Volume 15 (2017)
  Number 2

Journal full text: Vol 15 No 2

Contents


Pages

313–321 M. Barbari, L. Conti, G. Rossi and S. Simonini
Supply of wood as environmental enrichment material to post-weaning piglets
Abstract |
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Supply of wood as environmental enrichment material to post-weaning piglets

M. Barbari*, L. Conti, G. Rossi and S. Simonini

Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems, University of Firenze, Via San Bonaventura 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: matteo.barbari@unifi.it

Abstract:

Slatted flooring is a common system used for post-weaning of piglets. In this condition of breeding, it is very hard to provide materials for environmental enrichment to enable proper investigation and manipulation activities to improve animal welfare. The research aimed to identify an alternative way to provide natural environmental enrichment during post-weaning on slatted flooring using wood. Core of veneer poplar logs and wood sawdust pressed briquettes were selected among other types of wood thanks to their wide availability and low cost. Moreover, these kinds of wood can be used without compromising the health of the animals, neither by contact nor by ingestion. The most important step of the research was to design systems to make the wood more attractive for piglets. The developed devices consisted of a fixed structural component to be installed inside the pen to which wood materials could be added and replaced quite effortlessly. Three devices were developed: a) horizontal system, b) vertical system, c) pendulum system. They were tested in three different pens, each one with 24 post-weaning piglets. The results confirmed the assumption that there is a relation between the level of activity of the animals and the interaction with the wood proposed in the shape of small logs and briquettes. In particular the device a) can generate a valuable level of interaction of the animals reared inside the pen, especially in the first 10 days post-weaning, which is the most sensitive period for piglets after mixing.

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322–328 M. Bloch-Michalik and M. Gaworski
Agricultural vs forest biomass: production efficiency and future trends in Polish conditions
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Agricultural vs forest biomass: production efficiency and future trends in Polish conditions

M. Bloch-Michalik* and M. Gaworski

Department of Production Management and Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, PL02-787 Warsaw, Nowoursynowska str. 164, Poland
*Correspondence: marta_michalik@sggw.pl

Abstract:

Biomass is one of the main sources of renewable energy with rapidly growing trend in the European Union countries. The technical potential of biomass energy in Poland is one of the highest in Europe, estimated at approximately 900 PJ/year. Solid biomass is the primary Polish RES and the share in the structure of production in Poland amounted to almost 77% in 2015. The most common types of biomass are waste raw materials from crop fields and forests.
The paper presents current potential of the biomass of two basic types, i.e. agricultural and forest material, based on the analyses developed with the scenario forecast of future use in Poland. Detailed considerations include differences in efficiency of agricultural and forest biomass production. To develop the efficiency aspects some indices were proposed to compare potential of energy production basing on different kind of biological material.

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329–343 D. Boyraz Erdem
Classification of the soils formed in toposequence Kayi and Aydinpinar streams (Tekirdag) and classes of suitability to agricultural uses
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Classification of the soils formed in toposequence Kayi and Aydinpinar streams (Tekirdag) and classes of suitability to agricultural uses

D. Boyraz Erdem*

Namık Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Soil Science and Plant Nutrition Dep., TR59030 Tekirdag–TURKEY
*Corresponding author: dboyraz@nku.edu.tr

Abstract:

The soils formed in the vicinity of Kayı and Aydınpınar streams were investigated in transects formed toposequence splitting vertically towards the coastal line of Thrace region. On the characteristic points of topography formed by the Kayı and Aydınpınar streams, five soil profiles were described, the two on the Oligocene marine deposits, the two on side stream creeks and the one on the alluvial bed representing low land. The morphological, physical and chemical properties of the samples taken from these profiles according to the genetic horizon principle were determined. The classification of these soils formed in the toposequence relationship and their suitability to various plants varieties were determined. The 4th profile in subgroup of Typic Xerofluvent were formed in alluvial land, The 2nd profile in subgroup of Calcic Haploxerept, 1st, 3rd and 5th profiles in subgroup of Typic Haploxerept were classified. The soil formed in a toposequence is different for suitability of plant cultivation varies. KA1, KA2 and KA5 soils are highly suitable for grass families expect maize and sudan grass while KA3 soil is medium suitable for grass families. KA1 and KA2 soils (expect soybean) are highly suitable, KA3 (expect alfalfa and sainfoin) and KA5 (expect alfalfa) soils are medium suitable and KA4 soil is marginal suitable for legume plants.

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344–358 A. Brunerová, M. Brožek and M. Müller
Utilization of waste biomass from post–harvest lines in the form of briquettes for energy production
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Utilization of waste biomass from post–harvest lines in the form of briquettes for energy production

A. Brunerová*, M. Brožek and M. Müller

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and anufacturing Technology, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic *Correspondence:brunerova@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

A great amount of herbal waste biomass is produced nowadays during agriculture crop processing; also during ‘post–harvest lines’ operations. Such waste biomass occurs in the bulk form, thus, is not suitable for direct combustion; it can be improved by using of briquetting technology. Therefore, present paper provides chemical, mechanical and microscopic analyses of waste biomass originating from post–harvest lines and briquettes produced from it. Namely, waste biomass originated from production of oat (Avena sativa) – husks, wheat (Triticum spp.) – husks and poppy (Papaver somniferum) – straw and seed pods and mixture of all mentioned were investigated. Unprocessed materials were subjected to microscopic and chemical analysis and subsequently produced briquette samples were subjected to determination of its mechanical quality. A satisfactory level of moisture and ash content was observed, as well as, materials energy potential; oat – 17.39 MJ kg-1, wheat – 17.04 MJ kg-1, poppy – 14.48 MJ kg-1. Also microscopic analysis proved suitability of all feedstock materials within evaluation of geometrical shapes of their particles. However, evaluation of briquette mechanical quality unsatisfactory results. Process of briquetting revealed unsuitability of oat feedstock for briquette production; other materials proved following values of volume density and mechanical durability (in sequence): wheat – 1,023.19 kg m-3, 89.1%; poppy – 1,141.43 kg m-3, 94.7%; mixture – 972.49 kg m-3, 62.7%. In general, only poppy briquettes achieved requested mechanical quality level for commercial briquette production. However, undeniable advantage of investigated materials is the form they occurred in; no further feedstock preparation (drying, crushing) was needed.

