Volume 15 (2017)
  Number 3

Journal full text: Vol 15 No 3

Contents


Pages

622–628 S. Aksu,, Ü. Kızıl, L. Genç and A.M. Yıldız
Web and android applications for district level nutrient management planning
Abstract |
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Web and android applications for district level nutrient management planning

S. Aksu¹,*, Ü. Kızıl¹, L. Genç² and A.M. Yıldız¹

¹ Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Agricultural Structures and Irrigation, TR17020 Çanakkale, Turkey
² Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, College of Architecture and Design, Dept. of Urban and Regional Planning, TR17020 Çanakkale, Turkey
*Correspondence: aksusefa@comu.edu.tr

Abstract:

Livestock manure, often perceived as a waste problem, is in fact a valuable nutrient source for plants. Besides, it does not only provide nutrients to plants, also improves soil structure, aeration properties and water retention capacity. A district level manure management study was conducted in Çanakkale/Turkey for developing a web based application for animal manure application rates. The procedure and the outcomes of the study were made available for better use of producers. Therefore, a web and an android based application was developed using java programming language coupled with android job package that accessed database for interaction and presentations of the results. The database was created with PHP scripting language to provide soil analysis results (electrical conductivity, pH, lime, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc) and manure application rates for major cultivars (paddy rice, maize, wheat, processing and table tomato) within the Gümüşçay district of Çanakkale and uploaded on a server. Then, a browser access interface to specific web page built up with Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) app inventor 2 for android devices and published on official android market.

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629–638 R.R. Andrade, I.F.F. Tinôco, F.C. Baêta, M. Barbari,, L. Conti, P.R. Cecon, M.G.L. Cândido, I.T.A. Martins and C.G.S. Teles Junior
Evaluation of the surface temperature of laying hens in different thermal environments during the initial stage of age based on thermographic images
Abstract |
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Evaluation of the surface temperature of laying hens in different thermal environments during the initial stage of age based on thermographic images

R.R. Andrade¹, I.F.F. Tinôco¹, F.C. Baêta¹, M. Barbari²,*, L. Conti², P.R. Cecon¹, M.G.L. Cândido¹, I.T.A. Martins¹ and C.G.S. Teles Junior¹

¹ University of Viçosa, Department of Agricultural Engineering of Federal, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n Campus University of Viçosa, BR36570-900, Viçosa, Brazil
² University of Firenze, Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: matteo.barbari@unifi.it; rafaella.andrade@ufv.br

Abstract:

The initial stage of laying hens requires important care in relation to the thermal environment, in view of the good development of the birds, the obtaining of good quality pullets and, consequently, the adequate laying rate of adult birds.
The aim of the present study was to study, through thermographic images, the variation of the superficial temperature of laying birds of the Lohmann LSL Lite line, from one to forty-two days of age, submitted to different thermal environments. For this experiment, 864 layer chicks were distributed homogeneously in four climatic chambers. The characterization of the different environments was as follows: thermal comfort conditions (32.8 °C–20.2 °C), two cold stress levels (28.0 °C–17.9 °C and 25.5 °C–17.3 °C) and one level of heat stress (37.4 °C–23.3 °C). The black globe temperature and humidity index (BGHI) was also calculated during the trials. The data were evaluated through the Tukey test, adopting the level of 5% of probability. Via infrared thermography the temperatures of head, body and shank of the laying birds were recorded. The results showed effect (P < 0.05) of the temperature of each environment on the surface temperature of the birds. Along with the rise of the ambient temperature, an increase in the surface
temperature (head and shank) was found.
Under the recommended comfort treatment, the performance of laying birds during the earlystage, related to the superficial temperature of the birds shows the best values with temperature ranges of 32.8 °C–20.2 °C and BGHI values between 82.3 ± 1.3 and 66.4 ± 1.3.

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639–648 N.V. Barakova,, N.Y. Sharova,, A.R. Juskauskajte, A.S. Mityukov, V.A. Romanov and D. Nsengumuremyi
Fungicidal activity of ultradisperse humic sapropel suspensions
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Fungicidal activity of ultradisperse humic sapropel suspensions

N.V. Barakova¹,*, N.Y. Sharova¹,², A.R. Juskauskajte², A.S. Mityukov³, V.A. Romanov¹ and D. Nsengumuremyi¹

¹ Saint Petersburg National Research University of Information Technology, Mechanics and Optics (ITMO University), Department of Food Biotechnology and Engineering, Food Biotechnology (Vegetable Stock) Research Body, 9 Lomonosova st., RU191002 Saint Petersburg, Russia
² Federal State-funded Scientific Establishment ‘All–Russia Research Institute for Food Additives’ (GBNU VNIIPD), Department of Food Microingredients Processing, 55 Liteyniy ave., RU191014 Saint Petersburg, Russia
³ Federal State-funded Scientific Establishment ‘RAS Lake Ecology Institute’ (INOZ RAN), 9 Syevasťyanova st., RU196105 Saint Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: n.barakova@mail.ru

Abstract:

The study compared the effect of two ultradisperse humic sapropel suspensions (UDHSS), obtained in Seryodka deposit (Pskov region, Russia), on viability of Aspergillus niger in four experiments. In Experiment 1, Aspergillus niger strain L–4 conidia with titre (3.1–3.7) × 103 CFU cm–3 were suspended in 0.1 cm3, 1.0 cm3, 2.0 cm3, 3.0 cm3, or 5.0 cm3 of either UDHSS, and immediately incubated on wort agar. In Experiments 2 and 3, Aspergillus niger L–4 conidia with the same titre were suspended in and remained in contact with 0.1 cm3, 1.0 cm3, 2.0 cm3, 3.0 cm3, or 5.0 cm3 of UDHSS for 2 or 24 hours at (20.5 ± 0.5) °C (68.9 ± 0.9°F) and incubated on wort agar. The number of colonies in Petri dishes upon 24 hours and 5 days of cultivation was observed. In Experiment 4, contamination of barley grain and distillers’ dry grain (DDG) was simulated. DDG treated with 20 cm3 kg–1 of either suspension was inseminated with Aspergillus niger L–4 at (5.1–5.3) × 103 CFU cm–3, and put under standard storage conditions, changes of microflora examined at 24 hour intervals during 5 days. As a result of Experiment 1, in consideration to statistical significance, there was little fungicidal action on Aspergillus conidia. In Experiments 2 and 3, a prominent fungicidal effect was demonstrated by both sapropel suspensions. In Experiment 4, both types of suspensions exhibited a statistically significant effect on Aspergillus conidia only in samples previously remaining in contact with 3.0 or 5.0 cm3 of suspension. Amplitude of the effect proved to be dependent on both UDHSS dosage and time of contact (2 or 24 hours).

