Volume 15 (2017)
  Number 5

Journal full text: Vol15No5

Contents


Pages

1822–1830 A. Aboltins, J. Priekulis, B. Aboltina and L. Melece
Effect of slurry lagoon redesign on reduction of ammonia emission during livestock manure storage
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Effect of slurry lagoon redesign on reduction of ammonia emission during livestock manure storage

A. Aboltins¹*, J. Priekulis¹, B. Aboltina² and L. Melece³

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Institute of Agriculture Machinery, Cakstes blvd. 5, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University, Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, Zellu str. 25, LV-1002 Riga, Latvia
³Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, Struktoru str. 14, LV-1039 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: aivars.aboltins@llu.lv

Abstract:

In accordance with the international and EU aims to reduce emissions of ammonia and other air pollution substances farm manure management, including its storage, especially for the animal breeding sector, is one of the most essential stages. One of the preventing steps is covering of the slurry lagoons. The most effective – hard covering can be provided only after the lagoon is constructed. The aim of the research: to develop methodology for calculations of emission reducing lagoon design volume and surface area. In the result of the theoretical research the possibilities of reducing the reflection surfaces at the same capacity of the lagoon have been discovered, as well as the changes of the reflection surface area, if instead of one lagoon several lagoons with less volume are installed and sequential filling of these lagoons is ensured. The article presents the calculation algorithms obtained during the research and recommendations for construction of low emission lagoons.

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1831–1845 P. Adadi, E.G. Kovaleva, T.V. Glukhareva, S.A. Shatunova and A.S. Petrov
Production and analysis of non-traditional beer supplemented with sea buckthorn
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Production and analysis of non-traditional beer supplemented with sea buckthorn

P. Adadi¹*, E.G. Kovaleva¹, T.V. Glukhareva¹, S.A. Shatunova¹ and A.S. Petrov²

¹Department of Technology for Organic synthesis, Ural Federal University, Mira 19, RU620002, Yekaterinburg, Russia Federation
²Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ural Federal University, Mira 19, RU620002, Yekaterinburg, Russia Federation
*Correspondence: pariseadadi@gmail.com

Abstract:

In recent years, there has been a growing demand for non-traditional beer (craft) with different flavours hence the main aim of this research is to produce beer with sea buckthorns (SBT). Brewing software BeerSmith was used to design the Kölch beer. After one month of primary fermentation, SBT were sanitised and crashed before adding into the green beer. Carbonation was done using keg with 1.8 bar of carbon dioxide. Physicochemical properties, microbial load and sensory evaluation of Kölch fruit beer (KFB) were determined. All the physiochemical parameters measured were significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by the fermentation time. The pH dropped from 5.8 ± 0.1 to 3.9 ± 0.1 toward the end of the fermentation. There was no microbial growth when KFB was inoculated in the media. °Brix likewise decreases from 13.3 ± 0.43 to 3.86 ± 0.25. There was a change in the colour of the wort throughout the fermentation from 11.2 ± 0.44 to 32.5 ± 0.56 EBC. A decrease from 1.48 ± 0.02 to 0.86 ± 0.02 mg maltose per 100 ml in the reducing sugar was observed during the entire period of fermentation. A total of 32 volatile compounds were identified. All assessed sensory variables of KFB were significantly different (P < 0.05) and preferred by the panellists, however, foaminess and clarity of KFB should have to be improved. KFB showed higher DPPH radical scavenging activity as compared to other types of beer examined due to biologically active substances contributed by SBT.

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1846–1855 S. Akhmedov, T. Ivanova, V. Krepl and A. Muntean
Research on solid biofuels from cotton waste biomass –alternative for Tajikistan’s energy sector development
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Research on solid biofuels from cotton waste biomass –alternative for Tajikistan’s energy sector development

S. Akhmedov, T. Ivanova*, V. Krepl and A. Muntean

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Department of Sustainable Technologies, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: ivanova@ftz.czu.cz

Abstract:

An increasing awareness of the negative environmental cost associated with the combustion of fossil fuels and concerns over the geopolitical instability of the main oil producing regions is driving the development of renewable energy sources and biofuels. Use of solid biofuels made of different types of biomass became perspective alternative to conventional fuels in many countries. Such positive indicators as low cost of the final product that meets the quality of standards, not capital intensive production, possibility of producing briquettes/pellets from almost any agricultural waste or combination of raw materials are undoubted advantages of biomass based fuels. The main challenges for Tajikistan’s energy sector, which is depended on energy imports, are: to increase energy supply through better exploitation of hydropower and other renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and primary biofuels. Within the agricultural sector of Tajikistan, which is highly agrarian country, cotton accounts for 60% of agricultural output. According to the Ministry of Agriculture of Tajikistan 199,400 hectares of lands have been allocated to cotton cultivation in the year of 2014. Plenty of unused cotton residual biomass could be effectively utilized for winter heating in rural areas. The main focus of the research was to investigate and assess physical, chemical and mechanical properties of pellets and briquettes produced form cotton waste biomass.

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1856–1865 R. Ataei, M. Gholamhoseini, M.A. Nejatian and M. Golmohammadi
Study of clonal variation of ‘Bidaneh Ghermez’ grapevine cultivar in Iran
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Study of clonal variation of ‘Bidaneh Ghermez’ grapevine cultivar in Iran

R. Ataei¹, M. Gholamhoseini¹*, M.A. Nejatian² and M. Golmohammadi²

¹Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Blv Shahid Fahmideh, Mohammad Shahr, Karaj, Iran.
²Qazvin Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), No 188, Blv Shahid Docter Beheshti, Qazvin, Iran
*Correspondence: mgholamhoseini@spii.ir

Abstract:

Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is a well-known plant including different cultivars and clones. In spite of the extensive works at the cultivar level, identification and determination of clonal genetic variation has remained as a challenge. To assess the genetic variation between clones of grapevine cv. ‘Bidaneh Ghermez’, 20 selected clones were analyzed for cluster weight (CW), cluster length (CL), cluster width (CWI), berry weight (BW), berry length (BL), berry width (BWI) and total soluble solids (TSS) in randomized complete block design with three replications. Analysis of variance revealed considerable genetic variation for all measured traits (except cluster width) among clones. Cluster analysis, discriminant function analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) showed same results and all clones assigned in 2 groups. First group was including 9 clones and second group was including 11 clones. Overall, our results indicated C7, C10, C12 and C14 clones were best clones and have potential to introduce promising clones for stablishing new vineyard with high yield.

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1866–1877 S. Bartolini and E. Ducci
Quality evaluation of local apple varieties: physicochemical and antioxidant proprieties at harvest and after cold storage
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Quality evaluation of local apple varieties: physicochemical and antioxidant proprieties at harvest and after cold storage

S. Bartolini* and E. Ducci

Institute of Life Sciences, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Piazza Martiri della Libertà 33, IT56127 Pisa, Italy
*Correspondence: susanna.bartolini@santannapisa.it

Abstract:

A wide apple germplasm is present in Italy in which numerous local genotypes of specific cultivation environment have to be still evaluated for fruit quality attributes. This is the case of a long-established fruit area located in central Italy (Tuscany) where several ancient apple varieties survive with the perspective to be re-introduced for their excellent quality. The objective of this work was to determine over a 2-year period the physicochemical traits, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and polyphenols (TP) content of three old local apple varieties: ‘Paganina’, ‘Paradisa’ and ‘Rosa’. These characteristics were also assessed after 90 and 150 days at 4 °C cold storage, in normal atmosphere refrigerated cellars. For comparison purpose, the commercial apple cultivar ‘Fuji’ was considered. In general, the old varieties showed valuable quality properties, particularly due to a greater antioxidant power of fruits, although a variability between the two crop seasons, characterized by different weather conditions, was observed. After a dry summer, ‘Rosa’ showed very high TAC and TP values (2-fold higher than other varieties) that, after long-periods of cold storage, markedly decreased. These losses were not so noticeable in the others, suggesting a tendency to maintain a major stability during storage. These findings could meet the preference of demanding consumers for healthier foods who appreciate fresh fruits with protective properties by free radicals scavenging activity. Moreover, farmers who are focused on nearby and niche markets could have interesting in these local varieties to promote their valorization.

