Volume 15 (2017)
  Number 1

Journal full text: Vol 15 No 1

Contents


Pages

005–010 G. Aksu, E. Temel and H. Altay
Comparison of iodine application methods in Rocket Plant
Abstract |
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Comparison of iodine application methods in Rocket Plant

G. Aksu*, E. Temel and H. Altay

Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, TR17020 Canakkale, Turkey
*Correspondence: gizemaksu@comu.edu.tr

Abstract:

Iodine is an essential trace element for human health and is involved in the production of the thyroid hormone. Recently, a new idea has emerged: to meet people’s need for daily iodine by increasing the iodine content of vegetables with high iodine bioavailability and assimilation. This study was carried out with iodine foliar application and root application methods to determine which is more appropriate when attempting to increase iodine content. An experiment was conducted in a greenhouse with 4 doses of iodine in the form of potassium iodide (0, 2, 4, 8 mM), two application methods (foliar and root application) and three replicates. At the end of the experiment, the plants’ fresh and dry weight, relative water content, membrane stability, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll were determined. The results were subjected to analysis of variance according to the randomized blocks experiment design using the MINITAB 17.0 statistical package program. The applications did not show a statistical difference in plant fresh weight and dry weight. There was no statistical difference in the relative water content between the applications, while a statistical difference (P < 0.05) in the membrane stability was observed for the interaction of application type and application dose. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and the total chlorophyll amount were also statistically affected (P < 0.05) by the application doses. Foliar and root application methods have not caused significant loss of yield. Both methods are also considered to be appropriate to use in practice.

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011–023 A. Baghdadi, M. Balazadeh, A. Kashani, F. Golzardi, M. Gholamhoseini and M. Mehrnia
Effect of pre-sowing and nitrogen application on forage quality of silage corn
Abstract |
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Effect of pre-sowing and nitrogen application on forage quality of silage corn

A. Baghdadi¹, M. Balazadeh¹, A. Kashani¹, F. Golzardi², M. Gholamhoseini²* and M. Mehrnia¹

¹Department of Agronomy, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran
²Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension
Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
*Correspondence: mgholamhoseini@spii.ir

Abstract:

In order to determine the best pre-sowing treatments and nitrogen rates on forage
quality traits in silage corn (SC 704), a field experiment was conducted in a split plot based on a
randomized complete block design (RCBD), with four replications during 2013–14 growing
season in Karaj. Main plots consisted of four pre-sowing treatments (Black fallow, Farmyard
manure and 2 green manure treatments including pre-sowing treatment of perko PVH and presowing
treatment of buko) and sub-plots included three rates of nitrogen (120, 240 and
360 kg ha−1, utilized urea source). Results showed that the effect of pre-sowing treatments on
DMD, NDF and forage yield was significant (P ≤ 0.01), so that in all traits, perko PVH and buko
treatments were the best ones to compare with black fallow and farmyard manure. Moreover,
different nitrogen levels had significant (P ≤ 0.01) effect on dry matter digestibility (DMD),
neutrals detergent fiber (NDF) and forage yield, so that with the increasing rate of nitrogen, these
traits increased. The interaction effect of pre-sowing treatments and nitrogen levels on water
soluble carbohydrates (WSC), crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and total ash was
significant (P ≤ 0.01). In general, results showed that the suitable component is perko PVH
treatment by using 240 kg ha−1 nitrogen fertilizer.

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024-032 M.F. Baran and O. Gökdoğan
Energy balance in production of chickpea in Turkey: A study performed in Adıyaman Province
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Energy balance in production of chickpea in Turkey: A study performed in Adıyaman Province

M.F. Baran¹* and O. Gökdoğan²

¹Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Adıyaman, TR02040 Adıyaman, Turkey
²Department of Biosystem Engineering, Faculty of Engineering-Architecture, University of Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University, TR50300 Nevşehir, Turkey
*Correspondence: mbaran@adiyaman.edu.tr

Abstract:

In this study, it has been aimed to form the energy balance in the production of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Adıyaman province of Turkey. The material of the research consists of the chickpea enterprises in the center of Adıyaman province in the scope of the production season of 2015–2016. In this study, the number of enterprises for which is required to be made the study has been computed as 67 according to the simple random sampling method. Survey and observation studies have carried out in these designated enterprises. The energy equivalence of the chickpea samples taken from the enterprises has been determined by the calorimeter device. According to results of the study; the total energy input has been computed as 12,225.69 MJ ha-1 and the total energy output has been computed as 31,527.52 MJ ha-1. The energy inputs in the production of chickpea have been 3,575.69 MJ ha-1 (29.25%), 3,523.08 MJ ha-1 (28.82%), 3,280.32 MJ ha-1 (26.83%), 1,230.39 MJ ha-1 (10.07%), 358.20 MJ ha-1 (2.93%), 131.52 MJ ha-1 (1.08%) and 126.50 MJ ha-1 (1.03%) as fuel energy, chemical fertilizers energy, seed energy, machinery energy, farmyard manure energy, human labour energy and chemicals energy inputs, respectively. In this study, indicators showing the energy ratio, specific energy, energy productivity and net energy were determined as 2.58, 7.07 MJ kg-1, 0.14 kg MJ-1 and 19,301.83 MJ ha-1, respectively. According to the results of the study, it is clear that chickpea production is an economical production for the 2015–2016 production seasons.