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649–657 J. Bradna, J. Malaťák and J. Velebil
Impact of differences in combustion conditions of rape straw on the amount of flue gases and fly ash properties
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Impact of differences in combustion conditions of rape straw on the amount of flue gases and fly ash properties

J. Bradna, J. Malaťák* and J. Velebil

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: malatak@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The rising trend of biomass energy usage as a renewable energy source raises issues with combustion waste products, mostly bottom ash and its potential for further use. Rape straw was selected as a fuel sample for experiments because of the fact, that this crop figures among the 10 most important crops in the world and its straw is frequently used as a source of renewable energy. The rape straw was processed in pelletizing line LSP 1800 of the company ATEA PRAHA Ltd. into pellets with diameter of 8 mm and length 15 to 30 mm. Composition of bottom ash arising during the energy utilization of biomass is primarily dependent on the composition of input raw material and next on the combustion technology. Therefore, the aim of this article is to clarify the influence of excess air amount on the composition of end products in combustion of rape straw pellets in three combustion modes (low, optimal and high excess air).
The last part of study were combustion tests and measurements on a laboratory hot-air stove – KNP from the company KOVO NOVAK. Excess air coefficient values ranged between 3.31 and 6.77. The average net calorific value of the original rape straw sample was about 15.95 MJ kg-1. Input raw material may not have always been completely combusted in the device, and therefore the ash could contain elevated amounts of hazardous elements. These substances are a limiting factor for application of the ash into soil. Overall, ash from biomass not only offers a wide range of potential applications thanks to its physical and chemical properties, but also returns some of the nutrients back to the soil closing the nutrient cycle and reducing the landfill of such material. And last but not least it enables cost reduction in agricultural production spent on mineral fertilizers.

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658–663 A. Briukhanov, I. Subbotin, R. Uvarov and E. Vasilev
Method of designing of manure utilization technology
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Method of designing of manure utilization technology

A. Briukhanov, I. Subbotin, R. Uvarov and E. Vasilev*

Institute for Engineering and Environmental Problems in Agricultural Production – IEEP, Filtrovskoje shosse, 3, RU196625 St. Petersburg-Pavlovsk, Russia
*Correspondence: itmo1652@mail.ru

Abstract:

Specific feature of modern livestock farms is concentration of a large number of animals and subsequent significant environmental load. The biggest negative impacts are on the atmosphere through ammonia emissions and on water bodies through nitrogen and phosphorus compounds leakage, with manure being the major source of these pollutants. The proper choice of an effective low-cost manure handling technology with high nutrients retention ensures the environmentally sound operation of these farms. With this aim in view a designing method of manure utilization technologies is proposed. Relevant available technologies were reviewed, a mathematical model was created and technology assessment criterion was defined. Manure utilization technology is understood as a set of activities, including manure processing, manure storage (if necessary) and soil application of organic fertilizers. To create a mathematical model 12 manure utilization technologies were examined. These technologies are based on various methods of manure processing, such as long-term maturing, composting, biofermentation, separation into fractions, drying and biogas production. The created mathematical model takes into account the economic and environmental performance of each technology. The proposed approach makes it possible to calculate and compare the level of nitrogen preservation in manure and required inputs for different technologies depending on the farm animal stock. To assess and select the most suited technology the eco-efficiency criterion is suggested, which takes into account the yield increase, the cost of generated energy (for biogas production), and reduced negative impact on the environment. The paper presents example of using the method to make a choice of technologies for a dairy farm. Experience in the use of the method shows that the average values of nitrogen preservation in the manure, which may be achieved without involving excessive costs, are 72% for cattle manure, 70% for pig manure and 78% for poultry manure.

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664–673 J. Chyba,, M. Kroulík, K. Krištof and P.A. Misiewicz
The influence of agricultural traffic on soil infiltration rates
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The influence of agricultural traffic on soil infiltration rates

J. Chyba¹,*, M. Kroulík¹, K. Krištof² and P.A. Misiewicz³

¹ Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
² Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Biosystems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
³ Harper Adams University, Department of Crop and Environment Sciences/Engineering, TF10 8NB Newport – Shropshire, United Kingdom
*Correspondence: chyba@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of agricultural machinery passes on soil infiltration rate. The experiment was conducted in a large covered area (Soil Hall) with the sandy loam soil type. Four compactions levels were applied: control, one, two and three tractor passes.
The infiltration measurements were conducted using two methods: Simplified Falling–Head (SFH) and Mini Disk (MD). The other supporting measurements were disturbed soil samples and cone index measurements.
Based on the SFH method it was observed that as the number of passes increased from 0 to 3 the infiltration rate decreased. The MD results also decreased with the increase in the number of passes. The bulk densities (at 0–0.07 m depth) increased with the number of tractor passes, under the conditions of soil gravimetric moisture content ranging between 14 and 18% vol. The cone index values at the depth of 0–0.05 m increased with the number of passes.
When comparing the results obtained using the MD and SFH, a strong relationship was not found. It could be concluded that the SFH method might be more robust and appropriate for determining the effect of the number of tractor passes on the soil water infiltration in these conditions.

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674–679 V. Dubrovskis and I. Plume
Suitability of oat bran for methane production
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Suitability of oat bran for methane production

V. Dubrovskis* and I. Plume

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Energetics, Cakstes blvd 5, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: vilisd@inbox.lv

Abstract:

There is need to investigate the suitability of various cheaper biomasses for energy production. It is necessary to explore ways to improve the anaerobic fermentation process with the help of various catalysts. Biocatalyst Metaferm produced in Latvia previous studies with other biomass gave an increase in production. The purpose of study is evaluation of suitability of granular and crushed oat bran waste biomass for the production of methane and influence of catalyst Metaferm on anaerobic digestion (AD) process. The biomass anaerobic digestion process was investigated in 0.75 L digesters, operated in batch mode at temperature 38 ± 1.0 °C. The average biogas yield per unit of dry organic matter added (DOM) from digestion of granular oat bran was 0.400 L g-1 DOM and methane yield was 0.193 L g-1 DOM. Average biogas yield from digestion of crushed oat bran was 0.439 L L g-1 DOM and specific methane yield was 0.193 L L g-1 DOM. Adding of 1 mL Metaferm in substrates with not crushed or crushed oat bran increases specific methane yield by 0.227 L g-1
DOM or 0.236 L g-1 DOM respectively. Investigated oat bran can be used for methane production, but methane production was less than from traditional biomass, e.g. maize silage.