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1878–1889 V. Farina, G. Gianguzzi, A. Mazzaglia and G. Sortino
Instrumental and sensory evaluation of seven apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars under organic cultivation in Sicily
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Instrumental and sensory evaluation of seven apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars under organic cultivation in Sicily

V. Farina¹, G. Gianguzzi¹, A. Mazzaglia² and G. Sortino¹*

¹University of Palermo, Department of Agriculture and Forest Sciences – Viale delle Scienze, ed.4 ingresso H-90128 Palermo, Italy
²University of Catania, Dipartimento di Agricoltura, Alimentazione e Ambiente (Di3A), via Santa Sofia 98, Catania, Italy
*Correspondence: giuseppe.sortino@unipa.it

Abstract:

In this trial we examined the quality of 7 clones belonging to more diffused apple polyclonal varietal groups, using chemical/physical and sensory analyses during two consecutive years. Galaxy, and their ameliorative clones Gala Annaglò® and Dalitoga (Gala clones) that ripen in summer, Erovan* Early Red One® and Scarlet Spur*-Evasni® (Red Delicious clone), Corail Pinova and its ameliorative clone RoHo 3615 * Evelina® that ripen in autumn were studied. Gala Annaglò® is interesting for the fruit size and peel color, Dalitoga for the early ripening and Galaxy for the crunchiness and consistency. All the Gala clones reached very high total solid soluble content confirmed by the panel judgment of the sweetness and acidity descriptors. The Red Delicious clones confirm the larger size and the high colorimetric standard of all covered red fruits; the new clone Scarlet Spur*-Evasni® reached an interesting fruit size and peel colour intensity and uniformity, and the best total solid soluble content to total acidity ratio confirmed by the sensory descriptors of acidity and sweetness. Moreover, it reached very high values of crunchiness, consistency and interesting values of apple flavour, honey flavour and fruit flavour. The ameliorative clone RoHo 3615*Evelina® was characterized by well uniform and intense coloured fruits and a more balanced total solid soluble content to total acidity ratio, and interesting values of crunchiness, consistency, apple flavour, honey flavour and fruit flavour. This study confirms the relationship between instrumental and sensory analysis.

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1890–1896 R. Hnilica, M. Kotus, M. Jankovský, M. Hnilicová and M. Dado
Qualitative classification of mulchers
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Qualitative classification of mulchers

R. Hnilica¹*, M. Kotus²*, M. Jankovský³, M. Hnilicová⁴ and M. Dado¹

¹Department of Manufacturing Technology and Quality Management, Faculty of Environmental and Manufacturing Technology, Technical University in Zvolen, Študentská 26, SK960 53 Zvolen, Slovak Republic
²Department of Quality and Engineering Technologies, Faculty of Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture, Tr.A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
³Department of Forestry Technologies and Construction, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 1176, CZ165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
⁴Department of Forest Harvesting, Logistics and Ameliorations, Faculty of Forestry, Technical University in Zvolen, T.G. Masaryka 24, SK960 53 Zvolen, Slovak Republic
*Correspondence: hnilica@tuzvo.sk; martin.kotus@uniag.sk

Abstract:

Mulchers are helpful in forest establishment and tending. Numerous mulchers are available, so buyers can become disoriented when choosing one. This paper was aimed at creating a classification of mulchers based on the evaluation of the most important parameters: weight, required engine performance, and mulching diameter. Through ANOVA, and regression and correlation analyses of our database, we created six machine classes, devised their upper limits, and assigned mulchers to the classes. Class K1 (weight up to 1,300 kilograms; performance up to 75 kilowatts; mulching diameter up to 22 centimetres) was the most popular one with 88 mulchers. It was followed by class K2 (1,800 kilograms; 100 kilowatts; 27 centimetres) with 61 mulchers, class K4 (3,200 kilograms; 175 kilowatts; 41 centimetres) with 44 mulchers, class K3 (2,300 kilograms; 125 kilowatts; 31 centimetres) with 34 mulchers, class K5 (4,100 kilograms; 225 kilowatts; 51 centimetres) with 18 mulchers, and class K6 (no upper limit) with nine mulchers.

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1897–1905 Ā. Jansons, A. Bārdulis, L. Ķēniņa, D. Lazdiņa, E. Džeriņš and R. Kāpostiņš
Carbon content of below–ground biomass of young Scots pines in Latvia
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Carbon content of below–ground biomass of young Scots pines in Latvia

Ā. Jansons, A. Bārdulis, L. Ķēniņa*, D. Lazdiņa, E. Džeriņš and R. Kāpostiņš

Latvia State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’, Rigas str. 111, LV–2169, Salaspils, Latvia
*Correspondence: laura.kenina@silava.lv

Abstract:

Forest ecosystems play crucial role in global carbon cycling, therefore, increasing afforestation of agricultural land in Europe has been recognized as important contribution of carbon sequestration. In carbon reporting systems, root carbon content (CC) default value has been set to 50%. The study aimed to estimate CC in below–ground biomass and in relation to tree age in young Scots pine stands on forest and former agricultural land. The below–ground CC of young (8 to 40 years) managed Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands growing on nutrient poor mineral soils in Latvia was carried out. In total 62 sample trees (43 in forest land, 19 in former agricultural land) were randomly selected for destructive sampling to estimate the CC within below–ground biomass. Below–ground biomass weighted mean CC was 49.7 ± 0.4%, being slightly lower than the default CC value used to calculate carbon budgets. Root fractions stump, small roots (diameter 2–20 mm), coarse roots (diameter > 20 mm)) differed (p < 0.001) in their CC. Stumps (50.6 ± 0.6%) had highest (p < 0.001) CC in the below–ground biomass, followed by coarse (49.5 ± 0.4%) and small (49.1 ± 0.4%) roots, which did not differ from each other in their CC. Results demonstrated age–dependent increase of CC (p < 0.001) from 48.2 ± 0.3% to 51.7 ± 0.5%, indicating overestimation of the default value during the first two decades, but underestimation for older trees (24 to 40 years).

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1906–1917 V. Kažimírová, Ľ. Kubík, J. Chrastina and T. Giertl
Determination of mechanical properties of poppy waste pellets
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Determination of mechanical properties of poppy waste pellets

V. Kažimírová¹*, Ľ. Kubík², J. Chrastina¹ and T. Giertl³

¹Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Building Equipment and Technology Safety, Tr.A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
²Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Physics, Tr.A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
³Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of European Studies and Regional Development, Department of Regional Bioenergy, Tr.A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
*Correspondence: viera.kazimirova@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The work deals with evaluation of mechanical properties three types of pellet samples produced from poppy waste. The pellets were submitted to compressive loading. The compressive loading curves of dependencies of force on strain and force on time were realised. Certain mechanical parameters were determined, namely the diameter of the sample, length of the sample, force at 10% of strain, force in the first maximum of the force – strain curve, strain in the first maximum of the force – strain curve, modulus of elasticity, force in the inflex point of the force – time and force – strain curves and strain and stress in the inflex point of the force – time and force – strain curves. The work lists correlations of mechanical parameters of individual pellet types. The pellet type 1 made only of ground poppy head mass has shown the best results, the pellet type 3 consisting of ground poppy heads after harvest and waste from sieving of poppy seeds in mass proportion 1 : 1 has shown the worst results.

