’ musculoskeletal complaints were assessed using the Nordic Questionnaire; the intensity of pain was assessed by means of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The number of investigated workers was 54 people from office and 49 from the garment industry. As a result, the garment workers’ group had significantly more musculoskeletal complaints. Self-reported muscle pain and discomfort complaints showed that the office workers’ left hand was less strained than the right one. It was confirmed by the studies determining the risk level using the ART tool at the workplace. The garment workers’ both hands are usually strained at about the same level, only in the extreme conditions where the right hand is fulfilling special operations, the operating (right) hand is strained more. The results of the study make it possible to work out the means for prevention and rehabilitation of work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

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1450-1466 I. Pučka, D. Lazdiņa and I. Bebre
Ground flora in plantations of three years old short rotation willow coppice
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Ground flora in plantations of three years old short rotation willow coppice

I. Pučka¹³, D. Lazdiņa² and I. Bebre²³

¹Daugavpils University, Parades str. 1, LV-5401 Daugavpils, Latvia
²Latvian State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’, Rigas street 111, LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia
³Latvia University of Agriculture, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: irena.pucka@du.lv

Abstract:

Short rotation willow coppice plantations are widely used for biomass production over the world. However, their effect on local biodiversity has not been fully elucidated. Ground flora cover of willow plantations are functionally diverse and contains high richness of plant species. The vegetation structure depends on soil type, previous land use, management practices (for example herbicide and fertilizer use) and frequency of harvesting. Investigation of ground vegetation and soil analyze were conducted in seven willow SRC plantations in Central Latvia, Skrīveri municipality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of light availability, plantation age, and soil properties on ground vegetation species composition in three years old short rotation willow coppice. Plantations consist of various willow clones, planted in rows. Weed control was carried out during the first year of plantation establishment.

The qualitative and quantitative proportion of species, including species percentage cover and the mean Ellenberg indicator values were calculated. In total, 64 vascular plant species and two tree species were found in the willow coppice ground vegetation layer. Perennial plants dominate in ground vegetation (constitutes 81% of the identified species). For most species, percentage cover was 10–20% within each plot, but percentage cover of Achillea millefolium L., Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski and Agrostis gigantea Roth was more than 40% in some plots.

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1467-1485 K. Sieling, U. Böttcher and H. Kage
Canopy traits in rye, triticale and wheat under varying N supply
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Canopy traits in rye, triticale and wheat under varying N supply

K. Sieling*, U. Böttcher and H. Kage

Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel, Institute of Crop Science and Plant Breeding, Hermann-Rodewald-Strasse 9, D-24118 Kiel, Germany
*Correspondence: sieling@pflanzenbau.uni-kiel.de

Abstract:

Information on growth of rye (Secale cereale L.) and triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmark) are scarce. In 2007/08 and 2008/09, winter rye, winter triticale and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were simultaneously grown in combination with 4 nitrogen (N) treatments (0/0, 40/40, 80/80 and 120/120 kg N ha-1) at the Hohenschulen Experimental Farm in northern Germany allowing for a comparison of the resource capture and biomass accumulation during spring growth. Several canopy traits (e.g. green area index (GAI), specific leaf area (SLA), light use efficiency (LUE)) as well as N dilution curves of the whole shoots, leaves and stems were determined.
Triticale achieved highest GAI in throughout both growth periods. An extended growth period of wheat partly compensated for a lower GAI, thus the differences in the amount of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (Q) between the crops remained small. In general, rye leaves were thinner (higher SLA) compared to wheat and triticale showing similar SLA, except at ear emergence in both years. Total above-ground dry matter accumulation at dough ripening was lowest in wheat mainly due to a lower LUE which in turn may be the result of a lower specific leaf area. The N dilution curves revealed a clear reduction of stem N concentration with increasing dry matter accumulation, whereas leaf N concentration only slightly decreased presumably in order to maintain optimal photosynthesis. The presented results enhance the understanding of the growth of rye and triticale and allow improving crop growth modeling of both crops.

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1486-1493 R. Simson, L. Tartlan, E. Nugis and V. Eremeev
The effect of fertilizer and growing season on tuber dry matter and nitrate content in potato
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The effect of fertilizer and growing season on tuber dry matter and nitrate content in potato

R. Simson¹*, L. Tartlan², E. Nugis¹ and V. Eremeev³

¹Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Plant Biotechnology, Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva, Estonia
²Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Department of Plant Sciences, Teaduse 13, 75501 Saku, Estonia
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Department of Field Crop and Grassland Husbandry, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: reijo.simson@etki.ee

Abstract:

Field trials with two potato varieties were undertaken at the Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture in 2005 and 2006. Year 2005 was generally optimal for potato growth but year 2006 was dry and very warm, hence, it was adverse for growth. The effect of fertilizing on two main traits of potato, i. e. tuber dry matter (DM) and nitrate content was examined. Five rates of compound fertilizer were applied, N50P20K85, N70P28K119, N90P36K153, N110P44K187 and N130P52K221. Results indicated that DM content was largely determined by variety but it also depended on fertilizer amounts and particular environmental conditions of a year. Nitrate content of tubers was quite clearly dependent upon variety, but growing season had significant effect on final nitrate content in tubers. Water stress during early and main bulking periods resulted in high tuber nitrate levels. In order to gain tuber yield fit for intended use, it is necessary to manage nutrient acquisition based on expected yield and nutrient supply from soils.

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1494-1504 O. Szabó, G. Kovács and B. Heil
Effects of nutrient supply and planting material quality on yield and survival rate of a short rotation coppice culture in Hungary
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Effects of nutrient supply and planting material quality on yield and survival rate of a short rotation coppice culture in Hungary

O. Szabó*, G. Kovács and B. Heil

Institute of Environmental and Earth Science, Faculty of Forestry, University of West–Hungary, Bajcsy–Zs. Street 4, H–9400 Sopron, Hungary
*Correspondence: szabo.orsolya@emk.nyme.hu, orsoy@freemail.hu

Abstract:

In May 2011, a short rotation woody energy plantation (SRC) was established near Dejtár village in Northern–Hungary. The goal of the experiment was comparative analyses of different fertilization treatments on three clones of Populus (AF2, Monviso, Pannonia) and one Salix cultivar (‘Dékány’). We used three fertilization treatments: (1) 5 t ha–1 of wood ash, (2) 40 t ha–1 of farmyard manure and (3) both 5 t ha–1 of wood ash and 40 t ha–1 of farmyard manure. The Monviso clone had the highest survival rate (92%), followed by Pannonia (80%) and AF2 (78%). Initially, the white willow ‘Dékány’ cultivar was also included in the experiment, but due to differing site preferences of this cultivar, it was not viable in the area. Based on the data of the first three growing seasons, it was demonstrated that the important nutrients had already been present in optimal amounts from the start of the experiment, and their contents were increased due to the treatments. At the end of the first growing season, the effect of the fertilization treatment could not be detected, but by the third year the results showed a significant positive effect. Already in the second, but mostly at the end of the third growing season, the wood ash + manure fertilizer treated plots showed significant increases in height growth and biomass yield.

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