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359–368 A. Brunerová, J. Malaťák, M. Müller, P. Valášek and H. Roubík
Tropical waste biomass potential for solid biofuels production
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Tropical waste biomass potential for solid biofuels production

A. Brunerová¹*, J. Malaťák², M. Müller¹, P. Valášek¹ and H. Roubík³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Department of Sustainable Technologies, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: brunerova@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Subsequent utilization of waste biomass in developing countries occurs at poor level, despite the  act, that it has great potential in solid biofuel production. Densified waste biomass is utilized for  direct combustion, therefore, its suitability (energy potential, chemical composition) must be determined in attempt to protect environment and reduce air pollution. Main aim of present research was to determine suitability of waste biomass originating from production of rice (Oryza sativa), Date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and Jatropha fruit (Jatropha curcas) for solid biofuel production. Within a moisture, ash and volatile matter contents, major chemical elements (C, H, N, O) and net calorific value (NCV) were determined. Rice waste analysis proved low NCV (14.33 MJ kg–1) and high ash content (20.74%), which presented problems during combustion. Jatropha fruit waste (cake) analyses exhibited outstanding NCV (24.44 MJ kg–1) caused by residual oil content. Within major elements analysis a low content of oxygen (26.61%) was proved (recommended). Date fruit waste exhibited average NCV (16.40 MJ kg–1). However, high oxygen content (44.01%) was defined as limiting factor. Overall evaluation proved greatest suitability for Jatropha fruit waste (cake), followed by Date fruit waste and lowest potential was determined for Rice waste. However, investigated plants are not cultivated for energy production purposes, thus, observed results achieved satisfactory level of their suitability for solid biofuel production.

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369–375 L. Cielava,, D. Jonkus and L. Paura
Lifetime milk productivity and quality in farms with different housing and feeding systems
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Lifetime milk productivity and quality in farms with different housing and feeding systems

L. Cielava¹,*, D. Jonkus¹ and L. Paura²

¹ Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Agrobiotechnologies, Lielā 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
² Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Information Technologies, Department of Control systems, Lielā 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: lasma.cielava@llu.lv

Abstract:

Housing and feeding systems in farms are main factors that affects cow milk productivity and its quality. The largest proportion of Latvian farms are small farms with tie stall housing system and grazing in summer. The aim of our study was to determine to what extent different housing and feeding systems affect the milk productivity, quality and cow longevity characterizing traits of Latvian dairy cows. In study we analysed 3,179 Holstein Black and White (HBW) and Latvian Brown (LB) breed cows from which 2,383 were located in 2 farms with loose housing system and TMR feeding and 796 cows were located in 8 small farms with tie stall housing system and different feed in summer and winter periods. The average daily milk yield significantly higher (p < 0.05) were in farms with loose housing system – 23.53 kg ECM, but in farms with Tie stall housing system was obtained 18.46 kg ECM per day. HBW breed cows characterized with lower somatic cell count in milk than Latvian brown in both housing systems. The highest somatic cell count in milk was obtained from third lactation LB breed cows in Tie stall housing system (249.11 thous. in 1mL-1 milk) and the lowest from HBW cows in loose housing system (127.57 thous. in 1mL-1 milk). Cows in smaller farms characterized with longer lifespan – 2,098.7 and 1,890 days for large farms, but lifetime milk productivity was significantly higher in farms with loose housing system where was obtained 21,315.9 kg ECM whereas in Tie stall system farms average life productivity was 19,740.2 kg ECM.

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376–387 M. Collotta and G. Tomasoni
The economic sustainability of small–scale biogas plants in the Italian context: the case of the cover slab technology
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The economic sustainability of small–scale biogas plants in the Italian context: the case of the cover slab technology

M. Collotta* and G. Tomasoni

University of Brescia, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Via Branze 38, IT25123 Brescia, Italy
*Corresponding author: m.collotta@unibs.it

Abstract:

The growing interest on renewable energies, together with the public financial incentive systems established in several countries, has driven a fast innovation in the field of energy technologies, with the main objective to increase their sustainability.
This paper focuses on the production of biogas from agro–residues and animal manure; with particular attention to small-scale plants.
Based on a real case located in northern Italy, and taking into consideration the Italian public  financial incentive system currently in force, the economic profitability of the cover slab technology is analysed, putting into evidence the main factors that affect it.

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388–394 M. Dąbrowska-Salwin, D. Raczkowska and A. Świętochowski
Physical properties of wastes from furniture industry for energy purposes
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Physical properties of wastes from furniture industry for energy purposes

M. Dąbrowska-Salwin*, D. Raczkowska and A. Świętochowski

Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Production Engineering, Department of Agricultural and Forest Machinery, Nowoursynowska 166, PL02-787 Warsaw, Poland *Correspondence: magdalena_dabrowska@sggw.pl

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to determine the physical properties such as moisture content, particle size distribution, density and calorific value of wastes from wood-based boards and to determine their suitability for energy purposes. The tested material included wastes from tooling fibreboards (MDF) and raw (PWP) and laminated (PWO) chipboards. Tests were conducted according to the standards. The materials from wastes after mechanical boards tooling were characterized by a similar low moisture content. The geometric mean of particle size values were 0.38 mm, 0.64 mm and 0.57 mm, respectively for MDF, PWO and PWP. The particle size distributions were right-hand skewed and non-aligned. It was found that the prevailing share had the smallest fraction and its largest share had wastes from MDF. Regarding to the high calorific value and low moisture content and high bulk density, it could be stated that the wastes from furniture industry are a good raw materials for energy purposes. These wastes can be combusted at proper conditions of this process.