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680–686 M. Forsman
The search for practical and reliable observational or technical risk assessment methods to be used in prevention of musculoskeletal disorders
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The search for practical and reliable observational or technical risk assessment methods to be used in prevention of musculoskeletal disorders

M. Forsman

Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
Correspondence: mikael.forsman@ki.se

Abstract:

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) are still frequent, inducing very large costs for companies and societies all over the world. Ergonomists work to prevent these disorders and to make organisations sustainable. In their work it is important to identify risks in a reliable way, to prioritise risks, and then to perform interventions (participatory interventions have shown to more often be successful), so that the risks and the disorders may be reduced. Risks are most often assessed by observation. Two projects are described. In the first project the interobserver reliability of six observational methods was found to be low in risk assessments concerning repetition, movements and postures. Also the inter-method reliability was often low, i.e. when the same work is assessed with different methods different risk estimates are often obtained. In the second described project, easy-to-use methods for measurements of postures and movements were developed and validated. Hence, there are now validated technical methods that are easy to use. But, today’s inexpensive electronic devices should be utilized to a higher degree, in developing tools, together with practitioners, that are attractive, easy and time efficient to use, and which should increase the reliability in risk assessments of work tasks and jobs.

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687–693 L.C.S.R. Freitas, I.F.F. Tinôco, F.C. Baêta, M. Barbari, L. Conti, C.G.S. Teles Júnior, M.G.L. Cândido, C.V. Morais and F.C. Sousa
Correlation between egg quality parameters, housing thermal conditions and age of laying hens
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Correlation between egg quality parameters, housing thermal conditions and age of laying hens

L.C.S.R. Freitas¹, I.F.F. Tinôco¹, F.C. Baêta¹, M. Barbari²*, L. Conti², C.G.S. Teles Júnior¹, M.G.L. Cândido¹, C.V. Morais¹ and F.C. Sousa¹

¹ Federal University of Viçosa, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Avenue Peter Henry Rolfs, University Campus, BR36570-900, Viçosa-MG, Brazil
² University of Firenze, Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: matteo.barbari@unifi.it; leticia.ramos@ufv.br

Abstract:

High environmental temperatures cause a decrease in feed consumption by laying hens and, as a consequence, a reduction of productive performance and egg weight. The hens age is a factor influencing the albumen quality that tends to be more liquefied in older hens. Such variable is analysed by the determination of the Haugh Unit.
The correlations between the egg quality variables (egg weight and Haugh Unit), the  thermohygrometric conditions in the facility and the age of laying hens were determined in the study and evaluated based on the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) and their significance at the 5% level. The microclimatic data and the eggs were collected in 20 points of poultry facility with birds of 43, 56, 69, 79 and 86 weeks of age, totalling 100 samples.
The results show significant correlations between egg weight and temperature (r = -0.238), egg weight and hens age (r = 0.310), Haugh Unit index and hens age (r = -0.256); a non-significant correlation between the quality parameters with the relative humidity of the air inside the barn. The egg weight had a weak negative correlation with the ambient temperature and a weak positive correlation with the hens age. Concerning the Haugh Unit, a weak negative correlation with the age of the animals was found. The weak or non-existent correlation of temperature with egg quality parameters can be due to the environmental conditions that remained in the range of thermal comfort for the animals during the trials.

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694–699 J. Hart, and V. Hartová
Usage of multi-sensory MESH networks in monitoring the welfare of livestock
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Usage of multi-sensory MESH networks in monitoring the welfare of livestock

J. Hart¹,* and V. Hartová²

¹ Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS), Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
² Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS), Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: janhart77@gmail.com

Abstract:

The trend of monitoring the welfare of livestock is continually developing at the moment. This monitoring leads to the optimization of the needs of livestock, which improves their final outputs. In terms of dairy cows, improvements in their living conditions may have a considerable impact on their productivity and the quality of their milk. Countless indicators such as temperature, humidity, how often they drink or eat, and many other parameters can be monitored. Specific measurements always depend on an initial hypothesis that is determined on the basis of specific problems. The main question still remains regarding how to measure selected variables, particularly how to transfer these outputs so that they can be easily processed. It is this issue that leads to the use of MASH multi-sensory networks.

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700–706 J. Hart, and V. Hartová
The next generation of multiple temperature sensor
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The next generation of multiple temperature sensor

J. Hart¹,* and V. Hartová²

¹ Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS), Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
² Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS), Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: janhart77@gmail.com

Abstract:

Long-term and short-term measurements of temperature at different depths in soil have always been very complicated. The solution that was used until now was measuring using soil thermometers. Measurements were done at shallow depths and generally only allowed for measuring of one temperature, and always at the one depth which was determined for the measurement (normally 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 150 and 300 cm). These problems were relatively limiting and impractical. It was therefore necessary to devise an alternative for a simple and effective solution that would eliminate these disadvantages – it was necessary for a probe to allow temperature to be measured at different depths at one measuring point without having to change its position. A requirement simultaneously arose for the need to be able to measure temperatures at greater depths, and a multiple probe was therefore conceived consisting of a rod for dynamic penetration tests.

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707–712 V. Hartová, and J. Hart
Livestock monitoring system using bluetooth technology
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Livestock monitoring system using bluetooth technology

V. Hartová¹,* and J. Hart²

¹ Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS), Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
² Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS), Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: nverca@seznam.cz

Abstract:

There is currently no inexpensive solution for monitoring theft of livestock. The cheapest way is to use a camera system. Whilst camera systems are able to capture theft attempts, in order to be truly effective it is necessary to permanently have a live operator available at the monitor to make evaluations. The aim was to therefore devise a system that would be used and that could identify the loss of an animal (or determine the specific animal that went missing). ‘Bluetooth Beacons’ were chosen after a detailed study of current technology. After closer inspection of this technology, we came to the conclusion that it is useful for this purpose with minimal cost for its application. This article would like to present concept of the method to monitoring livestock position.

