Volume 15 (2017)
  Special Issue II

Journal full text: Vol 15 SP 2

Contents


Pages

1259–1266 A. Aboltins and J. Palabinskis
Studies of vegetable drying process in infrared film dryer
Abstract |
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Studies of vegetable drying process in infrared film dryer

A. Aboltins and J. Palabinskis*

Latvia University of Agriculture, Institute of Agricultural Machinery, Cakstes blvd.5, Jelgava, LV – 3001, Latvia
*Correspondence: janis.palabinskis@llu.lv

Abstract:

The research work analyzes the two fresh vegetable (carrot and garlic slices) drying process in the infrared film dryer. The energy of infrared radiation penetrates through the material and is  converted into heat, and the temperature gradient within the product is reduced in a short period of time. Infrared drying takes place at low temperatures (up to 35 °C) and it helps keep the  maximum product quality and natural color. The vegetable drying rate significantly differs  depending on the location of the products in relation to the infrared film and product location at the air inlet and outlet. With dried products in 3 parallel shelves the most rapid removal of moisture occurs in the lower shelf (close to the air inlet and film) and the top shelf (close to the air outlet and film). This difference compared to the middle shelf reaches 10–15%. Using the experimental data and multivariate analysis it has been found that the product moisture removal depends on its placement (at the heating film and air inlet, outlet) and the drying time.

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1267–1275 E. Akk,, T.E. Søndergaard, J.L. Sørensen, H. Giese, M.L. Kütt, L. Edesi, H. Lõiveke and E. Lauringson
The effects of nitrogen rates and intercropping on the occurrence of Fusarium spp. on barley kernels
Abstract |
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The effects of nitrogen rates and intercropping on the occurrence of Fusarium spp. on barley kernels

E. Akk¹,*, T.E. Søndergaard², J.L. Sørensen², H. Giese², M.L. Kütt⁵, L. Edesi³, H. Lõiveke¹ and E. Lauringson⁴

¹ Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Plant Protection, J. Aamisepa 1, 48309, Jõgeva, Estonia
² Aalborg University, Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Fredrik BajersVej 7H, 9000 Aalborg, Denmark
³ Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Agrotechnology, J. Aamisepa 1, 48309, Jõgeva, Estonia
⁴ Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Kreutzwaldi ⁵, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
5University of Vienna, Department of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Währinger Straβe 38, 1090, Wien, Austria
*Correspondence: elina.akk@etki.ee

Abstract:

The aim of the field experiments was to compare the effect of nitrogen rates and intercropping on the occurrence of Fusarium spp. in barley kernels. The experiments were performed in Central Estonia (58 ̊33´N, 25 ̊34´E) in 2009 and 2010. The composition of fungi in spring barley kernels was found through isolation and subsequent sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and morphological features. During the study, 13 species of micro-fungi were identified in the grain samples. The most common species of fungi found in barley were Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium poae, as well as Phoma pinodella. The compositions of pathogenic fungi on Estonian barley kernels were affected by the level of nitrogen fertilization and growing on barley-pea intercropping. The study showed tendencies that barley-pea intercropping had fewer occurrences of Fusarium species than sole barley.

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1276–1286 N. Dubrovskaya, O. Savkina, L. Kuznetsova and O. Parakhina
Development of gluten-free bread with unconventional raw ingredients of high nutritional value and antimicrobial activity
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Development of gluten-free bread with unconventional raw ingredients of high nutritional value and antimicrobial activity

N. Dubrovskaya¹*, O. Savkina², L. Kuznetsova² and O. Parakhina³

¹Peter the Great St.Petersburg Polytechnic University, Polytechnicheskaya, 29,
195251, St.Petersburg, Russia, Russian Federation,
²Institute of Refrigeration and Biotechnologies, ITMO University, Lomonosova street,
9, 191002, St.Petersburg, Russia, Russian Federation
³St.Petersburg branch State Research Institute of Baking Industry, Podbelskogo
highway 7, 196608, St.Petersburg, Pushkin, Russia, Russian Federation
*Correspondence: dubrovskaja_nata@mail.ru