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033–043 A. Bender
Impact of the seeding and nitrogen fertilizer rates of spring wheat that is used as a cover crop on the yielding ability of tetraploid red clover stand established at different seeding rates
Abstract |
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Impact of the seeding and nitrogen fertilizer rates of spring wheat that is used as a cover crop on the yielding ability of tetraploid red clover stand established at different seeding rates

A. Bender

Estonian Crop Research Institute, Aamisepa 1, EE 48 309 Jõgeva, Estonia
e-mail: ants.bender@etki.ee

Abstract:

In the years 2013–2014, a field trial was conducted at the Estonian Crop Research Institute in order to investigate a possibility of using spring wheat as a cover crop in the establishment of red clover seed field. In the trial the cover crop had four different seeding and fertilization rates. Two tetraploid red clover cultivars, ‘Varte’ (early) and ‘Ilte’ (late), were seeded at rates 2, 4, 6 and 8 kg PLS per hectare in four replications. In the year of sowing the height and density of generative tillers of spring wheat, the grain yield and its quality, the number of red clover plants per m², and the seed yield of red clover and its quality in the 1st year of harvest were determined. Economic feasibility was calculated based on the prices valid at the time of trial conduction. The trial confirmed that while establishing a red clover seed field, it is possible to replace the earlier recommended six-rowed early barley cultivars with early spring wheat cultivars. It is expedient to reduce the seeding rate and nitrogen fertilizer rate of cover crop by one third. The optimum seeding rate of tetraploid red clover cultivars was 4–6 kg PLS ha-1.

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044–054 V. Bulgakov, S. Ivanovs, V. Adamchuk and Y. Ihnatiev
Investigation of the influence of the parameters of the experimental spiral potato heap separator on the quality of work
Abstract |
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Investigation of the influence of the parameters of the experimental spiral potato heap separator on the quality of work

V. Bulgakov¹, S. Ivanovs²*, V. Adamchuk³ and Y. Ihnatiev⁴

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15, Heroyiv Obrony str., UK 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Latvia University of Agriculture, 2, Liela str., LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia
³National Scientific Centre ‘Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification’ of Ukraine, 11, Vokzalna str., Glevaha-1, UK 08631 Kiev Region, Ukraine
⁴Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18, Khmelnytskoho pr., Melitopol, UK 72312 Zaporozhye region, Ukraine
*Correspondence: semjons@apollo.lv

Abstract:

The known designs of potato heap cleaners have a series of disadvantages, particularly on sticky soils. In the newly developed and patented potato heap cleaner of a spiral type there is used the vibration effect and other technical solutions which ensure efficient self-cleaning of the rollers. Laboratory-field equipment was worked out and made for the investigations which had a spiral potato heap cleaner of a new design mounted on it. Under the field conditions the real technological process of digging and cleaning of the potato tubers from the soil admixtures was simulated in one row of the potato plantation. By using the developed methodology of a multi-factor experiment dependencies were obtained characterising the impact of the design and kinematic parameters of the cleaner itself upon the quality indicators of its operation (the soil separation efficiency, the cleanness of the heap, the damage and losses of the tubers), allowing optimisation of the design.

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055–068 J.A. Domínguez, J. Kumhálová and P. Novák
Assessment of the relationship between spectral indices from satellite remote sensing and winter oilseed rape yield
Abstract |
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Assessment of the relationship between spectral indices from satellite remote sensing and winter oilseed rape yield

J.A. Domínguez¹, J. Kumhálová²* and P. Novák³

¹UNED Department of Mathematical and Fluid Physics, Science Faculty,
C/Senda del Rey, nº9, ES280 40 Madrid, Spain
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of
Machinery Utilization, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of
Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: kumhalova@seznam.cz

Abstract:

Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) belongs among the most common and strategic
crops in the Czech Republic. Growth and vitality status, yield potential and yield prediction of
oilseed rape on plots of different sizes can be effectively examined using remote sensing. That is
why the main aim of this study was to discuss a possibility of deriving spectral indices for an
assessment which spectral index is more adequate to forecast oilseed winter rape development
and consequent yield in the Czech Republic. Information about the winter oilseed rape growth
and yield was collected in three years – 2004, 2008, 2012. A relationship between grown crops
and selected vegetation indices was evaluated. The Landsat 7 satellite images were selected as a
source for deriving spectral indices. The relationship between each spectral index and yield was
analysed in 2012 only. Five images on different dates during the whole life of winter oilseed rape
were found during this year. The images from the years 2004 and 2008 were cloudier. The spectral
indices showing the best relationship with yield from 2012 were then analysed in the images from
2004 and 2008. The results showed that Enhanced Moisture Stress Index is the most acceptable
index from the selected indices used in this study. From an agronomical point of view no available
index was found to be suitable for the winter rape growth evaluation due to dependence on
precipitation conditions. For monitoring of the yield components in winter oilseed rape in
conditions of the Czech Republic, it seems necessary to develop a new vegetation index which
will reliably describe the winter oilseed rape growth stages during the whole vegetation season.

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069–078 V. Dubrovskis and I. Plume
Biogas from wastes of pumpkin, marrow and apple
Abstract |
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Biogas from wastes of pumpkin, marrow and apple

V. Dubrovskis* and I. Plume

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Energetics, Cakstes blvd 5, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: vilisd@inbox.lv

Abstract:

A lot of vegetables and fruits, which have been grown in Latvia or were imported from foreign countries, become waste, often due to unconformity to the marketing standards or biodegradation process fouling during storage. Waste biomass piles emissions during storage that contributes to global warming. It is appropriate to use such biomass as raw material for anaerobic digestion. This article shows the results of studies on evaluation of suitability of vegetable and fruit waste biomass for the production of biogas. Anaerobic digestion was investigated in 0.75 L digesters, operated in batch mode at a temperature of 38 ± 1.0 °C. The average biogas yield per mass unit of dry organic matter added (DOM) from digestion of pumpkin biomass was 1.095 L g-1DOM and the specific methane yield was 0.422 L g-1DOM. Average biogas yield from digestion of marrow biomass was 0.768 L g-1ODM and the methane yield was 0.274 L g-1DOM. Average biogas yield from digestion of apple biomass was 1.020 L g-1DOM and the methane yield was 0.451 L g-1DOM. All investigated wastes can be a very good source for biogas production. Anaerobic digestion may be a solution to treat waste biomass from food production facilities or supermarkets.

