Volume 14 (2016)
  Number 5

Journal full text: Vol14 No5

Contents


Pages

1511-1518 V. Adamchuk, V. Bulgakov, V. Nadykto, Y. Ihnatiev and J. Olt,
Theoretical research into the power and energy performance of agricultural tractors
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Theoretical research into the power and energy performance of agricultural tractors

V. Adamchuk¹, V. Bulgakov², V. Nadykto³, Y. Ihnatiev³ and J. Olt⁴,*

¹ National Scientific Centre, Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification, 11, Vokzalna Str., Glevaкha-1, Vasylkiv District, UA 08631 Kiev Region, Ukraine
² National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15, Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
³ Tavria State Agrotechnological University of Ukraine, Khmelnytskoho pr. 18, Melitopol, UA 72312 Zaporozhye region, Ukraine
⁴ Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE 51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The widespread use of a great number of different types and manufacturer brands of tractors in agricultural use raises several important questions. These all concern the implementation of the criteria which may be involved in making the right choice in regard to a particular power unit that is capable of delivering the required result during the subsequent course of that unit’s service life. Even more importantly, the result should be an economically sound one. Despite the fact that tractor theory offers a sufficient number of scientifically grounded criteria that characterise agricultural power units with respect to their particular properties, the engine power rating remains the most widely used and decisive figure – and the factor which defines the ultimate choice of power unit. Meanwhile, the traction properties of tractors, especially in case of wheeled tractors, should be of prime importance as these properties determine the maximum measures that can be taken in relation to efficiency levels in power units as parts of various unitised agricultural machines. Currently, in most areas around the world, the traction and energy performance of wheeled tractors is determined using the same common method, one which is based upon the tractor’s power balance. But when taking into account the ever-increasing requirements for protecting the soil, the aforementioned method needs corresponding upgrading with respect to the destructive effect of the wheeled running gear of agricultural tractors on the soil’s structure. The aim of this study is to develop a new method of determining the minimum required engine power rating for an agricultural wheeled tractor, as well as its operating mass and energy saturation rate when considering the linear type of dependence for its running gear slipping due to the tractive force being generated. The research utilises standard tractor theory and numerical computation methods. The completed study resulted in several updated and new analytical dependences, all of which can be used to define the tractive power of a wheeled tractor, taking into account the linear type of relationship between wheel slip, operating mass, and energy saturation rate. The data that is obtained through computational methods show that the classification of various wheeled tractors with regard to their traction or their traction and power category using the new method will subsequently allow more accurate calculations to be effected when it comes to unitising various agricultural machines, which should help to ensure an improvement in their overall performance levels.

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1519-1529 V. Adamchuk, V. Bulgakov, N. Skorikov, T. Yezekyan and J. Olt
Developing a new design of wood chopper for grape vine and fruit tree pruning and the results of field testing
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Developing a new design of wood chopper for grape vine and fruit tree pruning and the results of field testing

V. Adamchuk¹, V. Bulgakov², N. Skorikov³, T. Yezekyan⁴ and J. Olt⁴*

¹National Scientific Centre, Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification, 11, Vokzalna Str., Glevakha-1, Vasylkiv District, UA 08631 Kiev Region, Ukraine
²National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15, Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
³Government-Financed Establishment of the Republic of the Crimea ‘National Research Institute for Vine and Wine Magarach’, 31 Kirov St., Yalta, Republic of the Crimea, RU 298600, Russia
⁴Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE 51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The problem of collecting and utilising the pruned canes of grape vines and branches and twigs from fruit trees that are left in vineyards and orchards all year round after the scheduled pruning of plantations in early spring is the topic of the day, and it is one that requires an effective solution. One of the ways in which the problem might be solved is the utilisation of pruning material as an organic fertiliser after it has been gathered, so that it is chopped, evenly spread in the inter-row spaces in the plantation, and ploughed into the soil, so that it decomposes there, and is digested. Meanwhile, the degree of pruned material disintegration and the level of quality shown in the work of spreading it across the area both have to ensure the complete decomposition of any such ploughed-under wood waste within one calendar year. The aim of this research project was to increase efficiency levels in chopping and spreading grape vine and fruit tree pruning material on the basis of the development of a new design of wood chopper and the results obtained in field testing this piece of equipment. The research uses engineering and design methods which are based on the theory of collecting from ground level and further transporting wood and plant materials, the theory behind cutting, crushing, and spreading, and also the methods used in experimental research, field testing, and the statistical analysis of test results. We have developed a new design arrangement for a wood chopper for grape vines and fruit trees, one which combines the mechanism for collecting slender, flexible waste wood pieces that are of a considerable length from the ground with a system that involves the transportation, chopping, shredding, and spreading over the soil surface of such materials. The prototype wood chopper design which was subsequently produced has been tested for several years in the laboratory and in field conditions and has delivered positive results. From the results of the field tests it has been found that, when using the aforementioned work process, a considerable reduction is achieved in terms of energy consumption and labour input in comparison with similar indicators for wood choppers that have been produced by recognised manufacturers. For example, the power demand for one metre of the machine’s working width is just 15 kW, which is virtually two times less than the respective figure for a similar, recognised machine. The degree at which pruning material is collected from the ground is 95.4%, while the degree at which they disintegrate lengthwise is within a measurement of 10 cm, while the weight of the chopper is 1.5 times smaller than that of the similar machine used in the comparison studies. The use of these wood choppers provides an
opportunity to implement widely across the horticultural industry those innovative technologies
that not only aim at reducing energy and labour consumption, but which also help substantially
to cut down the demand for the input of mineral fertilisers, which improves the overall ecological
characteristics of the natural environment.