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395–405 E. Haiba, L. Nei,, S. Kutti, M. Lillenberg, K. Herodes, M. Ivask, K. Kipper, R. Aro and A. Laaniste
Degradation of diclofenac and triclosan residues in sewage sludge compost
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Degradation of diclofenac and triclosan residues in sewage sludge compost

E. Haiba¹, L. Nei¹,*, S. Kutti¹, M. Lillenberg², K. Herodes³, M. Ivask¹, K. Kipper³, R. Aro³ and A. Laaniste³

¹ Tartu College, Tallinn University of Technology, Puiestee 78, EE51008 Tartu, Estonia
² Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 58A, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
³ Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Ravila 14A, EE51010 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: lembit.nei@ttu.ee

Abstract:

Land application of sewage sludge compost is an important and efficient tool in the remediation of industrial landscapes and agricultural soils in Estonia. A number of studies have shown that, as a rule, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are neither completely removed by sewage treatment, nor completely degraded in the environment. In this study, degradation rates of diclofenac sodium (DFC) and triclosan (TCS) were determined during sewage sludge composting. Anaerobically digested and dewatered sewage sludge was mixed with sawdust at two different ratios (1:2 and 1:3 sludge/sawdust, v:v). Then aerobic composting was carried out. These ratios were chosen on the basis of previous studies on sewage sludge composting with different bulking agents. The initial concentration of DFC and TCS was 2 mg kg-1 in relation to dry weight (dw). Low quantities of the studied pharmaceuticals were present in sewage sludge that was used for preparing the compost mixtures used in our experiments. The background concentrations of DFC and TCS were never equal to zero. The results showed that the difference between sewage sludge and bulking agent ratios (1:2 vs 1:3) in compost samples did not significantly affect temperature profiles during the experiment. The degradation of pharmaceuticals was more complete in the compost samples where the ratio of bulking agent was higher (1:3 by volume). The average degradation level (in all compost mixtures) was 95% for DFC and 68% for TCS. Pharmaceuticals entering into the soil may affect microbial activity, plant growth and development, and may have adverse effects on living organisms.

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406–416 V. Hönig,, Z. Linhart, P. Procházka and K. Pernica
Regulatives for biorefineries
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Regulatives for biorefineries

V. Hönig¹,*, Z. Linhart², P. Procházka³ and K. Pernica¹

¹ University of Economics, Faculty of Business Administration, Department of Strategy, W. Churchill Sq., CZ130 67 Prague 3, Czech Republic
² University of Economics and Management, Department of Marketing, Nárožní 2600/9A, Prague 5, Czech Republic
³ Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, Kamýcka 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: vladimir.honig@vse.cz

Abstract:

The relationship between uncertainty and risk–taking behaviour towards innovations and Common Market protection are investigated in this article. Therefore, the aim of this article is to assess points of control over market regulation protecting innovative products. It was found that risk of creative destruction due to implementation of innovations is increased by regulators due to antimonopoly metric they use. EU fiscal policy implementation in renewable fuels in Czech Republic of both EU and CZ calculations is compared. Historical data has shown that regulators have collapsed market of high condensed biofuels. Pattern of fine calculation has explained a market collapse. Comparison of excise duty of favoured biofuels was compared with subsidies for photovoltaics. Substitution of former fossil fuels taking into account excise duty and subsidies of alternative or renewable energies is less market distorting than recent tariffs of excise duty and fines to first generation biofuels.

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417–425 M. Hruška
Evaluation of the actual sitting position of drivers of passenger vehicles
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Evaluation of the actual sitting position of drivers of passenger vehicles

M. Hruška

Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Building, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: jabko@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with comparing the actual sitting position of drivers of passenger vehicles with the position commonly considered optimal from the viewpoint of active and passive safety, and the long-term effects on the driver’s health. The research described herein was conducted on a sample of randomly selected drivers in Czech Republic. All the measurements were conducted in a single, neutral, medium-sized passenger vehicle with which none of the test subjects had any previous experience. For this reason, none of the tested drivers had the advantage of familiarity with the environment. This research came about as an attempt to re-create the common situation wherein a driver adjusts his/her position behind the steering wheel solely on the basis, of intuition. Through a statistical evaluation of the acquired data, it was possible to confirm the initial hypothesis that a substantial portion of tested drivers assume a less than optimal driving position. This fact has a negative effect not only on reducing active and passive safety, but directly impacts upon the health of drivers who cover high annual mileage. The results of this paper can be used when designing cabins and modern interactive systems for passenger vehicles, which will be able to assist the driver in setting the optimal driving position. In this way, it will be possible to directly impact upon traffic safety and positively influence drivers’ health.

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426–434 P. Kic
Effect of construction shape and materials on indoor microclimatic conditions inside the cowsheds in dairy farms
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Effect of construction shape and materials on indoor microclimatic conditions inside the cowsheds in dairy farms

P. Kic

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
E-mail: kic@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present the results of microclimatic research focused on the indoor conditions in cowsheds and milking parlours in two dairy farms. The attention is paid mainly to the construction and materials used for buildings, which can influence together with technological equipment and system of ventilation the microclimatic conditions inside the cowsheds. In the frame of this research main parameters of internal and external properties of climate (air temperature, humidity, globe temperature, THI, BGHI and concentration of CO2) during the hot summer were measured and evaluated. Results of long time and short time measurements show very important role of used materials and shape of buildings. The research results show that the use of principles of passive air conditioning can contribute significantly to the improvement of internal microclimate. Reduced amplitude of temperature oscillation was 42.4% of amplitude of outside air temperature in cowshed with massive construction and 91.7% in modern light building. The average phase shift of temperature oscillations, expressed as a time delay of internal temperature rise behind the external temperature rise was about 2.8 hours and time delay of drop of internal temperature behind external temperatures drop was 3.3 hours in massive cowshed. The same parameters in modern light cowshed were only 1.1 hours and 0.5 hours.