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079–093 Z. Gaile, A. Ruza, D. Kreita and L. Paura
Yield components and quality parameters of winter wheat depending on tillering coefficient
Abstract |
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Yield components and quality parameters of winter wheat depending on tillering coefficient

Z. Gaile¹*, A. Ruza¹, D. Kreita¹ and L. Paura²

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Liela street 2, LV–3001, Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Information Technologies, Liela street 2, LV–3001, Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: zinta.gaile@llu.lv

Abstract:

Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the main and most profitable cereal crop in Latvia, thus different aspects of its growth are widely researched. The aim of this three-year (2004–2005 and 2006–2007) long investigation arranged at Research and Study farm ‘Peterlauki’ of Latvia University of Agriculture (56 30.658 N and 23 41.580 E) was to evaluate importance of tillering for wheat yield, yield components and quality formation alongside the effect of cultivar, sowing date and rate, and research year. Three cultivars (‘Cubus’, ‘Tarso’, ‘Zentos’), four sowing dates (starting with 30 August ± 2 days with 10-day intervals) and three sowing rates (300, 400 and 500 germinable seeds m-2) were used. Soil and crop management was appropriate. Yield components were detected from sample sheets. Yield was affected substantially (p < 0.05) by all the investigated factor except sowing rate. Plants with tillering coefficient (TC) ‘1’ to ‘6’ formed yield, and the biggest proportion (20%) was given by plants with TC ‘3’. Grain number and weight per spike was substantially (p < 0.01) affected by TC, but changes in their values were irregular and further investigations are needed. Average values of crude protein, gluten and starch content, Zeleny index and 1,000 grain weight was not affected by TC substantially. Thus, tillering was found beneficial for winter wheat yield formation as part of yield compensation mechanism. Sowing rate was the least yield, its components and quality affecting factor, but environmental conditions (research year) – the most affecting factor. The effect of cultivar and sowing date was mostly substantial, but dependent on evaluated parameter.

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094–111 J. Gailis, I. Turka and M. Ausmane
Soil tillage and crop rotation differently affect biodiversity and species assemblage of ground beetles inhabiting winter wheat fields
Abstract |
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Soil tillage and crop rotation differently affect biodiversity and species assemblage of ground beetles inhabiting winter wheat fields

J. Gailis*, I. Turka and M. Ausmane

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Soil and Plant Sciences, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: janis.gailis@llu.lv

Abstract:

This paper continues studies on ground beetles (Carabidae) in differently managed winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) fields in Latvia. The main task of those studies was to assess how different soil tillage regimes (ploughing and non-inverse tillage) and different pre-crops (winter wheat and spring rapeseed (Brassica napus) affect assemblage and biodiversity of ground beetles in winter wheat fields. The research was carried out in the Latvia University of Agriculture Research and Study Farm ‘Pēterlauki’ (56°30’39.38’’N; 23°41’30.15’’E) during vegetation season of 2013. The results were compared with the results of similar research carried out at the same place during 2012. Totally 57 ground beetle species were observed in studied fields in 2013. Total species assemblage varied between both consecutive vegetation seasons of the research, however these were minor differences not connected with studied agro-ecological factors. Dominance structure of ground beetle species was significantly different between both vegetation seasons – species which were dominant and subdominant in 2012 became subdominant and dominant one year later, accordingly. Annual effects of soil tillage regime and pre-crop on ground beetle dominance structure also were observed, however some differences were recognized between both vegetation seasons. In case, if weed control was successful, higher ground beetle biodiversity might be observed in ploughed fields pre-cropped with spring rapeseed. Otherwise, significantly higher ground beetle biodiversity may be observed in harrowed soil independently from the pre-crop.

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112–122 M. Gaworski, N. Kamińska and P. Kic
Evaluation and optimization of milking in some Polish dairy farms differed in milking parlours
Abstract |
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Evaluation and optimization of milking in some Polish dairy farms differed in milking parlours

M. Gaworski¹*, N. Kamińska¹ and P. Kic²

¹Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Department of Production Management and Engineering, Nowoursynowska str. 164, PL02-787 Warsaw, Poland
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamycka 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: marek_gaworski@sggw.pl

Abstract:

Farms are continuously growing and modernized in Poland during the last years. The increased dairy herds require also modernization of milking equipment. The aim of this paper was to present the main criteria, which could be used for the solution of principal questions important for the choosing, optimization and evaluation of milking parlours in conditions of Polish agriculture. The research was conducted on three modern dairy farms in Poland to assess effectiveness of different milking parlours use. The first farm with 60 cows was equipped by side by side milking parlour, the second farm with 85 cows was equipped by herringbone milking parlour and the third farm had 80 cows and autotandem milking parlour. The choosing and evaluation of milking parlours parameters were based on the available information and results of previous research in dairy farms in the Poland, using the mathematical model created in the Czech Republic. Time for milking and final specific direct costs were main parameters which enable evaluation and choosing of suitable milking parlour for the dairy farm. The results of measurement and calculation in current farms were compared with possible future enlarged farms to capacity of 200 cows.