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1530-1547 K. Bahmani, A. Izadi Darbandi, D. Faleh Alfekaiki and M. Sticklen
Phytochemical Diversity of Fennel landraces from Various Growth Types and Origins
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Phytochemical Diversity of Fennel landraces from Various Growth Types and Origins

K. Bahmani¹, A. Izadi Darbandi¹*, D. Faleh Alfekaiki² and M. Sticklen³

¹Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sciences, Aburaihan College, Tehran University, IR 14174 Tehran, Iran
²Department of Food Sciences, Agriculture College, Basrah University, IQ 61004 Basrah, Iraq
³Department of Plant, Soil and Microbiology Sciences, Michigan State University, US 48823 East Lansing, USA
*Correspondence: aizady@ut.ac.ir

Abstract:

The presence of certain secondary metabolites in fennel essential oil is the cause of its pharmacological and flavoring properties. In this study phytochemical diversity including essential oil content and compositions of 26 fennel landraces from various growth types and geographical originations were assessed. Essential oil content of the fennel landraces varied from 1.1 to 4.8%; with late and medium maturities showing higher essential oil contents than early maturities. According to the Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) results, the main essential oil components were trans-anethole (1.2–88.4%), methyl chavicol (0.2–59.1%), fenchone (1.1–14.7%) and limonene (5.3–15.7%). According to the clustering results, it was noticed that all the fennel landraces originated from arid climates were trans-anethole chemotype with an average concentration of 76%. The early and late maturity fennels from humid climates were methyl chavicol chemotype with an average concentration of 54%. The late maturities from humid and moderate climates were fenchone chemotypes with 12% concentration, and finally the early and late maturities from semi-arid climates were limonene chemotype with 12% concentration. Our results confirm that climate is a major evolutionary determining factor on the phytochemical diversity of fennel landraces.

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1548-1561 I. Černá, J. Pecen, T. Ivanova and Z. Piksa
The dependence of the durability of digestate briquettes and sorption properties on represented particle sizes
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The dependence of the durability of digestate briquettes and sorption properties on represented particle sizes

I. Černá, J. Pecen, T. Ivanova* and Z. Piksa

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Department of Sustainable Technologies, Kamýcká 129, CZ 16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: ivanova@ftz.czu.cz

Abstract:

Digestate, a product of the anaerobic digestion process, is traditionally used as liquid fertiliser. Besides agriculture use, it became possible to dry its separated solid part and compress it into briquette or pellet form. In the context of the characterisation of briquettes, the description here largely covers the mechanical properties of texture components and the distribution of particles within the briquette space. In order to define these properties and understand the relations between the mechanical part and any influencing factors, researchers started to identify the relationship between particles size distribution in briquettes and sorption properties and therefore mechanical properties. The objective of the present research was to compare size distribution in particles in different digestate samples and to study the connection to water sorption by briquettes and the durability of briquettes that have been made from two kinds of digestate material. For a comparison, two types of digestate were used, for which particles were split into a few size files according to the sieve size. By using digital image analysis, the dimensions of particles were specified and compared with values that were measured by means of a calliper. Sorption properties were defined through experimentation: exposing briquettes to a water source with water adsorption being determined via moisture content. Other mechanical properties were represented by toughness and the rate of abrasion. As result, digestate is an appropriate sorption matter which can multiply its initial mass by a factor of five if the water supply is sufficient. In the case of a dimension measurement of particles, digestate texture is represented by particles with one prevalent dimension, in most cases this being length. The length of particles was between approximately 1mm to 9mm. The digestate has been proven to be a good water sorbent material and can be applied in various sectors of agriculture.