Abstract:

Two types of rowan powder (botanical species Sorbus aucuparia) as unconventional
raw ingredients of high nutritional and biological value as well as three types of dietary fiber
and pectin were used in development of gluten-free bread. These raw ingredients have high
water-holding capacity and a rich biochemical composition that makes it possible to use them
not only as thickeners and structure forming agents, but also as enriching additives. It was
experimentally found that the citrus fiber and pectin improved the bread specific volume and
the crumb compressibility if compared to the control sample. The content of vitamins A, E, PP,
C, B complex, minerals – iron, magnesium, calcium, potassium, selenium, organic acids,
including preservatives rendering action (citric, lactic, sorbic, benzoic) were found in rowan
powder. It was found that rowan powder and citrus fiber had a significant effect on the increase
in the content of dietary fiber in 2.5–5.4 fold and iron in 2–3.5 fold. The content of dietary fiber
in bread with 4% of rowan fruit powder is 3.6 g 100g-1 while in bread with 8% rowan pomace it
is 4.3 g 100g-1, which corresponds to the dietary fiber daily needs satisfaction respectively by
10.0% and 21.5%. It was found that bread with rowanberry powder had 66.7% more watersoluble
antioxidants. The contamination of the main gluten-free raw material (soy protein, rice
flour and corn starch extrusion and corn, rowan powder) and its influence on ropy disease of
gluten free bread were established. Four spore forming bacteria strains were isolated from
gluten-free raw materials and its ability to cause ropy disease of gluten free bread was proved. It
was also found that using of rowan powder slow down ropy disease and mold spoilage due to
the organic acids in its composition and the bread acidity increase.

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1287–1294 M. Eliášová and L. Paznocht
Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of tritordeum wheat and barley
Abstract |
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Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of tritordeum wheat and barley

M. Eliášová* and L. Paznocht

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcka 129, CZ16521, Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: eliasovam@af.czu.cz

Abstract:

Whole grains are a source of numerous antioxidant compounds such as phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins, lignans and others which are able to scavenge free radicals. Thus cereals seem to be very useful in preventing chronic diseases like metabolic syndrome (obesity, high blood pressure, high blood triglyceride and glucose levels), diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and chronic inflammatory diseases. Recently, there has been an increased consumer demand for cereal based foods, especially whole cereals. Such demand provides scope for innovations of which an important one is introduction of a completely new cereal cross called tritordeum. This alternative cereal, which is presented as a good source of health beneficial compounds, was assessed in this study and compared with wheat and barley. The total phenolic content (TPC) and related total antioxidant activity (TAA) were investigated via two spectrophotometric methods using a stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocalteau reagent respectively. Both TPC and related TAA values of tritordeum and wheat were similar but were significantly lower compared to barley. Results have also revealed a close relationship between TAA and TPC (R2 = 0.93, p < 0.05), which might suggest that increased antioxidant activity in those grains is caused by phenolic compounds contained in them. Tritordeum seems to represent a new cereal with good prospects; nevertheless more detailed analysis of its health related compounds is required.

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1295–1303 R. Fatkullin,, N. Popovа, I. Kalinina and V. Botvinnikova
Application of ultrasonic waves for the improvement of particle dispersion in drinks
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Application of ultrasonic waves for the improvement of particle dispersion in drinks

R. Fatkullin¹,*, N. Popovа¹, I. Kalinina¹ and V. Botvinnikova²

¹ South Ural State University, Higher Medical-Biological School, Department of Food and Biotechnologies, Lenin Ave 76, 454080 Chelyabinsk, Russia.
² ООVО IL Test-Puschino, 1g Gruzovaya Street, Puschino, Moscow Region 142290, Russia.
*Correspondence: fatkullinri@susu.ru