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123–132 M. Giolo , A. Dalla Montà, E. Barolo, F. Ferrari, R. Masin and S. Macolino
High-temperature effects on seed germination of fourteen Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) cultivars
Abstract |
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High-temperature effects on seed germination of fourteen Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) cultivars

M. Giolo¹ ³, A. Dalla Montà¹, E. Barolo¹, F. Ferrari², R. Masin³ and S. Macolino³

¹Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Via Ca' Nova Zampieri 37, IT 37057 S.G. Lupatoto (VR), Italy
²Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Via Emilia km 307 19, IT 26838 Tavazzano (Lodi), Italy
³Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural resources, Animals and Environment, Padova University, Viale dell’Università 16, IT 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy
*Correspondence: roberta.masin@unipd.it

Abstract:

Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) is a perennial cool-season grass commonly used for sport and ornamental turfgrasses in transition zones. It is a rather difficult species to establish due to slow germination and the relatively moderate growth rate of seedlings. Early autumn is considered the best time for sowing Kentucky bluegrass in temperate regions. Spring sowing is not recommended as low soil moisture and high temperatures can have a negative impact on germination. However, unavoidable circumstances often force turfgrasses to be sown in spring with high probability of failure. The risk of failure may increase in the near future as a consequence of climate change, so more knowledge is required on the ability of Kentucky bluegrass cultivars to germinate at high temperatures. A laboratory study evaluated the germination response of fourteen cultivars selected among those most used in northern Italy. They were compared in a conditioning chamber under five regimes of alternating temperatures (20/30 °C, 23/33 °C, 26/36 °C, 29/39 °C, 32/42 °C). Germination was recorded weekly starting from sowing. The germination patterns were similar up to 26/36 °C. At 29/39 °C only five cultivars had a germination of over 50%. At the highest temperature regime none of the cultivars had more than 3% germination. It is concluded that only when very extreme high temperatures occur, growers need to pay attention to the choice of cultivars to avoid problems during the germination-emergence phase, but based on the climate change scenario this is likely to happen with greater frequency in the future.

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133–143 A.M. Giuffrè, M. Capocasale, C. Zappia and M. Poiana
Biodiesel from tomato seed oil: transesterification and characterisation of chemical-physical properties
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Biodiesel from tomato seed oil: transesterification and characterisation of chemical-physical properties

A.M. Giuffrè, M. Capocasale*, C. Zappia and M. Poiana

Department of Agraria, Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, Località Vito, IT89122 Reggio Calabria, Italy
*Correspondence: marco.capocasale@unirc.it

Abstract:

The transesterification process of an oil is influenced by four variables: reaction temperature, reaction time, amount of alcohol and amount of reaction catalyst. The cost of production, yield and chemical-physical characteristics are therefore directly dependent on these variables. In this work, tomato seed oil was transesterified and the influence of the quantities of the alcohol (methanol) and catalyst (potassium hydroxide) was tested. The values of total esters, density, kinematic viscosity, iodine value, acid number, linolenic acid, cetane number and residual glycerides in the different biodiesels produced (Bio from A to F), were studied and compared with the current European regulations EN14214: 2014 (Liquid petroleum products – Fatty acid methyl esters for use in diesel engines and heating applications – Requirements and test methods). The six obtained biodiesels yielded between 72.59 (BioB) and 96.8% (BioE) of the total esters. The presence of non-transesterified oil, besides being a yield index, also negatively affects the viscosity at 40 °C of the produced biodiesel. In fact, the only sample with a value within the legal limit was BioE (4.95 mm2 s-1), while the others showed viscosity values higher than the 5.00 mm2 s-1 established by the European regulation. The density, however, always remained within the specified limits, with values between 880 kg m-3 in BioE and 891 kg m-3 in BioB. The presence of linolenic acid was well below the maximum legal limit in all samples, the iodine value ranged between 119 and 122 g I2 100g-1.

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144–154 G. Gulbe, S. Doniņa, V. Saulīte, J. Jermolajevs, L. Peškova, Š. Svirskis and A. Valdovska
The effect of immunomodulation composition on systemic immune response and udder health in case of bovine subclinical mastitis
Abstract |
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The effect of immunomodulation composition on systemic immune response and udder health in case of bovine subclinical mastitis

G. Gulbe¹*, S. Doniņa¹, V. Saulīte¹, J. Jermolajevs¹, L. Peškova¹, Š. Svirskis¹ and A. Valdovska¹²

¹Riga Stradins University, A. Kirchenstein Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Ratsupites street 5, Riga, LV-1067, Latvia
²Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Veterinary medicine, Institute of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Kr. Helmana street 8, Riga, LV-3004, Latvia
*Correspondence: Gundega.Gulbe85@gmail.com

Abstract:

Modulation of mammary gland immune response may offer an alternative to antimicrobial therapy in the treatment of subclinical mastitis. The aim of the study is to investigate the systemic immunomodulating effect and the impact of composition LLG which consists of lysozyme, lactic acid and glycopeptides isolated from Lactobacillus spp. on udder health parameters. A total of 10 cows with subclinical mastitis were used in the study – 5 cows (19 udder quarters) in the experimental group and 5 other cows (19 udder quarters) in the control group. The experimental cows received intramammary infusions of LLG, given once per day, 3 times with the intervals of 48 h. Cows from the control group received infusions of sterile 0.15 M NaCl, given in the same way as the treated cows. The following parameters were measured: somatic cell count (SCC), the total number of blood leucocyte, differentiation between banded neutrophils, segmented neutrophils and lymphocytes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and markers of cell activation. Besides bacteriological culturing was performed. Quarter milk and blood samples were taken several times from the 1st to the 21st day. During the treatment the number of lymphocytes and T helper cells significantly decreased in the blood of the treated group, the CD8+ cells did not change remarkably, the number of CD25+, CD38+, as well as CD69+ and CD95+ cells had diminished during the treatment. On the 21st day a rapid increase of IL-2 receptor bearing cells was detected. A significant elevation of SCC in the treated group was observed but pathogenic bacteria incidence decreased.