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1562-1572 A. Chechetkina, N. Iakovchenko and L. Zabodalova
The technology of soft cheese with a vegetable component
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The technology of soft cheese with a vegetable component

A. Chechetkina*, N. Iakovchenko and L. Zabodalova

ITMO University, St. Lomonosova 9, RU 191002 Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation
*Correspondence: Aleksandra.chechetkina@mail.ru

Abstract:

In products with complex composition milk and vegetable raw materials are used in different combinations, which allow to give them certain functional properties. Increasing the production of biologically wholesome products is a highly topical issue. One of the possible solutions of the problem is combining milk basis with vegetable raw material. Studies have been conducted on the development of soft cheeses from goat’s milk with chickpea flour. The aim of this research is to study the properties, consumer value and possibility of creation of soft cheese formulation with chickpea flour. In this field of study, an extruded chickpea flour is an innovative additive that had never been used before. Optimal proportion of ingredients was determined by nutritional, biological and energy value under the limitations arising from structural and parametrical models of adequate nutrition. The optimal concentration of bean filler in cheese mass that allows for the insignificant change in qualitative indicators of lacto–vegetarian product (taste, smell, consistency and color) was determined. During the experiments an effective fracture of bean component was selected and qualitative indicators of the developed soft cheese were determined. The paper gives scientific substantiation for the effectiveness of manufacture of soft goat cheese with chickpea flour.

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1573-1582 V. Emelyanov, I. Loginova, M. Kharina, L. Kleshchevnikov and M. Shulaev
Identification of kinetics parameters of wheat straw and sugar beet pulp hydrolysis with sulphurous acid
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Identification of kinetics parameters of wheat straw and sugar beet pulp hydrolysis with sulphurous acid

V. Emelyanov, I. Loginova, M. Kharina*, L. Kleshchevnikov and M. Shulaev

Kazan National Research Technological University, Karl Marx str. 68, RU 420015 Kazan, Russian Federation
*Correspondence: somariya@mail.ru

Abstract:

The mathematical modeling of the conversion of hemicelluloses of wheat straw and sugar beet pulp into monosaccharides using diluted sulphurous acid (0.59 and 1.18% wt) at high temperatures was performed. Kinetic equation, activation energy, pre-exponential factor and reaction order of the acid catalyst were determined. It was shown that agreement between the experimental data and kinetic model is good. It was proved that the process proceeds in the kinetic region and the entire array of measurements of the yield of monosaccharides satisfactorily described by the model with the minimum number of steps. The model predicts a decrease of duration of the process and increase of monosaccharides concentration in hydrolysates of lignocellulosic feedstock with temperature increase.

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1583-1600 E. Haiba, L. Nei, M. Ivask, J. Peda, J. Järvis, M. Lillenberg, K. Kipper and K. Herodes
Sewage sludge composting and fate of pharmaceutical residues –recent studies in Estonia
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Sewage sludge composting and fate of pharmaceutical residues –recent studies in Estonia

E. Haiba¹, L. Nei¹*, M. Ivask¹, J. Peda¹, J. Järvis¹, M. Lillenberg², K. Kipper³ and K. Herodes³

¹Tartu College, Tallinn University of Technology, Puiestee 78, EE51008 Tartu, Estonia
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 58A, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
³Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Ravila 14A, EE51010 Tartu, Estonia *Correspondence: lembit.nei@ttu.ee

Abstract:

This review is to reflect the work addressed to the application of biosolids and especially sewage sludge as a resource in composting. A considerable drop in the use of P fertilisers can be followed since early 1990s. Due to this fact crop production in Estonia takes place at the expense of soil phosphorous (P) resources. One of the ways of increasing the fertility of agricultural lands is to use nutrient-rich sewage sludge. Unfortunately, this may cause several undesired consequences due to biological and chemical contaminants. The presence of some widely used pharmaceuticals, as ciprofloxacin (CIP), norfloxacin (NOR), ofloxacin (OFL), sulfadimethoxine (SDM) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), was evident in sewage sludge of the two Estonian largest cities, Tartu and Tallinn. The concentrations of pharmaceuticals decreased after sewage sludge digestion and composting, but they were still present in detectable amounts. Sewage sludge co-composting experiments with sawdust, peat and straw showed the degradation of fluoroquinolones (FQ) and sulfonamides (SA). Additions of sawdust clearly speeded up this process, whereas the mixtures with peat and straw performed lower abilities to decompose pharmaceutical residues. Novel methodologies were developed and experiments conducted to study the potential accumulation of fluoroquinolones FQs and SAs by food plants. Due to the low adsorption of SAs on soil particles they are ‘free’ to migrate into plants. Different behaviour is characteristic to FQs as they are accumulated in sludge. Recent years have also shown progress in vermicomposting work and in using compost in afforestation.