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435–443 F. Konukcu, S. Albut and B. Alturk
Land use/land cover change modelling of Ergene River Basin in western Turkey using CORINE land use/land cover data
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Land use/land cover change modelling of Ergene River Basin in western Turkey using CORINE land use/land cover data

F. Konukcu¹*, S. Albut¹ and B. Alturk²

¹NamikKemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Biosystem Engineering Department, TR59030 Tekirdag, TURKEY
²Namik Kemal University, Vocational School of Technical Sciences, TR59030 Tekirdag, TURKEY
*Correspondence: fkonukcu@nku.edu.tr

Abstract:

Land use planning is a useful tool to find a balance among the competing and sometimes contradictory uses in order to achieve food security, economic growth, energy supply, nature conversation and other objectives. In this study, modelling land use/land cover change of Ergene River Basin in Western Turkey between the years of 1990 and 2012 was investigated. The CORINE land use/landcover data and ArcGIS software were used to detect land use/land cover change between the years, 1990–2000, 2000–2006 and 2006–2012. As a results, the artificial area (including settlement area and industrial zone) and water bodies increased by 39.4% and 47.9%, due to industrial development and new reservoirs construction, respectively, while wetlands and agricultural areas decreased by 1.1%, 1.0% and 32.1%, respectively. The change in the agricultural areas into industrial area corresponds to about 13,00 hectares, which is considered threatening not only natural resources but also food security since the basin has the most productive arable land of Turkey.

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444–455 Р. Kopytko, V. Karpenko, R. Yakovenko and I. Mostoviak
Soil fertility and productivity of apple orchard under a long-term use of different fertilizer systems
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Soil fertility and productivity of apple orchard under a long-term use of different fertilizer systems

Р. Kopytko, V. Karpenko*, R. Yakovenko and I. Mostoviak

Uman National University of Horticulture, 1 Instytutska str., UK20305 Uman city, Ukraine *Correspondence: v-biology@mail.ru

Abstract:

An apple should be planted on suitable soils which can be used for growing two or more generations of gardens for decades. This can be reached by creating and supporting an optimum level of mineral nutrients for fruit trees. The aim of this study was to compare the long-term effect of mineral or organic fertilization on apple tree growth and yield and soil fertility. The research has been conducted since 1931, when an apple orchard of Winter-Calville on seedlings was established on dark-grey heavy loam soil of Uman National University of Horticulture. The non-irrigated trees were subjected to the following treatments: 1. Unfertilized (control); 2. Application of cattle manure 40 t ha-1 (organic); 3. N120 P120 K120 (mineral); 4. 20 t ha-1 of humus N60 P60 K60 (organic-mineral). In 1982 the first orchard was removed and 2 year later another one was re-planted on the same soil. The second orchard, that included, beside the same variety also Idared grafted on seedling and on M4, was subjected to the same treatments.
Soil fertility and apple tree productivity increased under the use of organic fertilizer system. Organic-mineral fertilizer system provided almost the same response, while mineral fertilizer system provided the lowest one.
During the study a decreased uptake of nutrients applied with fertilizers was often related to insufficient soil moisture supply. Soluble nitrogen was washed out of root layer into ground water, while phosphorus and potassium were transformed into compounds and forms inaccessible for plant nutrition. Thus it is necessary to apply those rates of fertilizers that are insufficient in the soil to reach the optimal levels of content of corresponding nutrients which should be determined by agrochemical analysis.
It is possible to maintain an optimal fertility of soil in orchards by applying only organic fertilizers. Alkalization of inter-row spacing with regular grass mowing (turf and humus soil management system) provided the same humus content in soil as application of 40 t of humus per ha in a year after the use of fallow system.

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456–467 M. Križan, K. Krištof, M. Angelovič and J. Jobbágy
The use of maize stalks for energy purposes and emissions measurement during their combustion
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The use of maize stalks for energy purposes and emissions measurement during their combustion

M. Križan, K. Krištof*, M. Angelovič and J. Jobbágy

University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Biosystems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovakia
*Correspondence: koloman.kristof@uniag.sk

Abstract:

Biomass is an ideal renewable energy with advantages of abundance resources and neutral in greenhouse gas circulation. Majority of this energy could have been used directly in agriculture itself. The rest of the biomass for other parts of industry or even communal parts could be made available as a refined and densified biomass available for direct combustion in form of bales. The objective of the work was a monitoring of possibilities of maize cortical use for energy purposes during combustion. Emissions measurement from the combustion of maize phytomass was performed by measuring device TESTO 350 M/XL. During the combustion of packages with the moisture of 18% and 38% was monitored and the effect of moisture on the content of gas emissions of CO, CO2, NO, NO2 as well as the percentage of residual O2 in the flue gas after combustion. All values of monitored emission limits were in current normative limits defined in Collection of Laws no. 356/2010. All emissions limits are in accordance to monitored standards for CO, CO2, NO, NO2, but on the other hand it should be noted that the more favourable results are based on combustion of cortical with moisture of 18% than at 38%. The issue of maize cortical harvesting considering machinery, technological and economical viewpoint within the Slovak republic but also worldwide is poorly understood and therefore these issues should be the subject of further research.