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1918–1927 N. Kazydub, A. Pinkal, Т. Marakayeva, S. Kuzmina, M. Korobeinikova and O. Kotsyubinskaya
Chemical composition of seeds and green beans of common bean varieties, breeded in Omsk State Agrarian University under conditions of southern forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia
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Chemical composition of seeds and green beans of common bean varieties, breeded in Omsk State Agrarian University under conditions of southern forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia

N. Kazydub¹*, A. Pinkal², Т. Marakayeva¹, S. Kuzmina¹, M. Korobeinikova¹ and O. Kotsyubinskaya¹

¹Omsk State Agrarian University named after P.A. Stolypin, Agrotechnological faculty, Department of Agronomy, Plant breeding and Seed production, Institutskaya square, building 2, RU644008 Omsk, Russia
²National Institute of Technology of Mexico / Technological Institute of Yaqui Valley, Engineering department, Str. 600, Block 611, MX85275 San Ignacio Río Muerto, Mexico
*Correspondence: ng-kazydub@yandex.ru

Abstract:

The article considers the biochemical composition of green beans and seeds of common beans varieties, bred in Omsk State Agrarian University named after P.A. Stolypin (OmSAU). The research was conducted in 2014–2016. Varieties of locally bred beans, in comparison with the standards, have advantages in the content of protein, zinc, iodine, calcium, iron, sugar; green bean technological properties and tenderizing of seeds during cooking, which becomes an indispensable component of the diet.

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1928–1933 H. Kirnak, I.S. Varol, H.A. Irik and H. Ozaktan
Effects of irrigation applied at different growth stages on chickpea yield
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Effects of irrigation applied at different growth stages on chickpea yield

H. Kirnak¹, I.S. Varol²*, H.A. Irik² and H. Ozaktan³

¹University of Adnan Menderes, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, TR09010 Efeler, Aydın, Turkey
²University of Erciyes, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Biosystems Engineering, TR38010 Melikgazi, Kayseri, Turkey
³University of Erciyes, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops, TR38010 Melikgazi, Kayseri, Turkey
*Correspondence: svarol@erciyes.edu.tr

Abstract:

This study was conducted over the experimental fields of Erciyes University in 2016 to investigate the effects of irrigations applied at different growth stages on chickpea yields. Experiments were conducted in randomized blocks design with 3 replications. There were 7 irrigation treatments as of I1: rainfed, I2: pre-bloom single irrigation, I3: single irrigation at the beginning of blooming, I4: single irrigation at 50% pod set, I5: two irrigations at 50% bloom and 50% pod-set, I6: two irrigations at pre-bloom and 50% pod-set, I7: full irrigation. The amount of applied irrigation water varied between 85.6–323 mm. Plant water consumptions varied between 262–569 mm. The greatest yield was obtained from I4 treatment with 273 kg da-1 and the lowest yield was obtained from I1 treatments with 146 kg da-1. It was concluded for chickpea cultivation under deficit water resources conditions that water deficits may be applied at different growth stages except for 50% pod-set period.

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1934–1943 J. Kuht, V. Eremeev, L. Talgre, H. Madsen, M. Toom, E. Mäeorg, E. Loit and A. Luik
The content of weed seeds in the soil based on the management system
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The content of weed seeds in the soil based on the management system

J. Kuht¹*, V. Eremeev¹, L. Talgre¹, H. Madsen¹, M. Toom¹², E. Mäeorg¹, E. Loit¹ and A. Luik¹

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
²Estonian Crop Research Institute, J. Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva, Jõgeva Vald, Estonia
*Correspondence: jaan.kuht@emu.ee

Abstract:

In 2008 an experiment was set up on the field in Eerika experimental station (Estonian University of Life Sciences) as a 5-field crop rotation: barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with undersown red clover, red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). The objective of the study was to measure the content of weed seeds in the soil and to evaluate the diversity of the species at the beginning of the period of organic production in 2011. In conventional farming systems without fertilizer (Con I) and conventional farming with mineral fertilizer (Con II) herbicides were used for weed control. All the crops in Con II system received P 25 kg ha-1 and K 95 kg ha-1, but the application rates of mineral nitrogen fertilizer differed. In organic systems (Org I – organic farming based on winter cover crop and Org II – organic farming based on winter cover crop and manure), the winter cover crops (ryegrass after winter wheat, winter oilseed rape after pea, winter rye after potato) were sown after the harvest and were ploughed into the soil as green manure in spring. Organic farming systems (Org II) had a negative effect on the content of weed seeds in the soil (2.0–22.7% less seeds than in other variants). The seeds of Chenopodium album were the most abundant among summer annual weeds and the seeds of Viola arvensis among winter weeds in the soil. Organic farming measures increased the domination of Chenopodium album – the dominance index D’ was increased by 0.09–0.14 compared to conventional variants. The content of seeds of winter weed Viola arvensis in Org II variant was decreased by 82%. The index of species evenness J’ and Shannon Wiener diversity index H’ were lower in organic plots by 0.10–0.18 and 0.60–0.19, respectively. Org II variants showed the best results based on the decrease of soil weed seed bank and distribution of the weed species.

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1944–1955 J.-S. Lee, U.K. Nath, G. Goswami and I.S. Nou
Assessment of different growing conditions for enhanced postharvest quality and shelf-life of leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)
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Assessment of different growing conditions for enhanced postharvest quality and shelf-life of leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

J.-S. Lee¹, U.K. Nath², G. Goswami² and I.S. Nou²*

¹National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration, KR55365 Wanju, South Korea
²Department of Horticulture, Sunchon National University, 225 Jungang-ro, Suncheon, KR57922 Jeonnam, South Korea
*Correspondence: nis@sunchon.ac.kr

Abstract:

Lettuce is the most important leafy vegetable. It is exclusively used as freshly raw form but sometime also as cooked. However, its quality depends on several pre- and postharvest factors. The effects of growing conditions and cultivars on the postharvest quality of leaf lettuce were investigated. In this experiment the interaction of variable factor; like growing conditions and fixed factor; cultivars are also observed. The leaf lettuce cultivars ‘Cheongchima’, ‘Cheongchuckmyeon’, ‘Geockchima’ and ‘Geockchuckmyeon’ were grown under favourable (natural condition) and unfavorable growing condition (with excess soil water and 50% shading) to evaluate their shelf-life and postharvest qualities. Plant height and the number of leaves were significantly varied in different growing conditions and by cultivars. In addition, fresh weight was affected by only growing condition, whereas leaf thickness was influenced by cultivars, growing conditions and the cultivars influenced the degree of fresh weight loss and respiration rate during postharvest storage. However, the postharvest storage qualities differed with cultivars and in combination with growing conditions. Leaf thickness and quality of leaf lettuce before and after harvest were also varied by cultivars and growing conditions. It could be concluded that postharvest leaf lettuce quality remains acceptable when growing under excess soil water with 50% shading.