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1601-1608 M. Hruška and P. Jindra
Ability to Handle Unfamiliar Systems in Passenger Cars According to Driver Skills
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Ability to Handle Unfamiliar Systems in Passenger Cars According to Driver Skills

M. Hruška¹* and P. Jindra²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Building, Kamýcká 129, CZ 16521 Praha 6, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýcká 129, CZ 165 21 Praha 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: jabko@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This paper addresses the ability of drivers to intuitively control special passenger car systems that they have as yet not encountered in the course of their driving practice and therefore have no experience of them. The study described in this paper was conducted on a sample group of drivers without any prior experience of the tested model or of any other model of the same brand, and the functions and systems selected for testing were unique for the brand and model in question. The reason for conduction of this study was the endeavour to recreate the common situation in which a driver is forced to drive a car with whose controls he/she has not yet had the opportunity to become acquainted. Based on statistical evaluation of the obtained data, it proved that the initial hypothesis claiming the existence of a correlation between driver parameters such as age, gender or length and quality of driver experience and his/her ability to adapt to completely unknown car control systems could be confirmed. The results in this paper may be applied in the cabin and car control system design process, thereby enhancing the user-friendliness of passenger car controls, thereby also indirectly increasing road traffic safety.

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1609-1618 J. Hurtečák, J. Volf and V. Novák
The possibilities of pneumatic reactive stabilization of vehicles
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The possibilities of pneumatic reactive stabilization of vehicles

J. Hurtečák, J. Volf* and V. Novák

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ 16521 Prague, Czech Republic;
*Correspondence: volf@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This paper describes a new and original way of car stabilization as an alternative or support for the common ESP stabilization method. It summarizes the properties of present car stabilization systems and their advantages and disadvantages. Then the pneumatic stabilization method is described, which uses compressed air to trigger the necessary reacting forces that are applied to a vehicle in case of the loss of adherence. To prove the new stabilization method, there are stated some basic calculations of the jets and the obtained reacting forces are identified. Finally, the results are discussed and evaluated.

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1619-1625 V. Karpov, T. Kabanen, Z.Sh. Yuldashev, A. Nemtsev and I. Nemtsev
Basic theory and methods for managing energy efficiency in consumer systems
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Basic theory and methods for managing energy efficiency in consumer systems

V. Karpov¹*, T. Kabanen², Z.Sh. Yuldashev¹, A. Nemtsev¹ and I. Nemtsev¹

¹Saint-Petersburg state Agrarian University, Pushkin-1, Box No 1, RU 196600 St. Petersburg, Russia
²Tallinn University of Technology Tartu College, Puiestee 78, EE 51008 Tartu, Estonia *Correspondence: toivokabanen@hot.ee

Abstract:

In this article, we present a scientifically proven methodology for monitoring and controlling of industrial energy efficiency in consumer power systems (CPS) – an original method of finite relations (MFR), which uses relative energy intensity resulting from energy use in the technology of the enterprise as the main indicator of innovative energy efficiency. The differentiation algorithm and control of energy consumption are based on the effectiveness of energy use in power technology processes which ensure delivery of technologically expected results. The main provisions of the method are confirmed by experiments and tested under production conditions. The research results correspond to the basic principles of the global energy efficiency practices (integrated approach to the design and the principle of sustainable development), but yielded a number of more specific solutions.

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1626-1634 J. Kosiba, Š. Čorňák, J. Glos, J. Jablonický, V. Vozárová, A. Petrović and J. Csillag
Monitoring oil degradation during operating tests
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Monitoring oil degradation during operating tests

J. Kosiba¹*, Š. Čorňák², J. Glos², J. Jablonický¹, V. Vozárová³, A. Petrović³ and J. Csillag³

¹Department of Transport and Handling, Faculty of Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Tr. A Hlinku 2, SK 949 76, Nitra, Slovak Republic
²Department of Combat and Special Vehicles, Faculty of Military Technology, University of Defence, Kounicova 65, CZ 662 10 Brno, Brno, Czech Republic
³Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK 949 76, Nitra Slovak Republic
*Correspondent: jan.kosiba@gmail.com

Abstract:

This paper deals with a lifetime test of the hydraulic and transmission oil, Shell Spirax S4 ATF (Universal Tractor Transmission Oil (UTTO)). This fluid was used in the hydraulic and transmission circuit of a John Deere 5720 tractor. The fluid was assessed in terms of a possible contamination of chemical elements. Fluid samples were taken from a John Deere 5720 tractor at intervals of 250 engine hours. These samples were subjected to an IR spectroscopy analysis, a measuring of the kinematic viscosity at 40 °C, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The spectrometer, Spectroil Q100, has been used to monitor chemical elements.