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155–161 T. Holota, M. Holienčinová, M. Kotus and J. Chrastina
The use of TOPSIS method in the manufacturing process of clutch plate of agricultural machinery
Abstract |
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The use of TOPSIS method in the manufacturing process of clutch plate of agricultural machinery

T. Holota¹*, M. Holienčinová², M. Kotus³ and J. Chrastina¹

¹Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of building equipment and technology safety, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia
²Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Economics and Management, Department of Marketing and Trade, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia
³Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Quality and Engineering Technologies, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia
*Correspondence: tomas.holota@gmail.com

Abstract:

Rating and determination of factors of importance affecting the pressing process of clutch plates is, in most organizations, an individual and subjective decision of individual employees.
The paper describes the process of relevant material selection for the organization. This process is designed with the aim to use the exact methods in order to replace subjective material selection by objective process. The most appropriate method appears the multi-criteria statistical analysis TOPSIS.
TOPSIS method has been widely applied in many areas with good results as the choice of marketing strategy, optimization of mechatronic systems, safety management, business competitions, management of crisis situations, assessment of trends, planning and many others. This is the first time when TOPSIS method was used in the selection of the most important causes affecting the pressing process of clutch plates.
The aim of this paper is to carry out the multi-criteria statistical analysis TOPSIS which evaluates and determines the order of importance of various factors affecting the pressing process of clutch plate which is a component part of agricultural machinery. On the basis of performed method we can prevent from subjective evaluation and make rational decisions based on the statistical analysis.

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162–169 Ľ. Hujo, Z. Tkáč, J. Jablonický, D. Uhrinová and M. Halenár
The action of force measurement for the three-point hitch of a tractor
Abstract |
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The action of force measurement for the three-point hitch of a tractor

Ľ. Hujo*, Z. Tkáč, J. Jablonický, D. Uhrinová and M. Halenár

Department of Transport and Handling, Faculty of Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, A. Hlinku 2, SK 949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
*Correspondence: lubomir.hujo@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The object of the executed measurements which were carried out was to obtain time courses for the forces and pressures inherent in a hydraulic system for the three-point hitch of a tractor during the process of ploughing with a carrier-mounted plough and also with a semi-mounted plough. It was necessary to obtain experimental data on the basis of which it was then possible to consider and analyse the issue of dynamic loading for the three-point hitch of a tractor during basic agricultural operations. The selected operation was ploughing in random working conditions using, in turn, a carrier-mounted plough and a semi-mounted plough. The aim was to use the results obtained to simulate the loading and full usage of the three-point hitch (TPH) under laboratory condition by means of hydrostatic simulator.

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170–186 K. Juhanson and E. Merisalu
Ergonomic intervention programs in different economic sectors: a review article
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Ergonomic intervention programs in different economic sectors: a review article

K. Juhanson* and E. Merisalu

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Department of Husbandry Engineering and Ergonomics, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 56/1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: kerttu.juhanson@gmail.com

Abstract:

Unlimited number of hazards can be found in almost every workplace increasingly causing work-related diseases (WRDs) and injuries among workers. In work environment there are various risk factors: physiological, physical or psychological. An awkward and static postures, repetitive movements, high work pace, non-ergonomic tools and poorly organized workstations are most likely causing musculoskeletal disorders. As well inconvenient room temperature, noise, vibration and poor lighting conditions can conduce to additional work discomfort, mental stress, fatigue, injury, or trauma among employees. Ergonomic interventions are coming more popular. Many organizations are trying to find best solutions to avoid musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). The aim of this paper is to describe different ergonomic interventions focused on diminishing of musculoskeletal discomfort and MSDs among workers. This paper gives overview about the most common and effective ergonomic interventions which really have worked in practice. For this research were used three different databases EBSCO, Science Direct and Mendeley. The selection of publications passed three phases of systematic search of literature: the first elimination consist of keywords ‘ergonomics, intervention’ and year of publication. In the second phase was added a keyword ‘work’ and in the third phase were eliminated repeated and literature review publications and as well publications which had little sample size or the exploration was not covered with real interventions. The publications (n = 209) of ergonomic interventions carried out in the past five years 2010–2015 were analyzed. Wide spectrum of different ergonomic interventions was found in several economic sectors, whereas the most effective ones were related to well-known ergonomics methods, workstation adjustment, training and exercises.

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187–195 H. Karadöl, S. Arslan and A. Aybek
PID control for sprayer sections under laboratory conditions
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PID control for sprayer sections under laboratory conditions

H. Karadöl¹, S. Arslan²* and A. Aybek³

¹Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Biosystems Engineering, TR 46100 Kahramanmaraş, Turkey
²Uludağ University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Biosystems Engineering, TR 16059 Bursa, Turkey
³Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Biosystems Engineering, TR 46100 Kahramanmaraş, Turkey
*Correspondence: sarslan@uludag.edu.tr

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to develop and test a PID controller to adjust the height of bum sections of sprayer booms. This study was conducted under laboratory conditions using an experimental frame representing the boom sections of the sprayer. The boom section was operated using an electro-hydraulic system driven by a hydraulic power pack. Ultrasonic distance sensors were used to adjust the height of the boom tips based on the set height values. During the on-off control, the sudden openings of the hydraulic valve conduits caused oscillations, resulting in unstable operation. In the PID control, increased gain up to 100% resulted in unstable operations and resembled the response of on-off control. With the use of low gain values, oil flow delivered to the hydraulic actuator was adjusted accurately using the proportional valves and smoother boom section motion was possible. The effects of different disturbances on the system dynamic responses were presented graphically using PID control.

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196–204 A. Karlsons and A. Osvalde
Nutrient status of the American cranberry in Latvia (2005–2016)
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Nutrient status of the American cranberry in Latvia (2005–2016)

A. Karlsons* and A. Osvalde

Institute of Biology, University of Latvia, Laboratory of Plant Mineral Nutrition, Miera street 3, Salaspils, Salaspils municipality, LV-2169, Latvia
*Correspondence: andis.karlsons@lu.lv

Abstract:

The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) is an evergreen groundcover plant native to North America. Nowadays cranberries are successfully cultivated in Latvia with total plantings of more than 125 ha. Being a native wetland plant, cranberries are considered as nutrients low requiring crop, however, balanced mineral nutrition is one of the key factors that determine plant growth and yield development. Surveys were carried out to determine the actual status and trends in mineral nutrition of American cranberries in Latvia during 2005–2016. Together 190 plant samples were collected from different cranberry producing sites in Latvia over 3 periods: 2005–2007, 2008–2011 and 2012–2016. Cranberry tissue analyses were used as diagnostics method to control plant nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Mo, B) status. The obtained results revealed notable nutrient imbalance in the years of the study. In general, our results suggest that only about 50% of plant tissue nutrient indices were in the sufficient range. Deficiency of N P, S, Fe, Cu, and Mo, and high levels of Mn was found in the majority of samples analyzed. In general, diverse tendencies were stated for the nutrient supply of cranberries from 2005 to 2016: positive trend in nutrient status of cranberry crop were found for N, K, Ca, while mean concentrations of S, Fe and Mo, as well as frequency of optimal indices decreased. The small count of nutrient indices in high till toxic range suggested on environmentally sound way of cranberry fertilization practices in Latvia.