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468–477 D. Lazdiņa, I. Bebre, K. Dūmiņš, I. Skranda, A. Lazdins, J. Jansons and S. Celma
Wood ash – green energy production side product as fertilizer for vigorous forest plantations
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Wood ash – green energy production side product as fertilizer for vigorous forest plantations

D. Lazdiņa*, I. Bebre, K. Dūmiņš, I. Skranda, A. Lazdins, J. Jansons and S. Celma

Latvian State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’, Riga str. 111, LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia
*Correspondence: dagnija.lazdina@silava.lv

Abstract:

Notable amounts of wood ash containing plant macro and micronutrient elements in balanced proportions are produced in Latvia. If bioenergy production source product is plant material, and facilities are operating well, then ‘side product’ fermentation residues or wood ashes should not contain elements in toxic concentrations. Wood ash contains P and K which are lacking in acidic organic soils and could work as fertiliser as well as a long term liming agent, besides that, all micronutrient elements necessary for physiological processes are present in wood ash. Wood ash could also be used as ‘revitalization agents’ – fertilisers to improve the growth of plantation forests. The aim of this research is to find and describe the positive effect of wood ash fertilisers on Norway spruce (Picea abies) and other economically valuable tree species. Research results show positive wood ash application effect on tree growth and vitality within the first 4 years when used for recultivation and revitalization purposes. Recycling of wood ash (0.5–3 t ha- 1 before planting) for fertilisation of and Picea abies forest plantations are a sustainable and effective solution for the improvement of tree growth as well as an environmentally safe method of utilization of bioenergy production residues.

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478–489 G. Macrì,, A. De Rossi, S. Papandrea, F. Micalizzi, D. Russo and G. Settineri
Evaluation of soil compaction caused by passages of farm tractor in a forest in southern Italy
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Evaluation of soil compaction caused by passages of farm tractor in a forest in southern Italy

G. Macrì¹,*, A. De Rossi¹, S. Papandrea¹, F. Micalizzi², D. Russo¹ and G. Settineri¹

¹ Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, Department of AGRARIA, Feo di Vito, IT89122 – Reggio Calabria, Italy
² Regional Department Agriculture, Cittadella Regionale – Germaneto – IT88100 Catanzaro, Italy
*Correspondence: giorgio.macri@unirc.it

Abstract:

In recent decades, the use of heavy machinery in forest management has significantly increased, causing the compaction, that often remains for many years and may contribute to a decline in long-term site productivity. Severity of the damage depends on vehicle mass, weight of the carried loads, ground morphology, and soil properties, such as moisture. In Southern Italy, timber extraction is mainly done by farm tractors and the study was carried out in a conifer stand to evaluate the changes in penetration resistance, the water content, the bulk density and the porosity, after different numbers passes 0 (control), 1, 5, 10 and 15 respectively, of one farm tractor (Landini – Landpower 135 TDI). The results indicated that all parameters were significantly higher in the trafficked soil portions rather than in the undisturbed ones. We can conclude that a significant relationship was observed between compaction degree and traffic intensity. In fact, the passage of forestry machines causes soil compaction, leading to significant changes in the soil structure and moisture conditions.

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490–500 J. Nagy and A. Zseni
Human urine as an efficient fertilizer product in agriculture
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Human urine as an efficient fertilizer product in agriculture

J. Nagy¹* and A. Zseni²

¹Széchenyi István University, Faculty of Mechanical, Informatics and Electrical Engineering, Department of Applied Mechanics, Egyetem tér 1. HU9026 Győr, Hungary
²Széchenyi István University, Audi Hungaria Faculty of Automotive Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Egyetem tér 1. HU9026 Győr, Hungary
*Correspondence: nagyju@sze.hu

Abstract:

Flush toilet based water infrastructure, which handles blackwater and greywater together, causes a lot of environmental problems. Among these, the loss of valuable organic material and nutrient content of human excreta (faeces and urine) is not sufficiently emphasized yet. Utilization of human excreta for agricultural purposes is based on the separate collection of greywater and human excreta. As urine contains most of the nutrients of human excreta, researches focus mainly on urine’s treatment and utilization for agricultural purposes. We reviewed the data in literature about the nutrient content of human excreta. In this paper we present the content of macro and microelements of human urine to show its potential value as a fertilizer. To confirm the necessity of urine’s utilization in agriculture instead of treated it by traditional waste water treatment methods, we have collected and compared the most important advantages and disadvantages of traditional wastewater treatment, separated handling of greywater and excreta as well as human urine’s agricultural utilization.

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501–514 Sh. Nazari, M.A. Aboutalebian and F. Golzardi
Seed priming improves seedling emergence time, root characteristics and yield of canola in the conditions of late sowing
Abstract |
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Seed priming improves seedling emergence time, root characteristics and yield of canola in the conditions of late sowing

Sh. Nazari¹*, M.A. Aboutalebian¹ and F. Golzardi²

¹Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bu-Ali Sina, Hamedan
²Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
*Correspondence: shahram_nazari1986@yahoo.com

Abstract:

In central zones of Iran, late sowing of canola is the major reason of low yield. This yield reduction is principally due to poor crop establishment and root development dynamics because of low temperature prevailing. The present study was conducted to explore the possibility of improving late sown canola performance by seed priming techniques. A field experiment was conducted using five sowing dates (SD) at 10-day intervals from 5-September to 15-October during 2014–2015 and 2015–2016 seasons, three canola cultivars (Okpai, Zarfam and Talayeh) and seed priming strategies were: hydropriming and osmopriming with ZnSO4 for 10 h. Results showed that minimum time to incipient emergence (T0) and time to 50% emergence (T50) was recorded from osmopriming of the optimal SD (5-Sep) by Okapi, Talayeh and Zarfam cultivars, respectively. The maximum root length (RL) was on the 5-Sep, so at that this date under the osmopriming and hydropriming, RL increased by 82 and 61 percent in Okapi, 47 and 43 percent in Zarfam and 58 and 44 percent in Talayeh in both growth seasons compared to control, respectively. Also, maximum root diameter (RD), root surface area density (RSAD) and grain yield (GY) was recorded in Okapi, Zarfam and Talayeh cultivars on the 5-Sep under hydropriming and osmopriming, respectively. Delay sowing significantly affected root dry weight (RDW) and root volume (RV). Maximums of RDW and RV at both seasons were recorded from osmopriming on 5-Sep in Okapi cultivar followed by hydropriming.