Abstract:

Dispersion is one of the most energy-costly processes in food production. Significant proportions of hard particles remain intact when traditional dispersion methods are used. The intensification of dispersion will lead to the more effective extraction of biologically active components from raw bulk. It will also expedite the ripening of products and will improve their consumer desirability. The goal of this research was to study the dispersing effect of low frequency ultrasound (US) on drinks which are of vegetable and animal origin (22 ± 0.6 kHz). The subjects of the research were raw cow’s milk, reconstituted milk, and cranberry drinks which had been produced with the use of traditional technology and employing ultrasonic power. An ultrasonic technological device with an umbrella-shaped working element was used as an ultrasound generator (Russian Federation patent No 2141386). A Nanotrac Ultra analyser (made by Microtrac Inc, USA) was used to study particle size, using the ISO 13321 standard. An analysis of particle size was based on the method which employs the dynamic dispersion of light, in which the minimal detectable particle size is 0.8 nm. It was found that the particles in raw cow’s milk, after ultrasonic processing at 180 W for dive minutes, decrease in size from 2,656 ± 72 nanometres to a prevailing particle size of 294.7 ± 24 nanometres. Following the US processing of reconstituted milk (with power at 180 W and action time at three minutes), the size of the particles decreases from 409.5 ± 62 nanometres to a prevailing particle size in the range of 202.2 ± 41 nanometres. With the cranberry drink, using ultrasound at 180 W for five minutes caused a decrease in particle size from 5,670 ± 62 nm to a prevailing size of 1,960 ± 42 nm. With an increase in ultrasound power and the duration of the application, an aggregation of particles was noted in both plant and animal-derived drinks. Therefore it can be seen that ultrasound can be used to regulate the dispersion processes in food manufacturing.

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1304–1315 A. Kirse, R. Galoburda, S. Muizniece-Brasava, D. Karklina and L. Skudra
Improvement of microbiological safety and shelf-life of pulse spreads through sous vide and high pressure processing
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Improvement of microbiological safety and shelf-life of pulse spreads through sous vide and high pressure processing

A. Kirse*, R. Galoburda, S. Muizniece-Brasava, D. Karklina and L. Skudra

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Food Technology, 22 Rigas Street, LV3004, Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: asnate.kirse@llu.lv

Abstract:

Microbiological quality of sous vide treated (80 °C/15 min) and high pressure processed (700 MPa/10 min/20 C) cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Fradel) and maple pea (Pisum sativum var. arvense L. cv. Bruno) spreads in flexible vacuum packaging during 62-day storage at 5 ± 1 °C were assessed. Pulse spreads, made from cooked pulses with salt, citric acid, oil, and seasoning, were filled in PA/PE or PET/ALU/PA/PP flexible film pouches, packaged in vacuum (20 mbar) and hermetically sealed. Microbiological testing was performed by determining total plate count, yeast and mould count on days 0, 15, 29, 42, 50, 57, and 62, and the presence of B. cereus, C. perfringens and E. coli before processing and after 62-day storage. The results showed that total plate count increased significantly after 62-day storage in both sous vide (P = 0.011) and high pressure processed (P = 0.017) spreads; the observed over one-log increase was without significant differences between pulse spreads and packaging materials (P < 0.05). The admissible level of total plate count (Nmax < 3.69 log CFU g-1) in pulse spreads was not exceeded. The presence of yeasts and moulds, C. perfringens and E. coli in pulse spreads was not confirmed, whereas B. cereus accounted to <102 CFU g-1 after 62-day storage. The suggested shelf-life of processed pulse spreads is 62 days; except for sous vide treated spreads with seasoning in both packaging materials- 57 days. Both processing methods are suitable to ensure the production of high quality pulse spreads with adequately long shelf-life.