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205–218 Ü. Kızıl, L. Genç2 and S. Aksu
Air quality mapping using an e-nose system in Northwestern Turkey
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Air quality mapping using an e-nose system in Northwestern Turkey

Ü. Kızıl¹*, L. Genç2 and S. Aksu¹

¹Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Structures and Irrigation, Terzioğlu Campus, TR17020 Çanakkale, Turkey
2Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Architecture and Design, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Terzioğlu Campus, TR17020 Çanakkale, Turkey
*Correspondence: unal@comu.edu.tr

Abstract:

A gas sensor based electronic nose system is developed for monitoring air quality dispersion in and around livestock barns. The mobile system can be used in various applications under laboratory and field conditions. The system consists of 10 metal oxide Figaro gas sensors and a temperature/humidity sensor integrated with custom made circuits and data acquisition software. The sensors are sensitive to major odorous compounds. The e-nose system provides an easy, cost effective and user friendly tool for air quality monitoring. There is a relationship with sensor responses and gas concentrations are linear. Therefore, instead of calculating concentrations using statistical methods such as PCA and ANNs raw sensor data is used to monitor air quality. In order to monitor spatial distributions of sensor responses Kriging method is applied. Interpolation maps for each sensor response are developed. In order to visualize the areas where air quality problems occur, response of an air quality module is used as reference. Results showed the effectiveness of the developed system and method.

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219–224 H.C. Kurc and C.B. Sisman
The prevention of harmful gases and odours dispersion by biofiltration in the animal farm
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The prevention of harmful gases and odours dispersion by biofiltration in the animal farm

H.C. Kurc and C.B. Sisman*

Namık Kemal University. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Biosystem Engineering, Suleymanpasa, TR 59030 Tekirdag, Turkey
*Correspondence: cbsisman@nku.edu.tr

Abstract:

Animal farms are have to be controlled regarding to environmental issues beacuse of their waste’s effects. Dispersion of harmful gases and odour is some most important effect of animal waste. Decomposition of animal waste may cause dispersion of harmful gases such as ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide etc. and odours. Harmful gases and odours impact on human and animal welfare negatively. Biofiltration is a technique used to prevent the dispersion of harmful gases and odour on animal farms. Especially some animal production types such as swine and poultry farms may cause great problem in terms of harmful gases and odour, so biofiltration has been seen as an effective method treating polluted air in these farms. The process of biofiltration is conducted based on biological degradation of pollutants. The bed materials such as litter, mulch and woodchips etc. are used in biofiltration to ensure microbiological environment. In this study, it was purposed to give information about the biofiltration, its basic principles and usage on animal farms based on conducted researches.

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225–238 A. Łachacz, J. Tyburski and K. Romaneckas
The impact of biological agents on properties of heavy-textured soil and productivity of organically grown crops
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The impact of biological agents on properties of heavy-textured soil and productivity of organically grown crops

A. Łachacz¹, J. Tyburski² and K. Romaneckas³*

¹Department of Soil Science and Land Reclamation, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Plac Lodzki 3, PL10 727 Olsztyn, Poland
²Department of Agroecosystems, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Plac Lodzki 3, PL10 719 Olsztyn, Poland
³Institute of Agroecosystems and Soil Sciences, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentų 11, Akademija, LT53 361 Kaunas distr., Lithuania
*Correspondence: kestas.romaneckas@asu.lt

Abstract:

Soils with high content of particles φ ≤ 0.02 mm usually have nonfavourable physical and mechanical properties. In order to determine the impact of biological agents on properties of heavy-textured soils in organic farming systems, in the years of 2007–2009 an on-farm scale field experiment was carried out in Budziszewo, Pomeranian province in Poland. The farm was organically managed for 20 years and was characterized by proper management (an appropriate crop rotation and a high stand of dairy cows). Nevertheless, in spring there were problems with soil drying, which used to delay sowing of spring cereals by ca 2 weeks, which in turn resulted in low yielding. Therefore, the following biological agents, i.e. beneficial microorganisms, were applied in 3 consecutive years 3 times each year. Produced on-farm (biodynamic horn preparation) and the others produced by industry under the trademark of: effective microorganism (EM), Humobak and UGmax. In 2007 silage maize was grown, in 2008 – winter spelt wheat and in 2009 – spring common wheat. The soil samples to study soil properties were collected from 5–15 cm soil layer during the vegetation period. The following soil properties were analysed: granulometric composition, bulk density of dry soil, total porosity, soil humidity and air content during sampling, organic matter content, soil pH, content of macroelements (P, K, Mg), soil aggregation based on dry and wet sieving. Moreover in 2009 additional soil samples were taken from an adjusting neighboring field of the conventional farm with the aim of comparing soil physical properties developed both under organic and conventional management.
The authors concluded that the application of above mentioned biological agents did not affect significantly soil properties. The applied agents did not affect crop productivity, with the exception of Humobak which decreased yield of silage maize and spring common wheat in the range of 41, and 26% respectively. A proper organic management as opposed to application of biological agents has positive effect on soil physical properties.