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1635-1644 J. Kreicbergs, G. Zalcmanis and A. Grislis
Vehicle in-use tyre characteristics evaluation during winter driving training
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Vehicle in-use tyre characteristics evaluation during winter driving training

J. Kreicbergs*, G. Zalcmanis and A. Grislis

Riga Technical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Transport and Aeronautics, Department of Automotive Engineering, 6k Ezermalas street, LV1006 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: juris.kreicbergs@rtu.lv

Abstract:

After the substantial number of fatalities in road traffic increase with the start of icy 2014–2015 winter conditions in Latvia drivers have been offered complimentary winter driving training. Having numerous drivers with their cars performing the same braking actions on restricted and safe test ground gave a good opportunity for evaluating driver skills and vehicle in-use tyre condition. Tyre age and tread depth were measured and driving instructions have been given to more than a thousand participants. Instrumented braking and manoeuvring measurements were made for thirty cars. The equipment included GPS receiver and decelerometer. Measurement results have been compared against physical observations and hints given by professional driving instructors. The comparison indicated that although the suggestions given to drivers by professional instructors clearly contribute to safer driving, the visual evaluation without measuring may lead to various errors in messages conveyed to drivers. The most questionable statement was about the influence of the vehicle mass on braking distance. The investigation did not show essential vehicle mass influence on tyre grip and correspondingly on braking characteristics. Tyre tread depth effect on braking performance demonstrated the relevance of technical requirements for winter tyres. The advantage of using public training for winter tyre in-use experiments is lower cost for getting tyre samples with various technical conditions. The disadvantages are the different skills of car owners, the need for individual instructions and the necessity to reckon with the training format, the limited choice of the testing variables and substandard conditioning of the road surface. The tests gave valuable information for further training sessions and coming winter tyre tests.

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1645-1651 P. Laurson, H. Kaldmäe, A. Kikas and U. Mäeorg
Detection of changes in the water, blackcurrant- and raspberry juice infrared spectrum in the range 2,500−4,000 cm-1
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Detection of changes in the water, blackcurrant- and raspberry juice infrared spectrum in the range 2,500−4,000 cm-1

P. Laurson¹*, H. Kaldmäe², A. Kikas² and U. Mäeorg¹

¹Faculty of Science and Technology, Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Ravila 14a, EE50411 Tartu, Estonia
²Polli Horticultural Research Centre PlantValor of the Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, the Estonian University of Life Sciences, EE69104 Karksi-Nuia, Estonia
*Correspondence: peeter.laurson@ut.ee

Abstract:

This research was conducted to develop a method for the establishment of changes in absorbance that occurs in the OH stretching vibration region 2,500−4,000 cm-1 of FT-IR transmission spectra of water and juices. With the methodology described in this paper, a signal-to-noise ratio was obtained, which allows to measure the reproducibly of the FT-IR transmission spectra of water and juices. The article points out some important aspects of how the spectra of ultrapure water, blackcurrant- (Ribes nigrum L.) and raspberry (Rubus idaeus) juices were measured in the OH stretching vibration region 2,500−4,000 cm-1. The graphical comparison of raw spectra illustrates that the differences which occur in the spectra of water and juices are hard to differentiate. For the clear distinction of differences in spectra, there are four hidden peaks identified in the analysis of spectra by using the deconvolution method. There are clear differences identified in the comparison of percentages of the hidden peaks of spectra in the areas of ultrapure water, blackcurrant and raspberry juice. Repeated measurements and analysis of spectra provide reproducible results. It was established that the developed method can be used for the detection of changes in the FT-IR transmission spectra of water, juices and aqueous solutions with low molar concentrations of additives. The distinction of changes in the spectra is a precondition for research of the clustered structures of water

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1652-1658 R. Neděla and R. Neděla
Support scheme for CHP and its sensitivity on heat wasting
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Support scheme for CHP and its sensitivity on heat wasting

R. Neděla¹* and R. Neděla²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Technical Faculty, CZ 16521 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
²University of Economics, Prague, Faculty of International Relations, CZ 13067 Prague 3, W. Churchill 4 SQ, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: nedela@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This paper describes basic principles of the CHP, advantages and disadvantages, technologies. In first part of article are described principles of CHP from the viewpoint of the energy customer. Second part describes basic Directives by the European Commission on promotion CHP and third part the most important part focus on the sensitivity of primary energy saving (PES) on outputs especially heat wasting.