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1956–1970 M.A. Luna-delRisco,, K. Orupõld, I. Diaz-Forero and M. González-Palacio
Influence of chemical composition on the biochemical methane potential of agro-industrial substrates from Estonia
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Influence of chemical composition on the biochemical methane potential of agro-industrial substrates from Estonia

M.A. Luna-delRisco¹,*, K. Orupõld², I. Diaz-Forero³ and M. González-Palacio¹

¹ Universidad de Medellin, Faculty of Engineering, Energy Engineering,
Carrera 87 # 30 – 65, P.O. 050026 Medellin, Colombia
² Estonian University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental
Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
³ Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje – SENA, Center for Design and Manufacture of
Leather, BIOMATIC Research Group, Calle 63 # 58B – 03, P.O. 055413 Itagüí,
Colombia
*Correspondence: mluna@udem.edu.co

Abstract:

Batch trials were carried out to evaluate the Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) of 61 different substrates collected from agricultural farms and industrial sites in Estonia. Tests were performed in 500 mL plasma bottles at 36°C. The highest methane yield from all tested substrates was obtained from unconsumed dairy products (557 ± 101 L kg-1 VS) while the lowest was obtained from animal slurries (238 L kg-1 VS ± 42). From tested energy crops, foxtail millet achieved the highest methane yield (320 L kg-1 VS). Silages from different crops presented methane yields from 296 ± 31 L CH4 kg-1 VS to 319 ± 19 L CH4 kg-1 VS. The influence of chemical composition and kinetic rate constants (k) on methane potential was analyzed. Anaerobic digestibility of selected agro-industrial substrates was markedly influenced by their organic content, i.e. total proteins and lignin concentrations. Rate constants were found to correlate negatively with hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin (p < 0.05). Results from this study suggest that an appropriate characterization of the chemical composition of the substrates is important not only for predicting BMP and the kinetics rates, but also for identifying possible inhibitors during the anaerobic digestion process. Results on the BMP and national availability of studied substrates indicate that herbal biomass and agro-industrial residues are promising substrates for biogas production in agricultural biogas facilities in Estonia.

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1971–1982 M. Macák, I Đalović, J. Turan, S. Šeremešić, S. Tyr, D. Milošev and M. Kulina
Soil organic carbon in long–term experiments: comparative analysis in Slovakia and Serbia
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Soil organic carbon in long–term experiments: comparative analysis in Slovakia and Serbia

M. Macák¹, I Đalović²*, J. Turan², S. Šeremešić³, S. Tyr¹, D. Milošev³ and M. Kulina⁴

¹Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
²Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops Novi Sad, Department for Maize, RS21000 Novi Sad, Maxim Gorki 30, Serbia
³University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field and Vegetable Crops, Sq. Dositeja Obradovica 8, RS21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
⁴University of East Sarajevo, Faculty of Agriculture, Vuka Karadzića 30, Istočno Novo Sarajevo, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina
*Correspondence: maizescience@yahoo.com; ivica.djalovic@ifvcns.ns.ac.rs

Abstract:

Soil organic carbon plays an important role in a long-term agroecosystem productivity, in the global C cycle, maintaining a soil nutrient pool and improving its availability. The objective of this study is the assess the impacts of long–term cropping practices on SOC dynamics in Slovakia and Serbia. Soil C sequestration is a complex process that is influenced by many factors, such as agricultural practice, climatic and soil conditions. For the both location the initial SOC decline was followed with the C stabilization and possible increase where proper practices were used. More intensive crop management systems that maintained residue cover provided the greatest benefit towards increasing the quantity of mineralizable nutrients within the active fraction of soil organic carbon (SOC), as well as increasing C sequestration as SOC. Long–term field experiments have contributed significantly to our current knowledge of soil quality and have been used to study the influence of crop management, fertilizer application and tillage practices on SOC content.

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1983–1996 E. Mehryar, W.M. Ding, A. Hemmat, M. Hassan, J.H. Bi, H.Y. Huang and J. Kafashan
Anaerobic co-digestion of oil refinery wastewater and chicken manure to produce biogas, and kinetic parameters determination in batch reactors
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Anaerobic co-digestion of oil refinery wastewater and chicken manure to produce biogas, and kinetic parameters determination in batch reactors

E. Mehryar¹², W.M. Ding¹*, A. Hemmat², M. Hassan¹³, J.H. Bi⁴, H.Y. Huang⁴ and J. Kafashan⁵⁶

¹College of Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, CN210031 Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
²Department of Bio-systems Engineering, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, IR84156-83111 Isfahan, Iran
³US-Pakistan centre for advanced studies in Energy, National University of Science and Technology, PK44000 Islamabad, Pakistan
⁴Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Science, CN210014 Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
⁵Division of Mechatronics, Biostatistics and Sensors (MeBioS), KULeuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 30, B-3001, Belgium
⁶Department of Mechanical Engineering in Agro Machinery & Mechanisation, Agricultural Engineering Research Institute, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organisation, P.O. Box 31585-845, Karaj, Iran
*Correspondence: wmding@njau.edu.cn

Abstract:

In order to improve the anaerobic fermentation of oil refinery wastewater (ORWW) via an appropriate nutrients pool for microbial and buffer capacity growth, a study was carried out on related anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) with a rich organic carbon source, namely chicken manure (CM). The kinetic parameters were investigated (including cumulative biogas production, bio-methane content, retention time, and soluble chemical oxygen demand stabilisation rate) of batch AcoD experiments related to six ORWW:CM-ratio treatments (5:0, 4:1, 3:2, 2:3, 1:4, and 0:5) under mesophilic conditions. The highest soluble chemical oxygen demand removal rate was obtained for the 4:1-ratio treatment. However, the highest biogas production and bio-methane contents were achieved for the 1:4-ratio treatment. When taking into consideration the highest oil refinery wastewater portion in the AcoD mixtures and the statistical test results (LSD0.05) for the kinetic parameters, it can be seen that the 4:1-ratio treatment provided the maximum biogas production levels.

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1997–2003 V. Mironovs, I. Boiko, M. Lisicins and V. Zemcenkovs
Band structures for binding and holding of objects made from recycled metallic materials
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Band structures for binding and holding of objects made from recycled metallic materials

V. Mironovs¹, I. Boiko², M. Lisicins¹* and V. Zemcenkovs¹

¹Riga Technical University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Building Production, Kipsalas street 6a–331, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
²Riga Technical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Transport and Aeronautics, Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Viskalu street 36A, LV-1006 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: mihails.lisicins@gmail.com

Abstract:

The aim of the present research is the investigation of the possibility and effectiveness of using the band structures made from recycled metallic materials for binding and holding of objects (in particular, tubular objects as pipelines or shells). The using of band elements and structures as such is a perspective way to increase the safety and bearing capacity of the pipelines and vessels. Nowadays during repair works the outer surfaces of the mentioned objects are braided by the steel tapes, i.e. the objects are strengthened by the binding. The mentioned steel bands are specially produced for binding purpose. From the other hand after stamping of small-size details (like the elements of supply chains for different apparatus) the metallic waste in the shape of perforated metallic tapes are received and needs to be reused in compliance with the good practice in effective resource using and recycling. The band structures for binding and holding of tubular objects, produced from the perforated metallic tape by the longitudinal profiling, multilayer and spiral winding are presented. It is proposed to apply in industry the composite band structures made from perforated metallic materials and epoxy matrix for binding and holding of tubular objects as pipelines or shells, which allows simplifying and speeding up the repair works especially in the cases of the local damages.

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2004–2011 M. Mojžiš, I. Vitázek and J. Klúčik
Effect of flame weed control on various weed species at various developmental stages
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Effect of flame weed control on various weed species at various developmental stages

M. Mojžiš*, I. Vitázek and J. Klúčik

Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Transport and Handling, Trieda Andreja Hlinku 2, SK 949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic *Correspondence: miroslav.mojzis@uniag.sk

Abstract:

Physical methods of weed control as solarization, mulching, use of electricity, steam and flame are now an alternative in the organically grown crop. Flame weeder already has a wide range of practical use, particularly in the cultivation of vegetables in alternative form without any chemical treatment. Compared to chemical spraying, the use of flame weeder is more expensive, but we can compensate the costs by the added value of bioproducts. The issue of costs affects the wider use of the method in practice, but it may be offset by increased efficiency of weed control. The correct parameters of flame weeder, such as burner angle, burner height, the gas pressure, speed of weeder as well as the growth stage of the weed, weed species, climate conditions etc., can increase the effectiveness of weed control. Field and laboratory tests carried out in Canada and Slovakia were aimed at verifying the influence of parameters on the effectiveness of flame weed control.