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713–719 P. Heřmánek, A. Rybka and I. Honzík
Experimental chamber dryer for drying hops at low temperatures
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Experimental chamber dryer for drying hops at low temperatures

P. Heřmánek*, A. Rybka and I. Honzík

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: hermanek@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Hop drying takes a significant part in growers’ costs of the final product processing. The current drying technology is based on drying at the drying air temperature of 55–60 °C for 6–9 hours to the final moisture content of about 10%. However, the process results in irreversible transformations and losses of, inter alia, heat labile substances contained in hops.
The experimental chamber dryer was tested at harvest in 2016. Assays hop drying were carried out at a temperature of the drying medium 40 °C. The research results in the form of an experimental new experimental chamber dryer will be used for testing of drying technologies at lower temperatures of the drying medium.
This is what will enable to preserve the quality of aroma as well as other characteristics of the components contained in hops.

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720–728 T. Jehlička
Modification of the rheological properties of honey in the honeycombs by the high frequency heating prior to honey extraction
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Modification of the rheological properties of honey in the honeycombs by the high frequency heating prior to honey extraction

T. Jehlička

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
Correspondence: Jehlickat@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This paper addresses the issue of the extraction of highly viscous honey from the honeycombs. High viscosity can be caused by many factors. In the operational practice it is mainly about the difficult conditions (cold weather), post seasonal honey extraction or honey with naturally high viscosity (honeydew honeys). The objective was to design and validate a technology that will enable to reduce the viscosity of honey in the honeycombs by the high frequency heating and increase the effectiveness of honey extraction. The experimental part is based on the high frequency heating of honey, so called dielectric heating. In this process the heating of honey occurs evenly throughout the full volume of the honeycomb. To verify the proposed procedure, several groups of samples of the capped honeycombs were selected that contained honey of different botanical origin and rheological properties. For heating of the honeycombs, a high frequency chamber was prepared in the laboratory conditions. Honeycombs were placed into the chamber and heated to the desired temperature (from 15 °C to 45 °C). During extraction, the time dependence of honey extraction on the temperature of the pre-heated honeycombs was monitored. It was proved that the high frequency heating is suitable for the pre-processing of the honeycombs; heating is quick and reduces the viscosity. As a consequence of different permittivity of honey and beeswax, the strength of the comb is not changed when the electromagnetic field conditions are set properly, the honeycomb remains compact. Measurements demonstrated the time reduction of honey extraction based on the temperature.

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729-736 A. Jäger,, C. Nicoletti and K. Krennhuber
Evaluation of the inline stripping of ethanol during cyanobacteria cultivation in a bubble column bioreactor
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Evaluation of the inline stripping of ethanol during cyanobacteria cultivation in a bubble column bioreactor

A. Jäger¹,*, C. Nicoletti² and K. Krennhuber¹

¹ University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Bio & Environmental Technology, Stelzhamerstr. 23, AT4600 Wels, Austria
² University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, IT87036 Rende (CS), Italy
*Correspondence: a.jaeger@fh-wels.at

Abstract:

Cyanobacteria are oxygenic phototrophic microorganisms capable of photosynthesis. In this redox reaction driven by light energy, carbon dioxide and water are converted into chemical energy in form of carbohydrates and oxygen. The output of this process is restricted by product inhibition from the bioethanol. Here, we evaluate a method of ethanol stripping in a bubble column for perspective use for determination of ethanol production rate of engineered cyanobacteria. The knowledge about the amount of condensation and recovery rate combined with HPLC measurement for ethanol determination can be used to specify the real amount of produced ethanol (absolute) by cyanobacteria in the used bioreactor. Stripping and recovery rate are depending on several parameter like flow rate, initial ethanol concentration, condensation temperature etc. Due to the high influence of these parameters they have to be supposed to be static regarding to the degrees of freedom.
To evaluate the system different ethanol concentration were testet for stripping and determination of recovery rate. As the stripping rate was much higher compared to the ethanol production rate with our Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 the medium was spiked with ethanol to varying concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 2% v/v. It could be shown that ethanol could be removed quantitavely. Removal rates of 97 98% were reached with initial ethanol concentrations of 5 g L-1 to 20 g L-1. The results demonstrated determination of ethanol in the exhaust air stream and quantitavely recollection by cultivating engineered Synechococcus elongatus in bubble column bioreactors.

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737–744 P. Kic
Effect of different air velocities on convective thin-layer drying of alfalfa for livestock feeding
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Effect of different air velocities on convective thin-layer drying of alfalfa for livestock feeding

P. Kic

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamycka 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
Correspondence: kic@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is widely used as forage which has very high feeding value. The aim of this paper is to inform about the experimental and theoretical investigations of alfalfa drying in thin layer. Special device for convection drying with air flow passing through material from bottom through supporting trays with sieve by constant temperature was used for drying when air velocity was 0.7 m s-1, 1 m s-1, 1.2 m s-1 and 2.0 m s-1. The results were compared with natural convection drying by the same temperature, but with the 0 m s-1 air velocity. The increased air velocity for convection influenced drying process positively. The results show that the differences between the drying with air velocities 1.2 m s-1 and 2 m s-1 are very small, therefore 1.2 m s-1 could be realised as an optimum. The evaluation of measurement results was focused on curves of drying rate, changes in water content and changes of moisture depending on the time and their mutual relations. Experimental data create the background for calculation of main parameters useful for description and modelling of the drying process, which can be helpful e.g. for decision of optimum drying time. Drying alfalfa for hay by forced convection shortened the drying time as compared with natural convection two and a half times. Drying alfalfa for haylage by forced convection shortened the drying time as compared with natural convection even four times.

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745–750 P. Kic
Influence of air-conditioning on dust level in drivers’ cabin during the harvest of grain
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Influence of air-conditioning on dust level in drivers’ cabin during the harvest of grain

P. Kic

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of
Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
Correspondence: kic@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The period of grain harvest is characterized by dry and hot summer weather. During the grain harvest is generated large amount of dust which significantly influences surroundings, but mainly drivers are exposed to dust pollution. The aim of this paper is to present results of microclimatic research focused on dust pollution in drivers’ cabin of tractors and combine harvesters of different construction used for harvest of grain. The machinery selected for this research includes the old but also very modern tractors and combine harvesters which are equipped with air conditioning. In the frame of this research the concentration of air dust was measured by exact instrument DustTRAK II Model 8530 aerosol monitor. Using the special impactors the PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10 size fractions were also measured. Obtained results of measurements were evaluated and concentrations of different size of dust particles were analysed. Results of different indoor conditions measured in new and old machinery are generalized.