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1316–1329 L. Klavins, J. Kviesis, M. Klavins
Comparison of methods of extraction of phenolic compounds from American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon L.) press residues
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Comparison of methods of extraction of phenolic compounds from American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon L.) press residues

L. Klavins, J. Kviesis, M. Klavins*

University of Latvia, 19 Raina Blvd., LV–1586, Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: maris.klavins@lu.lv

Abstract:

American cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon L.) contain significant quantities of
various phenolic compounds. Most of these compounds are recovered when berry juice is
produced. However, a considerable part of polyphenols remain in berry press residues and are
discarded as food industry waste. The aim of the study was to compare the methods of extraction
of polyphenols (ultrasound, microwave-assisted, Soxhlet) from press residues of American
cranberry. The impact of main extraction parameters (e.g., extraction time, solid/solvent ratio,
solvent type) on the yield of extracted polyphenols. Ultrasound-assisted extraction showed the
highest potential from all studied methods, given its fast, convenient use and low cost. Aqueous
ethanol and methanol in the presence of acid (anthocyanin extractions should be assisted with
trifluoroacetic acid, polyphenol extractions – with HCl) were assessed as the best solvents for
extraction. The obtained extracts were characterised using the Folin-Ciocaulteu method for
determination of total phenolics and the pH-differential method for determination of total
anthocyanins, and UPLC–PDA was used to determine the content of individual anthocyanins.
Cyanidin-3-O-arabinoside, peonidin-3-O-galactoside, peonidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-
O-arabinoside were identified as the main anthocyanins in cranberry press residue extracts.

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1330–1347 M. Kremenevskaya, O. Sosnina, A. Semenova, I. Udina and A.Glazova,
Meat industry by-products for berry crops and food production quality improvement
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Meat industry by-products for berry crops and food production quality improvement

M. Kremenevskaya¹, O. Sosnina¹, A. Semenova², I. Udina³ and A.Glazova¹,*

¹ ITMO University, Faculty of Food Biotechnologies and Engineering, Department of Meat and Fish Processing and Refrigeration, 49 Kronverksky Pr., St. Petersburg, 197101, Russia
² The Gorbatov’s All-Russian Meat Research Institute (VNIIMP), Deputy director for scientific work, 26 Talalikhina Str., Моscow, 109316, Russia
³ LLC JTI Russia, Scientific and Regulatory Affairs Department, Scientific and Regulatory Affairs Manager, 1st Krasnogvardeysky proezd, Moscow, 123100, Russia
*Correspondence: sosnina.olga.ITMO@yandex.ru

Abstract:

This paper describes the problem of obtaining a hydrolysate from animal industry byproducts. A new innovative protein-containing product has been created to stimulate the growth and development of berry and fruit crops. The paper describes a technique for a plant treatment with a hydrolysate invented, its concentrations being determined. We have studied the chemical composition of fruit and berry raw materials in a native form after rapid freezing and refregiration. The possibility of creating a new confectionery product made from quick-frozen berries treated with a stimulator is predetermined.

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1348–1357 L. Kuznetsova & O. Savkina
A study of factors which influence mould spoilage in flat (sourdough) bread
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A study of factors which influence mould spoilage in flat (sourdough) bread

L. Kuznetsova & O. Savkina*

Institute of Refrigeration and Biotechnologies, ITMO University, Lomonosova Street 9, 191002 St Petersburg, Russia;
*Correspondence: 1103savkina@mail.ru

Abstract:

Bakery products are an excellent substrate for the development of microbial spoilage, especially mould spoilage and lime disease (otherwise known as chalk disease), because they have high levels of water activity aw = 0.94-0.97 and pH 5.5-6.0. Sliced bread in its packaging is highly susceptible to moulds and lime disease during storage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects shown by the microbial contamination of flour quality, and the type of sourdough and organic acid, especially acetic acid, on mould spoilage in wheat and rye wheat bread. Microbial contaminations were studied in two batches of wheat flour and three batches of rye flour which had been manufactured in Belarus and Russia and in sourdough bread which had been produced using this flour. Investigated here was the impact of the quality and type of sourdough with various starter cultures of micro-organisms and the impact of the content of organic acid, especially acetic acid, on mould spoilage in wheat and rye wheat bread. The content of organic acids, including acetic acid, in different types of sourdough which has been prepared using different starter cultures and in different kinds of sourdough bread which have been studied using liquid chromatography. It was found that, in spite of the presence in flour of spore-forming bacteria, yeasts, and fungi, microbial contamination of the finished product immediately after baking was absent. It was proven that the use of starter cultures and sourdough can slow down or prevent entirely the microbial spoilage of bread. It was found that the content of acetic acid which had been accumulated during the fermentation of various types of sourdough served to effect the presence of mould spoilage on sourdough bread.

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1358–1368 N. Moiseev, E. Suchkova, N. Iakovchenko
Possibility of using reconstituted milk in manufacture of cheese with cheddaring and cheese curd stretching
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Possibility of using reconstituted milk in manufacture of cheese with cheddaring and cheese curd stretching

N. Moiseev, E. Suchkova, N. Iakovchenko*

ITMO University, 191002, Lomonosova Street 9, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: frack@mail.ru

Abstract:

The use of reconstituted milk may significantly increase the possibility of cheese manufacture and limited irregular milk supplies for cheese making plants. Data collecting and analyzing revealed that there are cheese technologies with cheddaring and cheese curd stretching accompanied by partial replacement of natural milk by reconstituted. Therefore, the aim of this research is to develop the technology of cheese with cheddaring and curd stretching made from reconstituted milk as the main raw material. A comparative study of physicochemical characteristics of five dry milk powder samples obtained from different producers and natural milk has been carried out. The choice of reconstituted skimmed milk as the raw material is explained; its quality is assessed and the process parameters of milk reconstitution are chosen. It is recommended to combine holding of reconstituted skimmed milk and milk ripening. Cheddaring is known to be a fairly time-consuming process, the use of starter cultures during reconstituted milk ripening can intensify this process. The process of milk ripening has been carried out at 16 °C for 10 h using the manufacturer’s recommended dosages of starter cultures. The best results have been obtained when Lyofast MOT 092EE is used. Milk ripening is found to be a very important operation for the production of cheese with cheddaring and cheese curd stretching made from reconstituted milk.

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1369–1374 V. Nazarova, and O. Zhdanova
Development of a rapid method for determination of gluten content in wheat flour
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Development of a rapid method for determination of gluten content in wheat flour

V. Nazarova¹,* and O. Zhdanova¹

¹ ITMO University, Faculty of Food Biotechnologies and Engineering, Lomonosov St. 9, 191002, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: vvnazarova@yandex.ru

Abstract:

Gluten content is one of the most important factors of the quality of wheat flour. Bread price depends on the quality and quantity of gluten. For the professionals of baking industry it is important to quickly and efficiently determine gluten content in wheat flour. Gluten content is commonly defined by manual or automated washout. The present study aimed to develop a rapid method for determination of gluten content in wheat flour by electrophysical method and compare it with the other standard methods (ISO 21415–1:2006, ISO 21415–2:2015). The method is based on determination of permittivity of flour, which varies depending on the amount of free water produced by heating and correlated with the content of gluten. The methodology of research included the use of wheat flour samples (gluten content in the range of 23.0% and 32.0% and flour humidity to 15.0%). The heating temperature of the analysed flour samples was in the range of 30 ºC and 70 ºC. Mathematical processing of the results of the experiment allows to establish the relationship between gluten content and capacitance of flour. The proposed method makes it possible to reduce the time of analysis by reducing the number of operations within the analysis and the influence of subjective factors comparing to manual and automatic washing method a gluten flour (ISO 21415–1:2006, ISO 21415–2:2015).