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2012–2025 N. Montemurro, G. Cucci, M. A. Mastro, G. Lacolla and A. Lonigro
The nitrogen role in vegetables irrigated with treated municipal wastewater
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The nitrogen role in vegetables irrigated with treated municipal wastewater

N. Montemurro, G. Cucci*, M. A. Mastro, G. Lacolla and A. Lonigro

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences – University of Bari – Via Amendola 165/A, IT70126 Bari, Italy
*Correspondence: giovanna.cucci@uniba.it

Abstract:

The reuse of treated municipal wastewater for irrigation is an established alternative to conventional water, in many countries of the world, particularly where or when water resources are extremely limited. Wastewater reuse could represent a double benefit when used in agriculture, helping overcome any lack of water resources and additionally, enriching the soil with nutrients – especially nitrogen and phosphorus.
In the experimental site of Castellana Grotte (Apulia region, Southern Italy) during the 2012/13 and 2013/14 growing seasons, vegetable crops (fennel and lettuce) in succession were drip-irrigated with three different water sources. Two reclaimed water streams, obtained by applying different treatment schemes to the same municipal wastewater (an effluent from the full-scale treatment plant and an effluent from the Integrated Fixed-film Activated Sludge – Membrane BioReactor pilot plant) and a conventional source, to verify the crops response and nutrient contribution through wastewater supply.
Both lettuce and fennel yields were enhanced by the high content of nutrients in the effluent of one of the treatment plants, which had been operated for partial nitrogen removal. For Fennel 2013/14, wastewater-reuse led to a 54% reduction of nitrogen supply in relation to the other plots normally fertilized. In this way, an estimated saving of about 98.00 € ha-1 was achieved.
Crops irrigated with treated wastewater operated for partial nitrogen removal (IMBR) showed early ripening (8 days for lettuce and 35 days for fennel 2013/14) and better quality than others not similarly-treated. However, the wastewater presented a nitrate content in excess of legal limits (35 mg L-1, D.M. 185/2003). Therefore, the contribution of nutrients increased production (47 vs 32 t ha-1 in IMBR and WELL 2012/13 fennel theses, 53 vs 31 t ha-1 in IMBR and WELL 2013 lettuce theses and 40 vs 31 t ha-1 in IMBR and WELL 2013/14 fennel theses respectively) and improved product quality, while simultaneously saving money for chemical fertilizers not supplied, producing less environmental impact.

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2026–2038 B. Osmane, I.H. Konosonoka, A. Trupa and L. Proskina
Peas and beans as a protein feed for dairy cows
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Peas and beans as a protein feed for dairy cows

B. Osmane*, I.H. Konosonoka, A. Trupa and L. Proskina

Latvia University of Agriculture, Svetes street 18, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: baiba.osmane@arei.lv

Abstract:

The need for alternative protein sources to soybean meal, partially or fully substituted in the diets of dairy cows, is an urgent problem in farming nowadays. Soybean meal is the most common protein source included in feed concentrate for dairy cows in Latvia and in other European countries as well. Among possible alternatives, grain legumes seem interesting for dairy cow diets because of their rapid degradation in the rumen and readily available energy. Peas and beans will be an important source of proteins in feed. Biochemical tests were done on eight samples of domestically grown dried peas of average size, 11 samples of dried beans of average size and some samples of soybean meal to examine the chemical composition of the peas and beans. Peas and beans were included in the feed ration during a feeding trial on dairy cows. Milk yields and milk quality parameters were examined in the trial. The digestibility of peas of most varieties and breeding lines examined was considerably higher than that of soybean meal, while the digestibility of beans of all the varieties and breeding lines examined and of soybean meal was the same. The peas contained more reducing sugars, starches and had a higher value of NEL than the tested beans, which meant the peas had a higher nutritional value. The diets comprising beans and peas fed to the dairy cows increased the fat and protein contents of milk, compared with the control group and the beginning of the trial. The total amount of amino acids increased in the bulk milk samples of all the trial groups during the feeding trial.

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2039–2047 L. Proskina and S. Cerina
Legumes in the diet of dairy cows from the economic perspective
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Legumes in the diet of dairy cows from the economic perspective

L. Proskina¹* and S. Cerina²

¹Faculty of Economics and Social Development, Latvia University of Agriculture, Svetes street 18, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, Priekuli Research Centre, Zinatnes street 2, LV-4130 Priekuli, Priekulu parish, Priekulu district, Latvia
*Correspondence: liga.proskina@llu.lv

Abstract:

Based on the experimental data, one can conclude that feed rations may comprise peas var. ‘Bruno’ and faba beans var. ‘Lielplatone’ grown in Latvia, thereby replacing the use of imported soybean cake. After summarising the results of trials, one can conclude that the diets comprising only one kind of legumes (peas or beans) were the most economically efficient, while the highest production efficiency was achieved if incorporating 22–24% ‘Lielplatone’ faba beans into the diet for dairy cows. In Europe and Latvia, foods of animal origin comprise, on average, 45% of the total agricultural output value; an essential role in the production of the foods is played by the supply of protein-rich feedstuffs to the livestock industry. An analysis of the factors influencing productivity in dairy farming shows that a diet is the most important factor that promote or hinder the functioning of the inherited genetic potential. In order to meet the dietary energy, protein and mineral requirements of cows, the cows have to be fed a diet according to their physiological condition. In recent years in many countries, research investigations into protein sources have been conducted, as a high protein content of feedstuff is the most expensive component of a feed ration. For this reason, their use in livestock diets might be economically inefficient and therefore the key focus has to be placed on opportunities to increase the content of protein in domestically produced feeds.

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2048–2067 M.W. Puteri Edaroyati, H. Siti Aishah and A.M. Al-Tawaha
Requirements for inserting intercropping in aquaponics system for sustainability in agricultural production system
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Requirements for inserting intercropping in aquaponics system for sustainability in agricultural production system

M.W. Puteri Edaroyati*, H. Siti Aishah and A.M. Al-Tawaha

Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia, MY 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
*Correspondence: putri@upm.edu.my

Abstract:

In recent years, the recirculating aquaponics system has gained high attention and significant popularity for organic vegetables and fruits production which contributes to the sustainable aquaculture for tropical regions. This review aims to summarize the possibility for practicing intercropping in aquaponics to produce high-quality fruits, vegetables and fish without any chemical fertilizer and minimum ecological impact for a sustainable agriculture. Although many studies have addressed about aquaponics for producing high-value crops such as tomato, cucumber, and lettuce, there is still a lack of complete information to support the development of intercropping in aquaponics and limited focus on its commercial implementation. Moreover, this study will focus first on the requirements for inserting intercropping in aquaponics and technical improvements needed to adapt as potential for sustainable food production system to increase productivity around the world, especially in countries have deficiency in water and land resources as well as soil problem like salinity and reduce environmental emissions. Secondly, the insertion of intercropping in aquaponics must be for crops with high value and for crops that can complement together such as tomato with basil and tomato with lettuce. Thirdly, in technical improvement in this study will summarize the strategies and factors that affect the intercropping in aquaponics system such as the nutrients needed for crops under intercropping aquaponics, stocking density and feeding rate which are important to know the concentration of ammonia that is produced and converted to nitrate so that the plants can uptake it. Studying the requirements for inserting and improving intercropping in aquaponics will increase our understanding of needed for new agriculture technique that contributes to the sustainable aquaponics for tropical regions.