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751–759 M. Kroulik,, P. Zabransky, J. Holub and J. Chyba
Development and implementation of data collection technologies for digital mapping of soil electric conductivity
Abstract |
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Development and implementation of data collection technologies for digital mapping of soil electric conductivity

M. Kroulik¹,*, P. Zabransky², J. Holub¹ and J. Chyba¹

¹ Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines. Kamycka 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
² Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Agroecology and Biometeorology. Kamycka 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: kroulik@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

One of the main preconditions for the introduction of soil protection measures and sustainable use of a soil is to strengthen the knowledge base about the specific habitats characteristics with high spatial resolution and adequate interventions to these properties. One of the most common sensors used to describe the level of soil variability are devices that measure the electric conductivity of the soil.
Platform for the electrical conductivity measuring has been developed and implemented into the standard combined machines for the tillage and seeding, using an existing work tools as part of the platform. Within the field work the series of measurements was conducted with this machine and platform and data of electrical conductivity were collected. On the same field as a reference method electrical conductivity was measured by an electromagnetic induction probe EM38 MK2. Compared data from the measuring platform and the EM38 MK2 probe showed a high correlation value. The experiments demonstrate the possibilities of technical solutions of soil conductivity measurement implementation on tillage and seeding machines where by a modification of selected tillage and seeding machines together with incorporation of sensors directly onto the work tools is possible to obtain measuring platform that enables data collection directly during operation of the machine on the field.

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760–766 E. Kucuktopcu, B. Cemek and P. Banda
Determination of poultry house indoor heating and cooling days using degree-day method
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Determination of poultry house indoor heating and cooling days using degree-day method

E. Kucuktopcu*, B. Cemek and P. Banda

University of Ondokuz Mayis, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Structures and Irrigation, TR 55139 Samsun, Turkey
*Correspondence: erdem.kucuktopcu@omu.edu.tr

Abstract:

In poultry production, degree-day values are used as fundamental design parameters considered among others in determining the extent of heating and cooling of poultry housing. In this study, heating and cooling data values for each of broiler production period were determined using the degree-day method. The total length of the experiment was 123 days which corresponds to 3 growing periods. The inside and outside air temperatures of the poultry house were measured using air temperature data loggers positioned at different points and heights within and outside broiler house. Knowledge of heating and cooling day values is important as it necessitates the provision and maintenance of ideal bird’s production conditions and ensuring the economic viability of the enterprise through optimized energy consumption.

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767–787 Z. Libiete,,, A. Bardule, S. Murniece and A. Lupikis
Impact of clearfelling on dissolved nitrogen content in soil-, ground-, and surface waters: initial results from a study in Latvia
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Impact of clearfelling on dissolved nitrogen content in soil-, ground-, and surface waters: initial results from a study in Latvia

Z. Libiete¹,²,*, A. Bardule¹, S. Murniece¹ and A. Lupikis¹

¹ Latvian State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’, Rigas str. 111, LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia
² MNKC, Dzerbenes Str. 27, LV-1006 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: zane.libiete@silava.lv

Abstract:

Conventional forest management has traditionally been targeted to enhance provisioning ecosystem services. Recently, however, awareness about the effect of forest management on other groups of ecosystem goods and services has been raised at the European and global levels. A number of initiatives addressing the evaluation and mitigation of the impact of forest management operations on biodiversity, soil quality, nutrient cycling, and water quality have been reported. In 2011, the development of a monitoring system to assess the impact of forest management on biodiversity and environment in the state forests of Latvia was initiated in the Latvian State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’. A number of studies to obtain experimental data and to test potential monitoring methods were implemented during this project. Among other activities, three research objects related to the quantification of changes in nutrient cycling after clearcut with whole-tree harvesting and stem-only harvesting were established. Data on changes in nutrient concentrations in soil solution, ground water, and surface waters, and on nutrient input through precipitation, are presently available for one year before and two years after clearfelling. Significant increase of dissolved nitrogen concentration in soil solution, as well as differences between stem-only and whole-tree harvested plots emerged only in the second year after harvesting. No significant increase of the dissolved N in the streams was observed, compared to the reference period. Ground vegetation recovery, amount of slash, soil properties and processes in the buffer zone are among those factors influencing the N leaching most, and these will be investigated further.

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788–798 A. Lupikis, A. Bardule, A. Lazdins, J. Stola and A. Butlers
Carbon stock changes in drained arable organic soils in Latvia: results of a pilot study
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Carbon stock changes in drained arable organic soils in Latvia: results of a pilot study

A. Lupikis, A. Bardule*, A. Lazdins, J. Stola and A. Butlers

Latvian State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’, 111 Rigas str., LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia
*Correspondence: arta.bardule@silava.lv

Abstract:

Drained arable organic soils in the most of European countries represent a minor part of the total area of farmlands, but these soils contribute significantly to national greenhouse gas budgets. The aim of the pilot study is to demonstrate methodology for determination of the changes of soil organic carbon stock after drainage of arable land on organic soil by evaluation of subsidence of the land surface from detailed historical pre-drainage topographic maps created during designing of drainage systems and LiDAR. Results of a pilot study show that ground surface level in arable land on organic soil has decreased by 0.8 cm annually after drainage, but soil organic carbon stock has decreased by 4.2 ± 3.3 tonnes C ha-1 yr-1. The results of a study show that pre-drainage topographic maps are suitable for estimation of organic layer subsidence after drainage. The estimated mean CO2 emissions are about 47% less than the default emission factor for drained arable organic soils in boreal and temperate climate zone provided by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. The results substantiate the necessity to develop national methodology to estimate emissions from drained organic soils in cropland and grassland.