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1659-1670 M. Prikryl, P. Vaculik, L. Chladek, L. Libich and P. Smetanova
The human factor’s impact on the process of milking
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The human factor’s impact on the process of milking

M. Prikryl¹*, P. Vaculik¹, L. Chladek¹, L. Libich¹ and P. Smetanova²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ 165 21 Prague 6-Suchdol, Czech Republic
²Rodná 12, Mladá Vožice, CZ 391 43, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: prikryl@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This article explores the results of measurements that monitor human impact on the process of milking. Milk is an animal product that is intended for direct consumption but also for further processing. After obtaining milk from the mammary glands of dairy cows, it is treated so that it can be distributed to the customer in many forms. The customer may choose from a wide range of dairy products, which include milk as well as cream, cheese, yoghurt, etc. Large quantities of quality milk (from which other products are manufactured in consecutive steps) are used to satisfy the demand of consumers. The quantity and quality of cow milk is important for both the consumer and producer. This article discusses measurements focused on the effort of improving the preparation of cows before milking. This is the most important operation to ensure the best and fastest way of milking. A procedure for the preparation of the udder was proposed on the basis of professional literature and then measurements were performed in a building with a herringbone parlour. After evaluation it was revealed that the periods of milking were too long because insufficient preparation before milking. The performed measurements showed that when the udder had been prepared in the recommended way, the entire milking process showed significantly better results (shorter times of milking). The human factor can be therefore considered to be the milkers’ behaviour towards the animals. It affects the welfare of dairy cows.

We therefore recommend using the suggested process for preparing the udder.

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1671-1683 A. Remmik, J. Härma and R. Värnik
Economic considerations for using sexed semen on Holstein cows and heifers in Estonia
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Economic considerations for using sexed semen on Holstein cows and heifers in Estonia

A. Remmik*, J. Härma and R. Värnik

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: aadi.remmik@student.emu.ee

Abstract:

The study investigated economic and managerial considerations for using sexed semen as a tool for accelerated herd expansion and improvement of its genetic potential. Economic value of reproduction strategies based on conventional semen and sexed semen were analysed according to partial budgeting method by Victor E Cabrera and adjusted for the Estonian average indicators. Data for the study were provided by Animal Breeders Association of Estonia. In order to evaluate the economic value of using sexed semen over conventional semen, five different reproductive strategies involving sexed semen were used and compared with conventional semen-based strategy. Average conception rate from the first insemination with conventional semen was 65.6% and 56.1% with sexed semen for Holstein heifers in Estonia in 2015. Probability for birth of a female calf was 49.3% with conventional semen and 93.0% with sexed semen. Net present value for all sexed semen based reproduction strategies was negative at the baseline conditions. Sensitivity analysis for key reproductive and economic variables showed that market price of female calves and conception rates had the most impact on the economic value. Sexed semen can be a valuable tool for reproduction management in dairy farms, but the actual economic value of its application depends on the reproductive performance and objectives of an individual farm. Results of this study provide basis for further research about the situations, where using sexed semen would be economically justified for the farmers.

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1684-1693 B. Rivza, M. Kruzmetra, V. Zaluksne
Performance trends for smart growth in the rural territories of Latvia
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Performance trends for smart growth in the rural territories of Latvia

B. Rivza*, M. Kruzmetra, V. Zaluksne

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Economics and Social Development, Svetes str.9, LV-3001, Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: baiba.rivza@llu.lv

Abstract:

Any country is interested in economic growth regardless of its development level in the given period; yet an increasingly important role in defining growth is played by the term smart growth. The EU development strategy until 2020 defines smart growth as a strategic objective. For this reason, economic performance trends towards smart growth and smart specialisation have become an urgent task in project No.5.2.3 ‘Rural and Regional Development Processes and Opportunities in Latvia in the Context of Knowledge Economy’ in National Research Programme 5.2. ‘Economic Transformation, Smart Growth, Governance and Legal Framework for the State and Society for Sustainable Development – a New Approach to the Creation of a Sustainable Learning Community: EKOSOC-LV’.
The research performed by the authors gives an insight into the socio-economic performance trends towards smart growth in Latvia’s regions and municipalities in particular, which are typical local administrative units in the country. The research used statistic data of the LURSOFT, Central Statistical Bureau and RDIM (Regional Development Indicator Module) databases for the period 2009–2013, examining the acquired information and performing horizontal and vertical analyses and data grouping, in order to identify the accumulation of positive/innovative changes. For a detailed examination of the mentioned phenomena, Zemgale region was selected as the territory in Latvia with an average development level. The research led to the conclusion that an increase of the proportion of knowledge-based goods (produced by high-tech and medium high-tech enterprises) and knowledge-intensive services in the overall increase of output in Zemgale region was greater than an increase in the total number of enterprises. The growth was observed both in ‘accessible’ territories and in ‘remote’ territories at different population decline rates etc. The latter allows considering that smart growth is determined not only by objective circumstances but also by local authorities, the activity of various public organisations and the readiness of residents to act under the guidance of the mentioned formations. It has to be taken into consideration when working on a territorial development strategy and achieving the objectives set in the strategy.