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515–520 C. Polat and A.M. Yılmaz
Comparison between feed microscopy and chemical methods for determining of crude protein and crude fiber content of commercial mixed feeds
Abstract |
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Comparison between feed microscopy and chemical methods for determining of crude protein and crude fiber content of commercial mixed feeds

C. Polat* and A.M. Yılmaz

Namik Kemal University Agriculture Faculty, Department of Animal Science,
TR59030, Tekirdağ, TURKEY
*Correcpondence: polat@nku.edu.tr

Abstract:

The use of chemical methods in the determination of protein content in feed raw
materials is time consuming and costly. The aim of this study to determine the amount of crude
protein and crude fiber in mixed feeds using methods feed microscopy and chemical methods.
Cattle feed, cattle milk feed, lamb raising feed, and meat chick feed have been used to study
mixed feeds. By determining the results to indicate that feeds microscopy method approximately
how much closer to chemical methods. The percentages of raw materials of crude protein and
crude fiber in mixed feeds were determined with stereo microscopy and compared with obtained
results of chemical methods. As a result there is no statistically difference in crude protein
between feed microscopy method and chemical method. Feed microscopy estimating method can
be used instead of chemical methods for crude protein analysis. Also, there is an important
difference (P < 0.01) between two methods for crude fiber analysis, so that it is determined that
feed microscopy method cannot be used instead of chemical method. As a result, feed microscopy
method can be suggested because crude protein content in raw materials of feed is more
economical and shorter than chemical method.

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521–529 S. Rancane,, A. Karklins, D. Lazdina, P. Berzins, A. Bardule, A. Butlers and A. Lazdins
Biomass yield and chemical composition of Phalaris arundinacea L. using different rates of fermentation residue as fertiliser
Abstract |
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Biomass yield and chemical composition of Phalaris arundinacea L. using different rates of fermentation residue as fertiliser

S. Rancane¹,*, A. Karklins², D. Lazdina³, P. Berzins¹, A. Bardule³, A. Butlers³ and A. Lazdins³

¹ Latvia University of Agriculture, Institute of Agriculture, Zemkopibas inst. 7, Skriveri LV-5125, Latvia
² Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Soil and Plant Sciences, Lielā iela 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
³ Latvia State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’, Rīgas iela 111, LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia
*Correspondence: sarmite.rancane@inbox.lv

Abstract:

Using biomass of various crops for bioenergy production is a common practice all over the world. Grasses, including reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), as bioenergy crops have many advantages. Therefore it is important to look for the most effective technology to produce high biomass grass yields taking into consideration the quality parameters important for this purpose, and at the same time providing sustainable plant nutrient recycling schemes. The use of fermentation residue (FR) from biogas plants as fertiliser could be environmentally and economically cost-effective, as this by-product contain considerable amount of plant nutrients. However, there is little research on the efficiency of FR use for grassland. In our experiments we evaluated the effect of FR used at different rates (from N0 to N150 kg ha-1) and different treatment techniques (once/ twice/ or three times per season) on the productivity of RCG under two-cut and single-cut harvest regime. The data of three ley years (2012–2015) show that annual dry matter yields ranged from: 3.93–11.44 t ha-1 in two-cut and 5.89–13.94 t ha-1 in single-cut regime. The highest dry matter yield was obtained using FR at: 60 kg ha-1 N using the entire amount in a single application at the beginning of the season; 120 and 150 kg ha-1 N split for three applications. The chemical composition of reed canary grass biomass was mostly influenced by harvest regime: late harvest at single-cut regime ensured more appropriate sward quality for bioenergy production with a higher carbon and lower ash, nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus content.

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530–539 Á.G.F. Rocha and M. Gaworski
Sand losses out the pens in barn with free-stall housing system
Abstract |
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Sand losses out the pens in barn with free-stall housing system

Á.G.F. Rocha¹ and M. Gaworski²*

¹University Federal of Uberlândia, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnology, #1720, Pará Avenue – Campus Umuarama – Uberlândia, MG – ZIP CODE: 38400–902, Brazil
²Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Department of Production Management and Engineering, 164 Nowoursynowska str., PL 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
*Correspondence: marek_gaworski@sggw.pl

Abstract:

Proper sand management can be a critical aspect in the selection and successful use of sand as a bedding material for dairy cows. In many regions and countries, use of sand as a bedding material is considered as a useful alternative solution in dairy farms, where non-organic matter can serve as an equivalent of straw and other organic materials, e.g. sawdust. Assessment of sand management in the barn with dairy cows involves numerous problems, such as sand consumption, frequency of filling in the sand, quality of sand, as well as cows’ response to comfort conditions created by lying stalls covered with sand. This paper presents results of some investigations concerning sand losses in the barn with dairy cows. In practice, sand consumption is a result of natural occurrences, when cows leave lying stalls. Moreover, part of sand, together with faeces, is taken out of the stall when the lying area is handled by persons responsible for cleanliness and hygiene in the stall. This paper indicates, based on the authors’ own observations and investigations, that an improper construction of lying stalls can result in the increased losses of the sand in the barn, which translates into financial losses. In addition, a number of methods of measurement, together with the details of the structure of sand losses in the barn with a free-stall housing system, were presented. The discussion develops the issue of effective use of sand as a bedding material in the barn with dairy cows, including the need to use technical equipment in order to keep the barn floors clean and ensure the cows’ comfort.