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799–805 P. Novák and J. Hůla
The influence of sloping land on soil particle translocation during secondary tillage
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The influence of sloping land on soil particle translocation during secondary tillage

P. Novák* and J. Hůla

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: novakpetr@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Tillage erosion causes the undesirable changes in the soil, mainly decreased of fertility and other functions of soil. The field experiment was aimed at measuring the influence of sloping field on the translocation of soil particles during seedbed preparation by Lemken Kompaktor seedbed combination. Sandy-loam Cambisol is on this field. Depth of soil tillage was 0.10 m, operating speed was 4.5 km h-1. To indicate the soil particles displacement limestone grit with the fraction size of 10–16 mm was used. The measurement results document that differences between movement of seedbed combination on the flat ground and upslope movement (angle of the slope 8.1°) are minimal in terms of displacement of soil particles. But the variant of downslope movement (angle of the slope 9.8°) showed statistically significantly higher values of translocation distances. The dependence of the translocation is in all cases described by an exponential function. The upslope movement of the machine for soil tillage cannot be understood as a full-value corrective measure to the incorrectly chosen direction of downslope movement.

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806–816 P. Prikner,, M. Kotek, P. Jindra and R. Pražan
Field compaction capacity of agricultural tyre
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Field compaction capacity of agricultural tyre

P. Prikner¹,*, M. Kotek¹, P. Jindra¹ and R. Pražan²

¹ Czech University of Life Science Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague, Czech Republic
² Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Drnovská 507, CZ161 01 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: prikner@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The rating of soil compaction potential of agricultural tyres, in term Field Compaction Capacity (FCC index), is presented in the paper. Principal task of tyre FCC is used to predict a compaction risk of tyre under arbitrary combinations with inflation pressure and tyre load. FCC improves the originally used Compaction Capacity of tyre (tyre CC-rating) that expresses a compaction potential of single nominal tyre’s contact footprint area for every catalogues load limits i.e. speed level under 10 km h-1 and relevant inflation pressures exclusively. Primarily, FCC evaluation of tyre includes a calculation of standardized tyre footprint contact area. Adequate combinations of load limits and inflation pressure are used in a range of nominal tyre manufacture‘s dimensions (‘catalogue size’) according to ETRTO standards. The contact area size strictly depends on coefficient of tyre stiffness and sidewall deflection; both of them are a function of inflation pressure. Compaction effect of standardized contact area size is converted using compaction function in given contact pressure range. Databank of soil compaction functions for original CC evaluation is unchanged. The soil dry density limit in FCC conception corresponds with tyre CC approach since adequate (individual) mean contact pressure can be converted into compaction function i.e. the application of the same conversion rule for combination: actual versus standardized contact area size; actual versus nominal load, both for corresponding inflation pressure level. Critical soil dry density values for every soil type are set according to pedologic standards. FCC index offers a realistic prediction of the compaction level for any soil type under individual combination of tyre size, load and inflation pressure in depths 20, 30, 40 and 50 cm below a ground surface. It must be considered as the advantageous indicator of ecological tyre operations on cultivated crop-producing land.

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817–829 M. Prístavka, K. Krištof, and P. Findura
Reliability monitoring of grain harvester
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Reliability monitoring of grain harvester

M. Prístavka¹, K. Krištof²,* and P. Findura²

¹ Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Quality and Engineering Technologies, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
² Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Biosystems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
*Correspondence: koloman.kristof@uniag.sk

Abstract:

This paper is focused on evaluation of operating reliability of grain harvesters. The aim of research is to improve the efficiency of combine harvesters by calculations which indicate a minimum annual performance and try to move in profit despite the high annual costs. Methods of paper containing all conditions of monitoring and evaluating of responsibility of grain harvesters. Those harvesters worked in real operating conditions. During three years of monitoring all important and other facilities and conditions of watching were recorded. After accumulation of information, their following working was set out according to the given literary sources and according to the own discretion based on experience during monitoring. The last part is focused on evaluating results and personal proposals how to make individual components work more effective. The most important results was recorded in case of turning point calculation where in years 2013, 2014 and 2015 at values 157.93, 156.19 and 166.86 ha year-1, respectively. However, real annual performance was recorded at values 760.5, 604.6 and 905.5 ha year-1. Thus, in all years of observation the grain harvester finished in profits.

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830–847 L. Rocha–Meneses, M. Raud, K. Orupõld and T. Kikas,
Second-generation bioethanol production: A review of strategies for waste valorisation
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Second-generation bioethanol production: A review of strategies for waste valorisation

L. Rocha–Meneses¹, M. Raud¹, K. Orupõld² and T. Kikas¹,*

¹ Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56,
EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
² Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life
Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 5, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: Timo.Kikas@emu.ee

Abstract:

This paper reviews second–generation biofuel production chain and focuses on its energetic, economic and environmental impacts. The biggest challenge in the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic material refers to the biomass waste that is left over after the separation of bioethanol in the distillation process. This waste still has high energetic value and could be further utilised to add value to the production chain. Furthermore, the environmental impact of untreated waste from bioethanol production is very high, which also requires attention. Anaerobic digestion of bioethanol production waste has been proposed as a possible solution to utilise the energetic potential of this waste and lower its environmental impact.

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848–858 V. Rooni, M. Raud and T. Kikas
Technical solutions used in different pretreatments of lignocellulosic biomass: a review
Abstract |
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Technical solutions used in different pretreatments of lignocellulosic biomass: a review

V. Rooni, M. Raud and T. Kikas*

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE 51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: timo.kikas@emu.ee

Abstract:

Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass has attracted a lot of attention as one of the most promising alternative to liquid fossil fuels. Over the last decades a lot of research has been done to find the optimal methods & devices to produce bioethanol from all kind of lignocellulosic biomass. A traditional three-step production process is used to produce bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass – pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, & fermentation. Today, the high cost of the pretreatment prevents bioethanol from competing with petrol. In this review article, the positive & negative aspects of different pretreatment methods & patented devices are investigated & analysed. Based on the analysis several options on how to lower lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment costs & how to increase the competitiveness of bioethanol are proposed.