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1694-1701 O. Sada, A. Leola and P. Kic
Choosing and evaluation of milking parlours for dairy farms in Estonia
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Choosing and evaluation of milking parlours for dairy farms in Estonia

O. Sada¹*, A. Leola¹ and P. Kic²

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Tecnology, Department of Husbandry Engineering and Ergonomics, Fr.R.Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamycka 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: oliver.sada@emu.ee

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present the main criteria, which could be used for the choosing, optimization and evaluation of a milking parlour in two large capacity Estonian dairy farms. The choosing and evaluation of milking parlours parameters is based on the available information and results of previous research in dairy farms in the Estonia, using the mathematical model created in the Czech Republic. Time for milking and final specific direct costs are main parameters which enable evaluation and choosing of suitable milking parlour for the dairy farm. Calculation of the first farm with a capacity of 300 cows showed that in the case of rotary milking parlour with 32 milking stalls total specific direct costs per milking per cow and year would be by 25% higher than in the case of Side by Side milking parlour 2 x 12, but the time for milking would be reduced by about 25%. The second farm with capacity of 1,850 cows is equipped with a rotary milking parlour with 70 milking stalls. There are three milkers. Six milkers would bring shortening of one milking from 6.3 h to 3.3 h while preserving approximately the same total specific direct costs per milking per cow and per year. This milking parlour could be used also for the planned increase in capacity at farm to 3,300 cows. Time of one milking would be 5.6 hours, but total specific direct costs per milking per cow and per year would be reduced by 18%.

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1702-1712 A.V. Shcherbakov, S.A. Mulina, P.Yu. Rots, E.N. Shcherbakova and V.K. Chebotar
Bacterial endophytes of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) as promising tools in viticulture: isolation, characterization and detection in inoculated plants
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Bacterial endophytes of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) as promising tools in viticulture: isolation, characterization and detection in inoculated plants

A.V. Shcherbakov¹²*, S.A. Mulina¹³, P.Yu. Rots¹³, E.N. Shcherbakova¹ and V.K. Chebotar¹²

¹All-Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology, Shosse Podbelskogo 3, Pushkin, RU 196608 St. Petersburg, Russia
²ITMO State University
³St. Petersburg State Technological Institute, Moskovsky prospect 26, RU 190013 St. Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: avsherbakov@bisolbi.ru

Abstract:

Bacterial endophytes may positively influence the host plants, and the search for new strains with beneficial properties is a promising research direction. We isolated culturable endophytic bacterial strains from cuttings of grapevine of four cultivars, identified and characterized their physiological properties and studied colonization process and localization sites of the introduced DsRed-labeled strain. The taxonomic diversity of microorganisms isolated from the inner tissues of grapevine was identified based on the analysis of the 16S rRNA gene fragments. Several promising strains of endophytic bacteria were isolated. DsRed+ phenotypes were obtained by transformation. Their introduction into grapevine plants made it possible to reveal their localization in the plant vascular tissues.

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1713-1719 K. Tihomirova, B. Dalecka and L. Mezule
Application of conventional HPLC RI technique for sugar analysis in hydrolysed hay
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Application of conventional HPLC RI technique for sugar analysis in hydrolysed hay

K. Tihomirova*, B. Dalecka and L. Mezule

Riga Technical University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Research Centre for Civil Engineering, Water Research Laboratory, Kipsalas 6a–263, Riga LV–1048, Latvia
*Correspondence: kristina.tihomirova@rtu.lv

Abstract:

To determine the potential biofuel yield and necessary technological parameters a known concentration and type of fermentable sugars should be produced during chemical or biological extraction from lignocellulose. The most popular method for sugar interpretation and quantification is liquid chromatography (HPLC) using refractive index (RI) detector. The aim of this research was to show the applicability of the high–performance liquid chromatography using refractive index (HPLC RI) technique for sugar interpretation in hydrolysed hay and possible solutions for optimisation of this method. Analysis of hydrolysed hay with standard additive showed low recovery of sugar concentrations and inconsistencies with dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method, which was mostly due to low separation of peaks of these sugars on the chromatograms. As result HPLC RI method was useful for qualitative analysis of sugars only, not for its quantification.