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540–552 H. Roubík, J. Mazancová,, L.D. Phung and D.V. Dung
Quantification of biogas potential from livestock waste in Vietnam
Abstract |
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Quantification of biogas potential from livestock waste in Vietnam

H. Roubík¹, J. Mazancová¹,*, L.D. Phung² and D.V. Dung²

¹ Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Department of Sustainable Technologies, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
² Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry, Hue University, 102 Phung Hung, Hue city, Thua Thien Hue, Vietnam
*Corresponding author: mazan@ftz.czu.cz

Abstract:

Quantification of biogas potential in Vietnam is highly needed to provide sufficient information for authorities properly support their future policy decisions. To achieve the aim of this investigation, two methods were applied: (i) the method for calculation of the amount of manure and its biogas potential from chosen livestock obtained from statistical data and (ii) the method for future forecast using middle scenario applications based on previous development of specific category, presuming homogenous continuation of growth. The total biogas energy potential in Vietnam was quantified to approximate 120,000 T Jy-1 in 2015 and has the potential of increasing to 127,000 TJ y-1 by 2020. However, when considering current manure management practices (including accessibility factor and collection efficiency) biogas potential was quantified to the values of almost 67,000 T Jy-1 in 2015 and over 71,000 T Jy-1 by 2020 if the current manure management practices remain unchanged. Biogas has the potential of generating renewable energy, while meeting requirements related to waste treatment and minimizing environmental impacts. This study shows that animal waste is a promising sustainable energy source in Vietnam which can be efficiently utilized for the generation of biogas energy as well as electricity. Furthermore, anaerobic digestion of livestock waste has the potential to play a vital role in farming systems by adding value to agricultural waste and livestock excreta, and reducing their presence in the environment therefore enhancing public health. There is a high development potential for the decentralized energy generation due to the exploitation of small-scale biogas plants in Vietnam. However, it is essential to realize that competition to other energy generating technologies is present.

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553–564 D. Ruska, D. Jonkus and L. Cielava
Monitoring of ammonium pollution from dairy cows farm according of urea content in milk
Abstract |
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Monitoring of ammonium pollution from dairy cows farm according of urea content in milk

D. Ruska*, D. Jonkus and L. Cielava

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Liela str. 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: diana.ruska@llu.lv

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluation of urea content in milk to assess the potential of ammonia pollution from farms. Dairy cows in farms were located in different Latvia region with different holding system. Research was conducted under production conditions in four different agricultural holdings located in various places of Latvia and represent different animal housing and feeding technologies. Monthly together with herd control was recorded milk yield and take milk samples was analysed for fat, total protein and lactose (%), urea content (mg dL-1) and somatic cell count (SCC). Milk content parameters for total 14,873 milk samples were analysed in accredited milk quality laboratory. The statistical analyses were performed with the SPSS program package. The results acquired show that in three farms (A, B and D) urea content in 59–71% of milk samples comprised 15.1–30.0 mg dL–1. However, also in these holdings urea content in 29–41% of samples was below or above the optimum threshold. Unpleasant situation was observed in holding C; there urea content only in 16% of milk samples was within the optimum limits. Calculations of forecasted ammonium pollution emitted daily from agricultural holdings using tie stall housing may comprise 91.4–104.0 g from cow, while amount emitted by freestall holdings using housing may constitute 93.9–95.9 g from cow daily. By using these data, each farm may make calculations and forecast farming efficiency and environmental threats.

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565–575 P. Šařec and P. Novák
Influence of manure and activators of organic matter biological transformation on selected soil physical properties of Modal Luvisol
Abstract |
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Influence of manure and activators of organic matter biological transformation on selected soil physical properties of Modal Luvisol

P. Šařec¹ and P. Novák²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamycka 129, CZ165 00 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamycka 129, CZ165 00 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: psarec@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Agricultural land in the Czech Republic threatened by a combination of water erosion, technogenic compaction and low level of soil carbon. The low levels of carbon in the soil interrelate also with the other threats mentioned. Application of organic matter into soil is one of the ways how to rectify this unfavourable condition. All of its forms can be supplemented by biological transformation’s activators. The aim of this paper was to verify the effect of organic fertilizer with a conditioning activator added, i.e. manure from deep-litter housing of dairy cows with PRP Fix added, and the effect of an activator conditioning soil, i.e. PRP Sol, on the change of soil physical properties, i.e soil bulk density, infiltration ability, cone index. In this respect, field trial was established at locality Lázně Bělohrad. Soil infiltration capabilities were measured using a ring infiltrometer with a diameter of 0.15 meters. Cone index was another measured item provided by the registration penetrometer. Bulk densities of each trial variant were evaluated using Kopecky’s cylinder. Concerning saturated hydraulic conductivity, all the variants treated with manure demonstrated its increase, namely with soil activators applied as well. Favourable effect on soil bulk density values could have been also observed. The change was often below the level of statistical significance. This could have been caused by a short only time of activator’s activity. It can be assumed that the effect is going to be gradual and the verification should be carried out also in following trial years.

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576–584 I. Šematoviča,, I. Eihvalde and D. Kairiša
Reticulo-ruminal pH and temperature relationship between dairy cow productivity and milk composition
Abstract |
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Reticulo-ruminal pH and temperature relationship between dairy cow productivity and milk composition

I. Šematoviča¹,*, I. Eihvalde² and D. Kairiša²

¹ Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Clinical Institute, Kr. Helmana street 8, LV-3004 Jelgava, Latvia
² Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Agrobiotechnology, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: isem@inbox.lv

Abstract:

The aim of the research was to establish interrelations between reticulo-ruminal pH and temperature, cows’ productivity and milk composition (milk fat, protein, lactose, somatic cell count and electrical conductivity of milk) by using specific SmaXtec reticulo-ruminal boluses. In the research were included four different age dairy cows in early lactation period. The reticuloruminal pH and temperature was measured every 600 sec. over a 79 day period. The milk yield and quality was registered three times per day with automated data recording and management system Afmilk. Results showed that reticulo-ruminal temperature brightly demonstrates cow drinking behaviour and did not influence any of the investigated milk parameters. There was established a weak, statistically significant correlation between reticulo-ruminal pH and energetically corrected milk (r = 0.19; P < 0.01), milk protein level (r = 0.35) and a weak negative correlation between milk fat/protein ratio (r = − 0.22; P < 0.01). No relation between reticuloruminal pH, milk somatic cell count and milk electroconductivity was observed. Reticulo-ruminal pH fluctuations were at individual ranges for each cow without affecting an individual milk fat/protein ratio despite all of them received the same ration. It seems that milk fat/protein ratio is primarily dependent on the feed composition and properties. In the study was included one cow whose reticulo-ruminal pH was decreased below 5.7 for 400 min. in a day, and it had not had any individual effect on milk fat/protein ratio. That fact indicates to an individual cow tolerance to subacute rumen acidosis.