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1375–1385 N. Naumenko, A. Paymulina, A. Ruskina, V. Khudyakov
The Effects of Various Raw Ingredients on Bread Quality
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The Effects of Various Raw Ingredients on Bread Quality

N. Naumenko,* A. Paymulina, A. Ruskina, V. Khudyakov

South Ural State University, Higher School of Medicine and Biology, Department of
Food and Biotechnology, 85 Lenina Avenue, 454080 Chelyabinsk, Russia;
*Correspondence: naumenko_natalya@mail.ru

Abstract:

The purpose of the current research is to study the mechanisms behind how various
raw ingredients affect the quality of bread. The objects of the research were the flour used in
making the bread (consisting of gluten at 28.5%, and with an ash content of 0.55), with no added
fats; tap water or activated water (treated in a USTA-0.4/22 OM ultrasonic processor (Volna,
Russia), operating at a frequency of 22±1.65kHz and at 30% of maximum output power (400W)
for mixing dough); and plant extract additives based on stevioside and fucoidan (fully replacing
the sugar). Included in the analysis were the effects of using activated water and combined plant
extract additives on organoleptic qualities (appearance, crust colour, crumb condition, taste,
stickiness during mastication, and friability), as well as the physical and chemical qualities
(moisture content, porosity, and acidity). Yeast activity was studied in dough which had been
produced using activated water and combined plant extract additives. An Altami-136T optical
microscope (Altami, Russia) was used to study the activity of yeast cells. The effects of activated
water and combined plant extract additives were analysed by examining the microstructure.
Microscopic studies were carried out using a Jeol JEM-2100 electron microscope (Jeol Ltd,
Japan). The results confirm that activated water and combined plant extract additives may be used
to improve the quality of fresh bread.

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1386–1398 L. Nilova, N. Naumenko, I. Kalinina
A Study of the Forms of Bound Water in Bread and Bakery Products using Differential Thermal Analysis
Abstract |
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A Study of the Forms of Bound Water in Bread and Bakery Products using Differential Thermal Analysis

L. Nilova¹, N. Naumenko²*, I. Kalinina²

¹Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Institute of Industrial Management, Economics and Trade, Graduate School of Commodity and Service, Novorossiyskaya Street 50, 194021, Saint-Petersburg, Russia;
²South Ural State University, Higher School of Medicine and Biology, Department of Food and Biotechnology, 85 Lenina Avenue, 454080, Chelyabinsk, Russia;
* Correspondence: naumenko_natalya@mail.ru

Abstract:

The objective is to study the forms of bound water in bread and bakery products using differential thermal analysis, changes to these forms corresponding to different recipe components, and changes occurring during storage. The subject of this research are bread and bakery products made of wheat flour (with gluten content of 28.5%, and ash content of 0.55%): without added fat; with tap water or activated water used for dough mixing; with varying fat content (4 and 14%); protein-enriched with cedar nut flour (5%); and dietary (food) fiberenriched with red-fruited mountain ash and sea buckthorn powder (5%). The reference samples of bread and bakery products were stored in plastic film bags at 20 ± 2 °C for a period of 72 hours. The freshness was monitored by changes in the physical-chemical parameters (moisture content, swelling capacity, friability). The various forms of bound water were determined using the method of differential thermal analysis on a simultaneous TGA-DTA/DSC thermogravimetric analyzer, with a programmable temperature regime. Based on the obtained digital data on thermogram (TG) change, using Pearson’s criterion, a mathematical model has been created to identify the linear sections with a different inclination angle which are characterized by a constant rate of water removal. For all studied samples of bakery products, 6 linear sections were identified, but statistically significant results were obtained for sections III, IV and V, with the exception of section III for bakery products with cedar flour. Use of activated water, fat, and additives of cedar flour, powders of red-fruited mountain ash and seabuckthorn in the production of bread and bakery products leads to redistribution of water forms, which is confirmed by changes in the boundaries of the linear sections, both for freshly made products and for products after storage. As a result, these products stay fresh longer.