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2068–2078 B. Rivža, L. Āzena and P. Rivža
Evaluation of smart economy development in the RIGA planning region (LATVIA)
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Evaluation of smart economy development in the RIGA planning region (LATVIA)

B. Rivža, L. Āzena* and P. Rivža

Latvia University of Agriculture, 2 Liela Str., LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: azenaligita@gmail.com

Abstract:

Aim of the study: to evaluate the indicators of smart economy development and the interaction with other indicators for the Riga planning region.
Methods: analysis of documentation and statistical data, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method.
To evaluate the potential development of smart economy in the Riga planning region (henceforth – RPR), it is important to understand the present situation in the region, its specificity, and role in the context of provisional future trends. Two approaches have been employed in the present study to evaluate the situation on a regional level. One includes the collection and comparison of the basic economic development indicators, whereas AHP method has been used in the second approach, where 5 experts expressed their opinion on the options of potential development of smart specialisation in the RPR.
RPR as a capital city region is pronouncedly monocentric, with Riga city as its socioeconomic core that develops a wide network of functional ties, and creates a home for the part of the society that works in Riga, but lives in the adjacent suburban territories – Pieriga.
Traditionally the basic indicators of development include only the demographic and economic indicators. Sometimes these results are not objective, do not describe the potential for development, but clearly show the inequal social and economic situation in the region. To characterise the economic development in the RPR, we will include the economic profile data, statistical data and expert opinions on the population, regional government, state and EU influence on the development of the Pieriga region smart specialisation.

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2079–2089 B. Rivza, M. Kruzmetra and V. Zaluksne
Through Economic Growth to the Viability of Rural Space
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Through Economic Growth to the Viability of Rural Space

B. Rivza¹*, M. Kruzmetra¹ and V. Zaluksne²

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Economics and Social Development, Economics and Regional Development Institute, Svetes street 9, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvian Academy of Sciences, Division of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Akademijas laukums 1, LV 1050 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: baiba.rivza@llu.lv

Abstract:

Rural areas as a living space for the population has been increasingly explored in official documents of various EU institutions and in research topics. Both the documents and the research papers stress the necessity to enhance and maintain the viability of rural areas. The viability of rural areas is ensured by employment opportunities and readiness of residents for active and innovative economic activities. The paper presents an analysis of vertical and horizontal changes in entrepreneurship in the period of 2009–2015 and their effect on changes in the living space of the analysed territories in Latvia’s regions. The processes in administrative territories of regions, municipalities were analysed, as the life of residents is influenced not only by national policies but also by on-going processes in the administrative territories of local governments. The data of LURSOFT for the period of 2009–2015 and the Central Statistical Bureau for the period of 2013–2015 were used as the sources of information. The data were processed by quantitative (growth) and qualitative (structural change) statistical analysis methods. The Eurostat methodology and the methodology developed by the authors for classification of industries were employed for the analysis of structural changes in the national economy. The development level-rate matrix method was used for an in-depth examination of the research results. The research results showed that, in spite of the global economic crisis, both vertical growth and positive horizontal change took place in the national economy of all five regions of Latvia, nine cities of national significance as well as all 110 municipalities that composed the rural areas of Latvia. The authors arrived at the conclusion that, first, performance trends contributing to economic growth were observed in the rural space; second, there was no direct causal relationship between the population density and economic activity in the rural territories; third, the economic growth in the rural territories was greatly affected by the quality of local governance and local community residents’ readiness for active, innovative and inclusive activities.

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2090–2099 Z. Roja, H. Kalkis, I. Roja, J. Zalkalns and B. Sloka
Work strain predictors in construction work
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Work strain predictors in construction work

Z. Roja¹, H. Kalkis²*, I. Roja³, J. Zalkalns² and B. Sloka⁴

¹University of Latvia, Ergonomic Research centre, Jelgavas street 1, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia
²Riga Stradiņš University, Faculty of European Studies, Dzirciema street 16, LV-1007 Riga, Latvia
³Riga 1st Hospital, Latvia, Bruninienu 5, LV-1001 Riga, Latvia
⁴University of Latvia, Faculty of Business, Management and Economics, Aspazijas blvd. 5, LV-1050 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: henrijs.kalkis@gmail.com

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to predict the work strain indicators for construction workers and to work out measures for prevention of strain at work. Subjective and objective research methods were utilized in the research, including survey, work intensity measurements (Borg Scale), work strain index, fatigue index and work ability index determination, objective blood pressure and pulse measurements. Statistical analysis with significance calculations was carried out. The limitation of this study is the small number of subjects involved in the research. Subjective evaluation of fatigue index and strain index resulted in moderate and somewhat hard work heaviness categories accordingly to Borg Scale. Measurements of heart rate, blood pressure approved work strain of employees of both professions does not exceed the admissible heart rate limit during physical load. The research proved that the strongest work strain predictors were connected with psycho-social risks rather than with physical ones.

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2100–2112 O. Šařec and P. Šařec
Results of fifteen-year monitoring of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) production in selected farm businesses of the Czech Republic from the viewpoint of technological and economic parameters
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Results of fifteen-year monitoring of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) production in selected farm businesses of the Czech Republic from the viewpoint of technological and economic parameters

O. Šařec* and P. Šařec

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamycka 129, CZ165 00 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: sarec@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The paper presents field trials focused on technological and economic comparison of conventional tillage (CT) and reduced tillage (RT) technologies of soil cultivation and drilling of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). During fifteen production years starting in 2001/02, trials were set up in 520 fields of around 40 farm businesses located in all of the districts of the Czech Republic. With respect to average seed yields, no significant differences were proved with respect to tillage systems, to the application of organic fertilizers and to the fertilization during sowing. Irregular distribution of trial fields into the individual production areas influenced the outcomes thou. Concerning winter rape seed yields, costs per production unit, and earnings per hectare, the most suitable production area proved still to be the potatoes one, but particularly over the recent period also beet production area. The corn production area produced, despite some exceptions, worst results. Over the fifteen-year time, the average oilseed rape yield of all 520 monitored fields was 3.72 t ha–1. Reduced tillage attained average yield of 3.73 t ha–1, i.e. matched almost exactly the one of 3.70 t ha–1 attained by conventional tillage. Unit production costs realized by conventional tillage surpassed by 4.1% those gained by reduced tillage. Related earnings per hectare were on the other hand lower by 17.0%. With respect to fuel and labour consumption, reduced tillage brought significant savings reaching in average 20.2%, respectively 24.0%. In terms of yields, reduced tillage with deeper soil loosening proved repeatedly favourable results.

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2113–2125 S. Sēnhofa, U. Neimane, A. Grava, L. Sisenis, D. Lazdina and A. Jansons
Juvenile growth and frost damages of poplar clone OP42 in Latvia
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Juvenile growth and frost damages of poplar clone OP42 in Latvia

S. Sēnhofa¹, U. Neimane¹, A. Grava¹, L. Sisenis², D. Lazdina¹ and A. Jansons¹*

¹Latvian State Forest Research Institute ʻSilava’, Rigas 111, LV 2169 Salaspils, Latvia
²Latvia University of Agriculture, Forest Faculty, Akademijas 11, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: aris.jansons@silava.lv

Abstract:

Short rotation plantations in the northern Europe are commonly established using poplar clone OP42 (Populus maximowiczii Henry × P. trichocarpa Torr. and Gray). We assessed its growth and suitability to the climate in central part of Latvia at juvenile age. Trees that had formed single stem were significantly higher (121 ± 2.5 cm), thicker (7.1 ± 0.48 mm) and had longer branches (32 ± 1.5 cm) than trees that had formed multiple stems. In beginning of the second growing season all trees had died stems and 19.6% of them formed new shoots from the ground level. The sprouting trees had random spatial distribution in the field. Regardless of the number of stems, the sprouting trees were significantly lower (110 ± 3.9 cm) than the dead trees (119 ± 2.0 cm). During the repeated assessment about one month later, proportion of the sprouting trees increased up to 44%, but the detected relations between measured traits of sprouting and dead trees remained. Clone OP42 had serious frost induced damages also in autumn phenology experiment (96% trees with severely damaged leaves). Our results suggest that frost prone sites are not suitable for establishment of plantations of OP42 clone.