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585–593 A. Zacepins, A. Pecka, V. Osadcuks, A. Kviesis and S. Engel
Solution for automated bee colony weight monitoring
Abstract |
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Solution for automated bee colony weight monitoring

A. Zacepins¹*, A. Pecka², V. Osadcuks², A. Kviesis¹ and S. Engel³

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Information Technologies, Department of Computer Systems, Liela iela 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Energetics, J. Cakstes blvd. 5, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
³Cyberkinetics, Inc., 112 North Curry Street, Carson City, Nevada, USA
*Correspondence: aleksejs.zacepins@llu.lv

Abstract:

Future of the traditional beekeeping is to implement Precision Beekeeping approach and implement different automated and smart apiary monitoring systems for remote and optimised bee colony management. Behaviour of the bee colony can be monitored by the use of temperature, humidity, acoustic, video and weight systems. Each measurement system can give its own additional value for recognition of bee colony state. It is useful for the beekeeper to have at least one control colony with weight system equipped in the apiary. The hive scales is an important tool which gives assessment if food consumption has been high and whether there is a need for feeding. In most countries it is important to know how long the winter storage is, in addition it gives a very good indication of periods without any nectar flow. This paper presents conceptual design and prototype of honey bee colony weight monitoring system with GSM/GPRS external interface for packet-based communication with remote server. The central module with scales is placed on one of the hives and consists of temperature sensor, 4 strain gauge load cells for weighting purposes, RF and GSM/GPRS modules, photovoltaic cell array, battery, charge controller and minimal user interface for operational status signalling. The system allows sensor data logging to local storage and periodic data transfer to a remote server for further data analysis in different user applications. Data processing back-end component serves GET requests coming from remote measurement device, performs identification and raw data conversion using configuration stored in database.

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594–601 L. Talgre, H. Roostalu, E. Mäeorg and E. Lauringson
Nitrogen and carbon release during decomposition of roots and shoots of leguminous green manure crops
Abstract |
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Nitrogen and carbon release during decomposition of roots and shoots of leguminous green manure crops

L. Talgre¹*, H. Roostalu², E. Mäeorg¹ and E. Lauringson¹

¹Department of Field Crop and Grassland Husbandry, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
²Department of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: liina.talgre@emu.ee

Abstract:

In Nordic conditions, soils are frozen during winter, affecting the decomposition rates of crop residues. Hence, the decomposition rates of above- and underground biomass and the dynamics of the N and C released into the soil were studied in trials focused on green manure crops. The decomposition of the residue and N release from the residue varied among the five species of legume tested. There was a marked difference in decomposition rates between shoots and roots, which may also be explained by the differences in the chemical composition of the residue. The shoot residue decomposes rapidly and it serves as a source of N for the subsequent crop. The root residue decomposes more slowly and this had a positive effect in a crop rotation in the second year.

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602–614 H. Unal, S. Arslan and H. Erdogan
Effect of altitude and vacuum pressure on flow rate of vacuum pumps on milking machines driven by gasoline engine and a generator
Abstract |
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Effect of altitude and vacuum pressure on flow rate of vacuum pumps on milking machines driven by gasoline engine and a generator

H. Unal*, S. Arslan and H. Erdogan

University of Uludag, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Biosystems Engineering,
Nilufer, TR16059 Bursa, Turkey
*Correspondence: hunal@uludag.edu.tr

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to compare the performances of two vacuum pumps driven by an internal combustion (gasoline) engine (Vacuum Pump 1) and a generator powered electrical motor (Vacuum Pump 2) under different altitude and vacuum pressures. The vacuum pumps delivering a flow rate of 350 l min-1 at 50 kPa vacuum pressure were tested, which are commonly used in bucket type milking machines. Atmospheric pressures, maximum vacuum pump pressures, and air flow rates at milking pressures (38–50 kPa) were measured at altitudes from 0 to 2,000 m with 200 m increments. Maximum pump pressure reduced by 3.8, 11.3, and 19.9% for Vacuum Pump 1 at altitudes of 400, 1,200, and 2,000 m, respectively whereas Vacuum Pump 2 had 4.4, 12.3, and 20.4% less maximum pressure at the same altitudes. Air flow rate (457.7 l min-1) of Vacuum Pump 1 at the sea level at 38 kPa working pressure reduced by 22.7% at the altitude of 2,000 m. The air flow rate reduced more (28.1%) at the operating pressure of 50 kPa for Vacuum Pump 1 at 2,000 m, compared to the sea level. Similarly, for Vacuum Pump 2, the measured flow rate at 38 kPa showed 19.1% reduction at 2,000 m while at 50 kPa the air flow rate reduced 26.4%, corresponding to 352.3 l min-1. Differences in the air flow rates of vacuum pumps 1 and 2 under different vacuum pressures were insignificant (P > 0.05). However, the effect of altitude and vacuum pressure on measured air flow rates was significant for each pump at 5% level. The regression equations were also obtained for atmospheric pressure-altitude, maximum pump pressure-altitude, air flow rate-altitude, and air flow rate-pump vacuum-altitude. High determination coefficients that were found for these relationships suggest that pressure setting can be accurately done as the altitude at which milking needs to be changed without suffering from air flow rate during milking with bucket type machines.

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