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859–865 A. Rybka, P. Heřmánek and I. Honzík
Theoretical analysis of the technological process of hop drying
Abstract |
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Theoretical analysis of the technological process of hop drying

A. Rybka*, P. Heřmánek and I. Honzík

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: rybka@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This article is aimed at the current questions concerning hop drying, a process which represents a significant part of energy consumption for hop producers. The water content drops during hop cone drying from the original approx. 80% of moisture to 8 or 10%. The drying medium is heated air, and the maximum drying temperatures range between 55 °C and 60 °C, remaining practically stable for the entire duration of drying. Hops are exposed to these temperatures for 6 to 8 hours. The current old and ageing belt dryers record large losses. Their modernisation and particularly new drying technologies need to derive from perfect knowledge of thermal characteristics of materials and drying devices. The drying process and the actual implementation necessarily depend on the knowledge of the entire process calculation that is why the paper introduction outlines simplified issues concerning a ‘theoretical dryer’ following the hx chart. An experimental measurement was carried out in an operating belt dryer. It included measurements of the drying medium thermal and moisture parameters and of the drying hop qualitative parameters. These drying parameters were monitored by means of continuously recording data loggers and of a laboratory analysis of the samples (hop moisture content, alpha bitter acids, Hop Storage Index). The drying process revealed that hops are practically dry (10 ± 2.0% of moisture content) already at the end of the second belt or possibly at the beginning of the third belt. It was also proven that hops are excessively dried (moisture content of 4 to 8%), adjusted to their final moisture of 8–10% through conditioning. Excessive drying results in considerate hop-cone shatter which makes the hop manipulation difficult during further processing, leading to larger losses of lupulin.

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866–876 E. Shalavina, A. Briukhanov, R. Uvarov, E. Vasilev
Method for selection of pig manure processing technologies
Abstract |
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Method for selection of pig manure processing technologies

E. Shalavina*, A. Briukhanov, R. Uvarov, E. Vasilev

Institute for Engineering and Environmental Problems in Agricultural Production – IEEP, Department of Environmental Engineering of Agricultural Production, 3, Filtrovskoje Shosse, p.o. Tiarlevo, Saint Petersburg-Pavlovsk RU196625, Russia.
*Correspondence: shalavinaev@mail.ru

Abstract:

The criteria, which take into account both economic and environmental indicators, were suggested for assessment of technologies and selection of the most reasonable solution. The method of Pareto optimization was applied. Technologies suited for the North-West Russia were considered to design a mathematical model and to obtain the required indicators for the criteria calculation. The technology of multi-stage processing of pig manure with cyclic sedimentation tanks was studied in more detail based on a separate, specially designed three-level mathematical model. The objective function was the eco-economic index of nitrogen, which is the ratio between the economic benefit from the marketed yield increment and the costs of nutrients retention in the organic fertilizers applied to soil under the harvested crop yield. The resulting simulation data were substantiated by experimental studies. A mathematical model and an algorithm for selecting the best-suited technology were designed. As the calculation process involved a large bulk of data, the WEB programming was used. Simulation results demonstrated 90% accurate choice of technology. The designed model was tested for the conditions of a pig complex in Leningrad Region with the manure output of 150 t per day and no own farmland for organic fertilizer application. Calculations proved the economic and ecological effectiveness of the multi-stage processing of pig manure: operating costs per one ton of produced organic fertilizer were reduced 1.8 times, fuel costs – 1.4 times and labour costs – 3.3 times. The chosen technology also featured higher ecological safety coefficient. Estimated ecological and economic effect of introduction of this technology amounted to 5936 thousand roubles per year.

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877–885 R. Simson,, L. Tartlan, E. Loit and V. Eremeev
The effect of different pre-crops on Rhizoctonia solani complex in potato
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The effect of different pre-crops on Rhizoctonia solani complex in potato

R. Simson¹,*, L. Tartlan², E. Loit³ and V. Eremeev³

¹ Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Plant Biotechnology, Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva, Estonia
² Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Department of Plant Sciences, Teaduse 13, EE75501 Saku, Estonia
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Department of Field Crop and Grassland Husbandry, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: reijo.simson@etki.ee

Abstract:

Rhizoctonia disease in potato is widely distributed in Estonia. Field experiments with cv. ‘Red Fantasy’ were undertaken with seven pre-crop treatments at the Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture in 2009 and 2010. Monocropped potato, spring barley, spring barley underseeded with red clover, spring wheat, grain pea, spring oil seed rape and oil seed radish were involved in the study as pre-crops. Growing conditions on both years were rather optimal for potato growth but year 2010 was drier at early bulking stage. The effect of different pre-crops on Rhizoctonia solani complex was studied (i.e. incidence and severity of stem and stolon canker and black scurf) at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 days after planting. Results indicated that pathogenfree
seed tubers are of primary importance in the disease control and no pre-crop was suppressive to disease if seed tubers had sufficient amount of inoculum. However, to achieve consistent reduction in disease development, inoculum-free seed tubers and crop rotation with non-host crops should be considered.

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886–896 K. Soots,, O. Krikmann, M. Starast and J. Olt
Determining the dimensional characteristics of blueberries
Abstract |
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Determining the dimensional characteristics of blueberries

K. Soots¹,*, O. Krikmann², M. Starast³ and J. Olt¹

¹ Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Department of Agricultural and Production Engineering, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
² Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
³ Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Department of Horticulture, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 5, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: kaarel.soots@emu.ee

Abstract:

The smoothly adjustable belt drums of belt sorters can be used in the processing of harvested blueberries. Previous tests with the smoothly-adjustable belt drums of belt sorters indicates the fact that further improvements are required to increase their sorting efficiency and uniformity. For this, the relationship between the dimensional characteristics of blueberries needs to be studied. The aim of this study is to determine connections between the dimensional characteristics of blueberries. To fulfil this aim, the length, diameter, mass, and volume are measured in an experimental group of blueberries. Based on these measuring results, mathematical equations are compiled in order to describe the connections between the dimensional characteristics of blueberries. The mathematical equations obtained are tested with a control group of blueberries. The results show that the volume of blueberries can most accurately be estimated by using a mathematical equation which takes into account the mass of blueberries. The mass of blueberries can most accurately be estimated with a mathematical equation which takes into account the diameter and length of the blueberries. Based on the results obtained, we can conclude that blueberry dimensional characteristics are linked and that these links can be used for various purposes.