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1720-1729 T. Vaimann, A. Rassõlkin, A. Kallaste and M. Märss
Feasibility study of a local power supply system for sparsely populated areas in Estonia
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Feasibility study of a local power supply system for sparsely populated areas in Estonia

T. Vaimann¹²*, A. Rassõlkin¹, A. Kallaste¹² and M. Märss¹³

¹Tallinn University of Technology, Faculty of Power Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering, Ehitajate tee 5, EE19086 Tallinn, Estonia
²Aalto University, School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, PO Box 13000, FI00076 Aalto, Finland
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Department of Energy Engineering, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 56/1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: toomas.vaimann@ttu.ee

Abstract:

The paper analyzes the reasonability of using an off-grid hybrid power supply system or in other words a local grid for sparsely populated areas as well as the necessary components selection and price development of such system. Typical consumers are selected and all estimations and calculations are based on them. Consumer profiles are set and analyzed as well as different elements of the local power supply grid and the possibility of connecting to the traditional grid. Estonian example is used in this paper as the country lies relatively north and has some remote areas, where local power supply grids can be implemented. All prices in the paper are derived from the Estonian example. Necessity of further study is proposed.

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1730-1736 J. Vegricht and J. Šimon
The impact of differently solved machine lines and work procedures of feeding and bedding on dust concentration in stables for dairy cows
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The impact of differently solved machine lines and work procedures of feeding and bedding on dust concentration in stables for dairy cows

J. Vegricht* and J. Šimon

Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Drnovská 507, CZ 161 01 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: jiri.vegricht@vuzt.cz

Abstract:

The measurements were aimed at the impact of differently solved feeding and bedding systems on dust concentration in stables for dairy cows. Dust particles can be found in the environment in which the animals are housed and can affect their welfare and health, and can also negatively affect equipment in livestock buildings. Measurements of dust aerosol on 7 different farms for dairy cows in 9 stables in total were carried out. We focused on the impact of differently solved machine lines and work procedures of feeding and bedding, especially feeding with a mixer feeder wagon, bedding with a bedding wagon (equipped with a floor conveyor, a milling cylinder and a transversal conveyor), bedding with a straw blower, laying of deep litter with a wagon equipped with a hydraulic arm and manual distribution. Technical systems are especially affected by the presence of dust particles larger than 10 μm, which fall down very quickly and easily settle on the animals and surfaces in the stable. So, we measured the concentration of dust aerosol with an aerosol monitor by means of a 10 μm filter.

The results of the measurements show that feeding with a mixer feeder wagon increases the concentration of dust particles in the stables by the least amount. Straw bedding increases the concentration of dust particles in the stables by several times. This increase, however, is short in duration, and dustiness in the stables quickly returns to the state before bedding. There is a clear, substantive difference between the differently solved bedding systems.

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1737-1744 I. Vilcane, T. Koppel, J. Bartusauskis, V. Urbane, J. Ievins, H. Kalkis, and Z. Roja
Electromagnetic fields’ exposure to head, torso and limbs in office workplaces
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Electromagnetic fields’ exposure to head, torso and limbs in office workplaces

I. Vilcane¹*, T. Koppel², J. Bartusauskis¹, V. Urbane¹, J. Ievins¹, H. Kalkis³⁴, and Z. Roja⁴

¹Riga Technical University, Faculty of Engineering Economics and Management, institute of Occupational Safety and Civil Defence, Kalku str. 1, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
²Tallinn University of Technology, Department of Business, Labour Environment and Safety, Ehitajate str. 5, EE19086 Tallinn, Estonia
³Riga Stradins University, Faculty of European Studies, Dzirciema str. 16, LV-1007 Riga, Latvia
⁴University of Latvia, Faculty of Chemistry, Ergonomic Research centre, Jelgavas str. 1, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: Inese.Vilcane@rtu.lv

Abstract:

The aim of this research was to investigate the electromagnetic fields in the modern office environment. Both low frequency and the high frequency electromagnetic fields were studied. The sources of elevated electromagnetic fields and the conditions under which they occur were identified. Measurements were performed by following a 14-point human body model, which characterizes the overall exposure of the sitting person.

The measurements analysis revealed the most typical sources of exposure to be loosely spread power wires and extension cables, but also power cables close to the worker’s body on the floor or beneath the table. Standard office devices were also rising the exposure levels when situated in close proximity to the worker.

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