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2126–2133 J. Šimon, J. Vegricht and J. Bradna
The effect of bedding amount on gas emissions from manure during storage
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The effect of bedding amount on gas emissions from manure during storage

J. Šimon*, J. Vegricht and J. Bradna

Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Drnovská 507, CZ161 01 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: josef.simon@vuzt.cz

Abstract:

One of the major agricultural pollutants of environment is manure from livestock. We focused on dairy cows kept in the barns with straw bedding commonly used in the Czech Republic. We tested the hypothesis that the amount of bedding used daily relative to the number and size of animals kept has a significant effect on the emissions of gases from manure stored in a manure pile. In the experiment, a group of 10 dairy cows of Holstein and Czech Red Pied breed was housed in a stable bedded with various amounts of wheat straw (4–10 kg/livestock unit per day). The manure was removed from the stable after 48 h and mixed was stored in cubic containers with drain floor allowing measurement of manure leachate release. For 50 days we measured weight, volume, weight of manure leachate and manure temperature. Decreasing stored manure weight can be attributed to release of manure leachate and emissions of gases, primarily water vapor, as a result of microbial activity and increased temperature in the manure during storage. Using the calculated model, we found that daily production of emissions of water vapor and other gases was related to bedding amount in a statistically significant manner (P < 0.001). The cumulative amount of gas emissions grew rapidly in all treatments. Also total amount of emissions was related to bedding amount in a statistically significant manner (P = 0.004). We also found the relationship between internal manure temperature and the logarithm of the amount of emissions produced to be statistically significant (P < 0.001).

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2134–2143 P. Sooväli, M. Koppel, E. Lauringson and L. Talgre
The advantage of Decision Support System for managing spring barley disease in Estonia
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The advantage of Decision Support System for managing spring barley disease in Estonia

P. Sooväli¹*, M. Koppel¹, E. Lauringson² and L. Talgre²

¹Crop Research Institute, J. Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva, Estonia
²University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: pille.soovali@etki.ee

Abstract:

A Decision Support System (DSS) I-Taimekaitse focusing on use of timely applied and reduced fungicide rates in control of cereal diseases has been tested in field trials since 2003. We compared the conventional treatment and the DSS-based spray practices in 18 field trials in five agricultural locations over 7-year period. Efficacy of the control of net blotch caused by Pyrenophora teres (Drechsler, am Drechlera teres Sacc. Shoem), the main fungal disease in spring barley has been tested to determine the economic advantage of DSS use. Compared with the conventional spray practices, the advantage I-Taimekaitse resulted in reduction of application doses by 30 to 60% of the registered rate. According to I-Taimekaitse, the fungicides were applied mainly between heading and flowering growth stages (GS 55–65), whereas traditional routine spraying is commonly made at booting (GS 37–49). The experiment clarifies the cost-benefit of using DSS-based approach in barley disease management with average yield increase above the control in 12.8% and above the conventional treatment in 14.1%. I-Taimekaitse gave competitive disease control and average yield output reduction compared with conventional practice by 9%. In general the Treatment Frequency Index applied in conventional treatment was 0.65 and in DSS 0.41. Although the cost of treatment expense in DSS was 20% less compared with conventional practice, the performance of conventional used spray practices was outstanding in economic return.

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2161–2171 L. Sunina and B. Rivza
Unified client service centres for rural development and smart governance in Latvia
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Unified client service centres for rural development and smart governance in Latvia

L. Sunina and B. Rivza*

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Economics and Social Development, Institute of Economics and Regional Development, 18 Svetes Str., LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: linda.sunina1@gmail.com

Abstract:

Nowadays rapid increase of technological environment allows residents to be more mobile, choose working place, different from one’s place of residence, start a new business or transfer company to rural areas, thus promoting polycentric development of a territory and increasing capacity of rural territories. It means that government should think of smart governance and service provision, providing different government services at one place. From June 2015 until December 2015, under the concept of improvement of public service system, the government of the Republic of Latvia established 75 unified state and local government customer service centres. Service centres operate on a local basis and in accordance with the uniform principles, provide customer with one place to access multiple public services. The objective of the present article is to evaluate the necessity and current activity of unified customer service centres and their contribution to smart governance of the country. The necessity for unified client service centres in the rural areas were therefore assessed with the analysis of attributable data, theory on establishment of such centres, and residents’ survey, which showed that a big part of customers of the present centres are residents of neighbouring towns and cities where the regional governmental and local institutions are located, but they are attracted by the possibility to receive all the necessary services at one time.

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2172–2182 I. Szabó, M. Hushki, Z. Bártfai and L. Kátai
Operator’s behaviour measuring methodology inside off-road vehicle cabin, operator’s focusing scheme
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Operator’s behaviour measuring methodology inside off-road vehicle cabin, operator’s focusing scheme

I. Szabó, M. Hushki, Z. Bártfai and L. Kátai*

Szent István University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Mechanics and Machinery, Páter K. Street 1., HU2100 Gödöllő, Hungary
*Correspondence: katai.laszlo@gek.szie.hu

Abstract:

Operator’s workplace design takes a priority to be developed in order to reach the highest possible level of Quality, Safety and productivity. Continual improvement of the workplace is yield from studies carried out on different approaches, each approach shall keep into consideration many aspects, in this research; the results will be used for feeding the productivity aspects with valuable and reliable input data using relatively simple engineering solutions. This research is made based on literature of the accumulated knowledge from diverse fields in which different studies and analysis are made to provide the necessary input for Human Centred Design process, adopting the-state-of-the-art technologies and methodologies used for data collection and analysis for Human behaviour inside the dedicated workplace. Better understanding of the operator’s Gaze in addition to the change according to the mental and physical workloads inside the tractor cabin will lead to optimal designs for higher productivity operation.

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2183–2194 A. Ünlükara, T. Yurtyeri and B. Cemek
Effects of Irrigation water salinity on evapotranspiration and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. Matador) plant parameters in Greenhouse Indoor and Outdoor Conditions
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Effects of Irrigation water salinity on evapotranspiration and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. Matador) plant parameters in Greenhouse Indoor and Outdoor Conditions

A. Ünlükara¹*, T. Yurtyeri² and B. Cemek³

¹Department of Biosystem Engineering, Agricultural Faculty, Erciyes University, TR38039 Kayseri, Turkey
²Gazipaşa First School of National Educational Ministry of Turkey Republic, Tokat, Turkey
³Department of Agricultural Structures and Irrigation, Faculty of Agriculture, Ondokuz Mayıs University, TR55139 Samsun, Turkey
*Corresponding author: unlukara@gmail.com

Abstract:

Response of spinach to irrigation water salinity under greenhouse indoor and outdoor conditions was investigated in this study to reveal different weather conditions on salinity tolerance of the plant. For this purpose, saline waters at six different salinities (0.65, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 7.0 dS m-1) were applied to spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. Matador) grown in pots. Soil salinity increased linearly with increasing salinity of irrigation water. Threshold salinity is 2.35 dS m-1 and yield lost slope after this threshold is 3.51% for indoor and threshold salinity is 2.83 dS m-1 and yield lost slope is 3.3% for outdoor. Salinity harmful effect on spinach yield is higher for indoor conditions than for outdoor conditions because of higher indoor temperatures. These results apparently showed that spinach salinity response could change with changing weather conditions especially for temperature. Yield response factors (ky), which is the ratio of relative evapotranspiration decrease to relative yield decrease, were close in the cases of irrigation water salinity in greenhouse outdoor and indoor (ky = 2.4 and 2.1), respectively. Considerable water consumption decreases because of salinity were determined. Every 1 dS m-1 increment in soil salinity caused about 1.35% water consumption decrease for spinach. Therefore, depressing effect of salinity on water consumption should be considered in irrigation and salinity management to prevent excess saline water application and to protect environment.