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897–904 M. Strods and L. Mezule
Alcohol recovery from fermentation broth with gas stripping: system experimental and optimisation
Abstract |
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Alcohol recovery from fermentation broth with gas stripping: system experimental and optimisation

M. Strods* and L. Mezule

Riga Technical University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Research Centre for Civil Engineering, Water Research Laboratory, Kipsalas 6A–263, LV–1048 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: martins.strods_4@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Effective liquid biofuel production from various lignocellulosic waste resources is dependant not only on pre–treatment and hydrolysis but also on effective removal of alcohols from the fermentation media. Distillation and rectification is not suitable in low alcohol content systems (butanol production with clostridia) or in cases when the fermentation is performed in a continuous mode. One of the technologies offering continuous, in situ removal of alcohol is gas stripping. Despite the recognition of this technology, it is still under evaluation and adjustment. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate if gas stripping technology at rapid flow conditions is efficient enough to recover ethanol from the fermentation media. The results showed that 60 l min-1 flow rate was optimal to recover more than 45% of the available ethanol in 8 hours of stripping with nitrogen gas. The technology was efficient if the ethanol content in the fermentation broth was 10 wt%. At lower concentrations the recovery showed to be inefficient. Application of CO2 as the stripping gas was not suitable for ethanol recovery and should be tested prior use. In conclusion, the application of rapid N2 flow rate for gas stripping of ethanol from fermentation media showed to be an efficient technology and could replace long time, low flow rate stripping.

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905–914 K. Tihomirova, V. Denisova, L. Jaudzema and L. Mezule
Hydrolysed biomass waste as a potential biosorbent of zinc from water
Abstract |
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Hydrolysed biomass waste as a potential biosorbent of zinc from water

K. Tihomirova*, V. Denisova, L. Jaudzema and L. Mezule

Riga Technical University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Research Centre for Civil Engineering, Water Research Laboratory, Kipsalas 6a–263, LV–1048 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: kristina.tihomirova@rtu.lv

Abstract:

In the last 10 years recycling of various materials and metal recovery from waste with low cost biosorbents or agricultural biomass has become popular trend. Lignocellulosic biomass is regarded as a sustainable resource for biofuel production. In this process, lignocellulosic biomass is partly degraded during chemical or biological hydrolysis, as a result, these agricultural waste materials usually present a disposal problem and have no economic value. Therefore, reuse of lignocellulosic waste materials as inexpensive and alternative sorbent for heavy metals in polluted aqueous solution.
The aim of this research was to evaluate the applicability of hydrolysed biomass waste for zinc removal from water solution. To evaluate the potential use of lignocellulosic biomass for biosorption, experiments were performed with dry, washed from organic matter and hydrolysed hay. The results showed that hydrolysed hay have lower biosorption capacity than washed and dried hay, however, it still can be used as a low-cost biosorbent for the removal of Zn in polluted aqueous solutions, because it showed relatively high cink sorption capasity (336–391 mg g-1).

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915–920 R. Uvarov, A. Briukhanov, I. Subbotin and E. Shalavina
Disinfection of solid fraction of cattle manure in drum-type bio-fermenter
Abstract |
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Disinfection of solid fraction of cattle manure in drum-type bio-fermenter

R. Uvarov*, A. Briukhanov, I. Subbotin and E. Shalavina

Institute for Engineering and Environmental Problems in Agricultural Production (IEEP), Filtrovskoye sh., 3, Tyarlevo, g. RU196625 Sankt-Peterburg, Russia
*Correspondence: rauvarov@gmail.com

Abstract:

In the context of increased intensification of production and disruption of established ties between livestock and crop farms there is an urgent need to introduce novel, more efficient, economically viable and environmentally sound techniques of animal and poultry manure processing. As a part of the ongoing work on implementation of best available techniques (BAT) in various sectors of Russian economy, agriculture included, the bioconversion technology of organic waste in a drum-type bio-fermenter was considered as one of BAT candidates, which is most adapted to the natural and climatic conditions of North-West Russia and feature the minimal environmental impact. The main purpose was to investigate the influence of bioconversion of solid fraction of cattle manure on selected microbial parameters and parasitic purity in the raw material, semi-finished and final products. The study was conducted in the IEEP Organic Waste Bioconversion Laboratory on a patented drum-type bio-fermenter. After 18 hours the digested material self-heated to 55 °C, i.e. the lower limit of the range of thermophilic microbial activity. By the 30th hour after the experiment started the temperature had reached the maximum level of 71 °C, then it dropped to 62–66 °C and stabilized in this range. 48 hours after the temperature reached 55 °C, the content of coliform bacteria reduced to acceptable limits, and that of Enterococcus dropped more than 10 times. After 120 hours the digested product was completely disinfected.

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921–934 L. Valešová, D. Herák, K. Shinoda, J. Mazancová and V. Verner
The nexus between food insecurity and socioeconomic characteristics of rural households in Western Indonesia identified with Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance´s approach by USAID
Abstract |
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The nexus between food insecurity and socioeconomic characteristics of rural households in Western Indonesia identified with Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance´s approach by USAID

L. Valešová¹*, D. Herák², K. Shinoda³, J. Mazancová⁴ and V. Verner¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Department of Economics and Development, Kamýcká 129, Prague 6, CZ 16521, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kamýcká 129, Prague 6, CZ 16521, Czech Republic
³Institut Teknologi Del, Faculty of Biotechnology and Agricultural Engineering, Jl. Sisingamangaraja, Laguboti, North Sumatra, ID 22381, Indonesia
⁴Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Department of Sustainable Technologies, Kamýcká 129, Prague 6, CZ 16521, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: valesoval@ftz.czu.cz

Abstract:

This study investigated correlation and regression analyses designed to asses the respective relationships between the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale/ Prevalence (HFIAS/ HFIAP) as a measure of food access, the Household Dietary Diversity Score, the Months of Adequate Household Food Provisioning (MAHFP) as a measure of food stability and (i) gender, (ii) education level, (iii) household income and (iv) agricultural strategies of households in North Sumatra province. Cross-sectional survey was conducted in Tobasa and Samosir Regency and its purpose was (1) to assess the food security status of rural households (N = 192), (2) to identify the influence of selected factors on their food security condition and (3) to deliver outcomes which might play an important role in establishing appropriate policies and intervention strategy to prevent and reduce food insecurity. Due to the proven applicability in many studies, Food and Nutrition Technical Assitance’s method was implemented for the comprehensive household food security analysis. The findings showed that 51.6% (n = 99) households were considered as moderately or severely food insecure, 18.8% of the sample as mildly food insecure (n = 36) and less than a third (n = 57) of households was food secure. Further analysis investigated the correlation between household food security status and selected variables. The results higlighted the role of rural education, agriculture extension services, creation of employment opportunities and improved dietary diversity in reducing household food insecurity.

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