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239–248 L. Leso, W. Morshed, L. Conti and M. Barbari
Evaluating thermal performance of experimental building solutions designed for livestock housing: the effect of greenery systems
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Evaluating thermal performance of experimental building solutions designed for livestock housing: the effect of greenery systems

L. Leso, W. Morshed, L. Conti and M. Barbari*

University of Firenze, Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: matteo.barbari@unifi.it

Abstract:

The thermal performance of a greenhouse-type building provided with a living plant canopy was evaluated in Northern Italy during summer. Four reduced scale buildings with different types of covering were tested. The first type was the reproduction of a gable roof covered with 40 mm-thick sandwich panels (SAND), a widespread solution for dairy barns in temperate climates, used as control. Two roofs were reproductions of a Venlo-type greenhouse covered with a 0.2 mm-thick transparent EVA film equipped with either a reflective shading screen with 70% shading level (TRA+SHA) or with a living plant canopy (TRA+PLA). The last type of roof consisted of the living plant canopy alone (PLA). Plant canopies were made up of climbing plants (Trachelospermum jasminoides) with an average LAI of 1.39 m2 m-2.
Data were analysed with mixed linear models for repeated measures. Fixed effects tested were roof type and the interaction of roof type and time of the day. Internal temperature in TRA+SHA (22.60 °C) was higher than PLA (21.28 °C; p > 0.001), SAND (21.53 °C; p = 0.026) and TRA+PLA (21.68 °C; p = 0.036), with no significant differences among the latter three. Differences were larger during the hottest hours of the day (from 09:00 till 17:00) while, during the night, internal temperature did not differ among types of roof.
Results indicate that greenhouse-type buildings with conventional shading systems may not be adequate for housing livestock in warm climates. However, the employment of greenery systems such as a plant canopy may effectively reduce internal temperature. Further research is deserved to develop suitable building solution for livestock farming.

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249–255 D. Moravec, J. Komárek, J. Kumhálová, M. Kroulík, J. Prošek and P. Klápště
Digital elevation models as predictors of yield: Comparison of an UAV and other elevation data sources
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Digital elevation models as predictors of yield: Comparison of an UAV and other elevation data sources

D. Moravec¹*, J. Komárek¹, J. Kumhálová², M. Kroulík³, J. Prošek¹ and P. Klápště¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Department of Applied Geoinformatics and Spatial Planning, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: dmoravec@fzp.czu.cz

Abstract:

Topography usually plays an important role for yield variability assessment. This study provides insight into the use of surface models from different sources for agriculture purposes: unmanned aerial vehicle imagery, LiDAR data and elevation data acquired from a harvester. The dataset from an aerial vehicle was obtained in the form of ortho-mosaics and digital surface model using casual camera. The LiDAR data was provided by the State Administration of Land Surveying and Cadastre in the form of Digital Terrain Model of the 4th and 5th generation. The data of yield together with its coordinates were gained from a combine harvester in the form of a regular grid. Yield data was interpolated by kriging geostatistical method. Position data including an altitude was used for modelling the last digital surface model. All gained surface models were correlated with the spring barley yield. Results show correlation similarity across all tested models with the yield; no significant differences were sighted. Free available coarser scale data is able to predict a yield sufficiently. The study indicates less effectivity of using very detailed scale data sources due to its time-consumption or expensive data gathering and processing process.

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256–269 M. Paiders, A. Gruduls, L. Kalnina, S. Valucka, I. Dimanta, J. Kleperis, and V. Nikolajeva
Biogas and hydrogen production from glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes and anaerobic microbial communities
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Biogas and hydrogen production from glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes and anaerobic microbial communities

M. Paiders¹*, A. Gruduls¹, L. Kalnina¹, S. Valucka¹, I. Dimanta¹², J. Kleperis², and V. Nikolajeva¹

¹University of Latvia, Faculty of Biology, Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Jelgavas street 1, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia
²University of Latvia, Institute of Solid State Physics, Laboratory of Hydrogen Energy Materials, Kengaraga street 8, LV-1063 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: matisspaiders@gmail.com

Abstract:

Biological hydrogen production by anaerobic fermentation of widely available renewable resources is a promising and advantageous area. Using microbiological hydrogen production from crude glycerol biodiesel-derived waste was utilized by obtaining renewable energy carrier. The purpose of this research was to study biogas and hydrogen production by Enterobacter aerogenes MSCL 758 and by natural microbial communities. Growth medium was supplemented with analytical grade, technical grade or crude glycerol. Inoculants from old municipal landfill, manure and lake sludge were also used. Biogas production was analyzed using Automatic Methane Potential Test System II. Part of the experiments were carried out in serum bottles and evolved gases were tested using mass-spectrometry. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used for bacterial population dynamic determination. Optimal concentration for crude glycerol was found to be six grams per liter. Amount of hydrogen was significantly higher and amount of nitrogen gas was lower in case of analytical grade glycerol usage in comparison to crude glycerol fermentation. E. aerogenes acted in synergy with landfill substrate and manure in biogas production from technical grade and analytical grade glycerol. It was not the case for crude glycerol usage. Addition of E. aerogenes increased overall amount of produced hydrogen. Obtained results showed potential of E. aerogenes for use in bioaugmentation purposes for fermentation of glycerol. Lake sludge inoculum contained microorganisms necessary for the production of hydrogen as well as biogas from glycerol. Clostridia and Gammaproteobacteria were predominant in the inoculum. Cultivable bacteria Bacillus licheniformis, Burkholderia cepacia, Hafnia alvei and unidentified Clostridium species were found to be predominant after six days of fermentation.