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2195–2206 V. Urbane, I. Vilcane, P. Tint, J. Ievins, V. Jemeljanovs and L. Birgere
Prevention the impact of chemicals on the health of workers in fibreglass industry
Abstract |
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Prevention the impact of chemicals on the health of workers in fibreglass industry

V. Urbane¹, I. Vilcane¹*, P. Tint², J. Ievins¹, V. Jemeljanovs¹ and L. Birgere¹

¹Riga Technical University, Faculty of Engineering Economics and Management, Institute of Labour Safety and Civil Defence, Kalku street 1, LV-1658 Riga, Latvia
²Tallinn University of Technology, Faculty of Economics, Institute of Business Administration, Ehitajate 5, EE19086 Tallinn, Estonia
*Correspondence: Inese.Vilcane@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Most of the chemicals make our everyday life easier and safer. However, there are a lot of new emerging risks connected with chemicals causing damage to people’s health and environment. The results of the investigation: the chemical exposure index (EI) is between 0.16 to 25.98 (the last determined by the mould spray-up, outside of the protective masks). The air pollution index determined was between 16 to 760%. The ventilation rates for the remove of the volatiles from the workplace air are settled, the possibilities for substitution of hazardous chemicals to less hazardous are presented. When the concentration of a volatile is measured under the protective mask, which has a new filter, the tested substance concentration is lower that under the mask with an old filter, although the differences between these two were rather small. When the volatiles were measured under the protective mask, the concentrations of tested substances met the requirements.

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2207–2216 D. Vejchar, M. Stehlik and V. Mayer
Influence of tied ridging technology on the rate of surface runoff and erosion in potato cultivation
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Influence of tied ridging technology on the rate of surface runoff and erosion in potato cultivation

D. Vejchar*, M. Stehlik and V. Mayer

Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Drnovská 507, CZ 16100 Prague, Czech Republic
*Contact: daniel.vejchar@vuzt.cz

Abstract:

Water management and securing good condition of soil is becoming an important factor in agriculture one of the reasons being adaptation to the increasingly frequent extremes in weather. Tied ridging technology enables to reduce significantly the loss of water and soil from arable land. The effect of a tied ridger mounted on 2-row planter and effect of 6-row tied ridger on basin renewal was tested in potato cultivation on plots of land with length of 10 m. During entire season lasting 135 days the technology helped achieve 78% of efficiency in reduction of surface water runoff and 88% of efficiency in case of soil loss. In the case of furrows with only tied ridging the water retained represented additional 15% of total water from rainfall (37.5 mm of 250 mm) over untreated furrows. In the case of basins formed in furrows with wheel trails the water retained represented 15% of total water from rainfalls in the trail. This water retained on the land would have otherwise flown off and would not have been utilized without this technology. The renewal of dams after 1/3 of the season increased significantly the efficiency of this technology. The technology of tied ridging significantly contributes to sustainable agriculture management.

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2217–2225 M. Zargar, E. Romanova, A. Trifonova, E. Shmelkova and P. Kezimana
AFLP-analysis of genetic diversity in soybean [Glycine max (l.) Merr.] cultivars Russian and foreign selection
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AFLP-analysis of genetic diversity in soybean [Glycine max (l.) Merr.] cultivars Russian and foreign selection

M. Zargar¹*, E. Romanova¹, A. Trifonova², E. Shmelkova¹ and P. Kezimana¹

¹Department of AgroBiotechnology, Institute of Agriculture, RUDN University, RU117198 Moscow, Russia
²Laboratory of Plant Genetics, Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, RU119333 Moscow, Russia
*Correspondence: zargar_m@pfur.ru

Abstract:

Genetic diversity of 11 cultivars of soybean (Glycine max) from a VIR (N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Genetic Resources) collection was analyzed by the AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) technique. From 18 tested primer combinations, both of them were selected for further analysis. From these two primer combinations (E32/M60 and E32/M59), 90 DNA fragments were obtained, 39 (43%) of them were polymorphic. Unique DNA fragments were found in accessions SibNIISHoz 6, Soer-4, Determinant. The Jaccard’s similarity indices varied from 0.79 (between Sonata and Ugra) to 0.94 (between Ugra and Garmoniya) with an average of 0.775. Cluster analysis placed the cultivars into the several groups but separation in groups was not related to their origin or biological characteristics, even though cultivars Nordik and Soer-4 (cultivars recommended for Central Black Earth region of Russia) clustered together on the dendrogram. The obtained high values of Jaccard genetic similarity index and low level of polymorphism and differentiation illustrated a relatively low genetic diversity in our studied cultivars, which correlated with different other studies on soybean genetic diversity with AFLP-analysis.

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2226–2235 P. Zeman, V. Hönig, P. Procházka and J. Mařík
Dimethyl ether as a renewable fuel for diesel engines
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Dimethyl ether as a renewable fuel for diesel engines

P. Zeman¹, V. Hönig¹*, P. Procházka² and J. Mařík³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcka 129, CZ16521, Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, Kamýcka 129, CZ16521, Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýcka 129, CZ16521, Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: honig@af.czu.cz

Abstract:

The area of automotive fuel, or fuel components, which can be produced from biomass also includes dimethyl ether, otherwise known as DME. The issue of the use of DME as a fuel is one which has been monitored until recently. Biomass can also be used as the raw material for the production of DME. DME has therefore replaced the previously-used CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), which are now banned for their role in dangerous levels of ozone depletion. With regard to its physical properties and combustion characteristics, it is currently expected that DME will soon apply significantly as a fuel in the municipal sector and in households, and as an alternative fuel for motor vehicles with diesel engines. DME is a suitable fuel for diesel engines and can be considered as one of the most promising diesel fuel replacements. DME is a suitable fuel for diesel engines mainly due to its low self-ignition temperature and good cetane figures. It is well miscible with most organic solvents and because the polar solvent is water-immiscible. The advantage is its high levels of purity, and its being free of sulphur, nitrogen, or metals. The physical properties of DME are very similar to the physical properties of LPG. DME requires relatively complex and costly fuel accessories, but the original compression ratio of the diesel engine is maintained. A diagram of the fuel system is illustrated in the paper. The paper analyses the dependence of vapour pressure on temperature, the dependence of the density on temperature, kinematic viscosity, the flash point, the boiling point, and the solubility of water. The objective is to evaluate this interesting energy source for applications in diesel engines.

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2236–2246 R. Zewdie and P. Kic
Substantial factors influencing drivers’ comfort in transportation
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Substantial factors influencing drivers’ comfort in transportation

R. Zewdie¹* and P. Kic²

¹University of Life Sciences in Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological equipment of buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: zewdie@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Research shows that driver stress is associated with workload and fatigue, and an inappropriate microclimate in the driving cabin can have an impact on overall driver’s safety. The aim of this scientific study is to examine whether driver stress, across various urban and field drive conditions, can affect performance in a confined environment and whether the natural breathing process can also compound these effects and aggravate health hazards. This paper will address the influencing parameters associated with driver comfort of everyday job occupations in the urban communication network of Prague city public transport. In this research paper the authors will characterize cardinal components directly accountable to the safe operation elements; the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the relative humidity (Rhi) in the driving cabin, affecting the contentment of the drivers comfort while performing their duties. Similar inquiries were carried out on ventilation emphasis and air intake impact in drivers’ cabin, recommending a design to minimize safety problems associated with comfort. Data on the concentration of carbon dioxide and internal relative humidity in the respective cabins have been collected carefully for detailed analysis. This research paper is the outcome of these findings.

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