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270–279 H. Roubik and J. Mazancova
Do young consumers care about ethics? Influence of DEAR and GDI on buying preferences – A pilot study
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Do young consumers care about ethics? Influence of DEAR and GDI on buying preferences – A pilot study

H. Roubik and J. Mazancova*

Department of Sustainable Technologies, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, CZ16500 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: mazan@ftz.czu.cz

Abstract:

These days’ consumers can express their concern about ethical behaviour of companies by means of ethical buying and consumer behaviour. The purpose of this study was to investigate how DEAR (Development Education Awareness Rising) and GDI (Global Development Issues) knowledge affects consumers preferences among higher education students in the Czech Republic. The pilot survey covered 136 students out of total 488 from Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences (CULS Prague) and was conducted from February to March 2014. Data collection was done through online survey. Collected data were categorized, coded and analysed in a statistical programme Statistica 10. In the study we examined DEAR impacts on buying preferences and therefore revealed current preferences, intentions connected with knowledge background and practices among selected university students regarding ethical and local consumption. Our results show a positive correlation (ρ = 0.664, α = 0.005) between examined factors – knowledge of specific terms (effects of GDI and DEAR) with socially responsible consumers’ behaviour. If consumers are well informed, positively influenced and have access to ethical products, they act as socially responsible consumers. Therefore, there is proven importance of education and access to information as a key component for conscious behaviour. These days Global Development Education and Development Education Awareness Rising should be considered not only alternatively in education, but become more common parts of educational process. This paper is a pilot study to be followed by in-depth research covering representative samples of students at Czech HEIs which have incorporated DEAR in their study curricula.

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280–287 P. Sooväli, M. Koppel and T. Kangor
Effectiveness of seed treatment against Fusarium spp. and Cochliobolus sativus of spring barley in different conditions
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Effectiveness of seed treatment against Fusarium spp. and Cochliobolus sativus of spring barley in different conditions

P. Sooväli*, M. Koppel and T. Kangor

Estonian Crop Research Institute, J. Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva, Estonia
*Correspondence: pille.soovali@etki.ee

Abstract:

Effect of fungicide seed treatments on initial growth of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was evaluated in greenhouse trials. The soil collected from minimum tillage fields where spring barley, spring wheat (Triticum L.) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) have been cultivated in previous growing season were used in trials. Eight fungicide seed treatments and untreated seed as the control were evaluated. Root rot severity and seedling emergence rate were assessed at growth stages 20–22. In addition the incidence of seed-borne Fusarium spp. and Cochliobolus sativus and germination were assessed in treated and untreated spring barley seeds in laboratory condition. Fungicides prothioconazole and tebuconazole significantly reduced incidence of seed-borne Fusarium spp. Seed treated with fludioxonil and tebuconazole more effectively decreased root rot infection in soil from minimum tilled barley field, fludioxonil + difenoconazole in soil from minimum tilled spring wheat field and prothioconazole mixes with tebuconazole or fluoxastrobin in soil from minimum tilled oilseed rape field. This study brings out the pre-crop and seed treatment interaction effect on control of root rot in spring barley.

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288–297 M. Surženko, K. Kontram and I. Sarand
PCR–based fingerprinting and identification of contaminative fungi isolated from rye breads
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PCR–based fingerprinting and identification of contaminative fungi isolated from rye breads

M. Surženko¹², K. Kontram¹² and I. Sarand²*

¹Competence Center of Food and Fermentation Technologies (CCFFT), Akadeemia tee 15A, EE12618 Tallinn, Estonia
²Tallinn University of Technology, Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Akadeemia tee 15, EE12618 Tallinn, Estonia
*Correspondence: inga.sarand@ttu.ee

Abstract:

Fungi are the most frequent cause of microbial spoilage in baked products, including rye bread. As the baking process destroys fungal spores in bread, the post–processing is the main source for mould contamination. Rapid detection methods are needed to track down the origin of the contamination source. In the present research we used a combined molecular approach consisting of PCR–fingerprinting with an M13 primer and further identification of each genotype by amplification and sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer region, the β–tubulin gene and the D1/D2 region of the large subunit of the 28S rDNA. Different rye breads from five bakeries were stored plastic–packed for one month and the fungal colonies with unique morphology were isolated from the bread surfaces. Based on random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis using M13 primer 50 fungal isolates were clustered into eight groups and identified as Aspergillus chevalieri, Aspergillus flavus/oryzae, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium corylophilum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Wickerhamomyces anomalus species. Sequencing of the β–tubulin gene and the ITS region showed an equal efficiency for the identification of Penicillium species, whereas only the sequence of the β–tubulin gene allowed us to identify most isolates from the genus Aspergillus including closely–related black–spored Aspergillus species. Yeasts were identified at the species level based on the sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacer region and the D1/D2 region.BSE2017_326_Surženko

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298–306 F. Tan, I.S. Dalmıs and F. Koc
Effects of compaction pressure on silage fermentation in bunker silo
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Effects of compaction pressure on silage fermentation in bunker silo

F. Tan¹*, I.S. Dalmıs² and F. Koc³

¹University of Namık Kemal, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Biosystem Engineering, Campus street, Number:1, TR59030 Tekırdag, Turkey
²University of Namık Kemal, Faculty of Corlu Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University 1, Sokak No:13, TR59860 Corlu/Tekirdag, Turkey
³University of Namık Kemal, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, Campus street, Number:1, 59030 Tekirdag, Turkey.
*Correspondence: ftan@nku.edu.tr

Abstract:

The aim of this research was to determine the effects of compaction pressure on maize silage fermentation under field conditions. The CAT 955 L type work machine was used for the compaction of the material. In this research, a pressure measurement system was developed to measure the compaction pressure in bunker silos. In bunker silos, 24 points for pressure and temperature measurement were identified. Chemical and microbiological analyzes were made by taking samples from each measurement point. The lowest temperature is measured in the back wall of the silo. There is a significant relationship between pressure and temperature. Pressure had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on silage fermentation. There was a significant correlation between regions in bunker silo and pressure (R2 = 0.914, P < 0.01).

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