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1399–1410 L. Nilova, T. Pilipenko, and S. Malyutenkova
An investigation into the effects of bioactive substances from vegetable oils on the antioxidant properties of bakery products
Abstract |
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An investigation into the effects of bioactive substances from vegetable oils on the antioxidant properties of bakery products

L. Nilova,* T. Pilipenko, and S. Malyutenkova

Peter the Great St Petersburg Polytechnic University, Institute of Industrial Management, Economics and Trade, Graduate School of Commodity and Service, Novorossiyskaya Street 50, 194021 St Petersburg, Russia
* Correspondence: nilova_l_p@mai.ru

Abstract:

This article discusses ways in which the antioxidant capacity of bakery products (otherwise referred to as ‘BPs’) can be increased by adding various types of vegetable oil to the dough: chosen as test oil was unrefined rice bran oil, unrefined pumpkin seed oil, and refined and deodorised sunflower oil. The authors conducted a study of fatty acid compositions and biologically active substances to be found in vegetable oils. The antioxidant properties of vegetable oils were analysed according to the following characteristics: the formation of the primary (peroxide value) and secondary (anisidine value) oxidation products; the oxidation coefficient (IR spectroscopy) which can be determined in the process of applying thermal treatment (with five hours of heating at 120 °C), which leads to the Vitamin E being destroyed. The biochemical composition of vegetable oils affected their resistance to the thermal oxidation process in the following sequence: unrefined rice bran oil > unrefined pumpkin seed oil > refined and deodorised sunflower oil. BPs were made from wheat flour dough with the addition of 4% of the corresponding vegetable oil and 5% of sugar, and were baked at two temperature regimes: at 200 °C and at 220 °C. The antioxidant activity of the BPs was determined by means of two methods: by chemiluminescence, and by DPPH radical assay. The antioxidant activity of the BPs varies depending on the vegetable oil being used, with the differences being revealed in the following way: BPs with unrefined pumpkin seed oil > BPs with unrefined rice bran oil > BPs with refined and deodorised sunflower oil. Any increase in the baking temperature reduced the antioxidant activity of the BPs; the antioxidant properties in the crust and the crumb were reduced at differing rates.

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1411–1419 S. Petrovska,, D. Jonkus, J. Zagorska and I. Ciprovica
The influence of k-casein genotype on the coagulation properties of milk collected from the local Latvian cow breeds
Abstract |
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The influence of k-casein genotype on the coagulation properties of milk collected from the local Latvian cow breeds

S. Petrovska¹,*, D. Jonkus¹, J. Zagorska² and I. Ciprovica²

¹ Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Agrobiotechnology, Street Liela 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
² Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Food Technology, Street Rigas 22, LV-3004 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: solvitapetrovska@gmail.com

Abstract:

Cheese production is becoming increasingly more diversified all over the world. The information on milk coagulation properties among Latvian dairy cow breeds and its suitability for cheese production still remains unclear. At the same time, milk with good renneting properties collected from the native Latvian cows can be used for the production of Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) cheeses. The purpose of this research was to analyse the influence of the milk protein genotypes present in Latvian native cattle breeds on the milk coagulation properties. The data was collected in 2016 from 56 Latvian brown, 26 Latvian blue and 13 Holstein black and white cows i. Highest frequency of AA κ-casein genotype was found in Latvian brown breed (0.593), while AB genotype was more often present in the Latvian blue breed (0.636). It has been found that the presence of κ-casein genotype resulted in no significant difference in milk composition and milk coagulation properties among studied cattle breeds. We have observed a tendency that the most desirable milk coagulation properties were present in BB genotype. A significant effect of breed on milk composition has been found (p < 0.05). Milk yield of Holstein Black and White was 32.0 ± 2.99 kg, while in Latvian blue it was only 17.6 ± 1.32 kg. Higher milk yield was obtained in Latvian blue breed in comparison to that of the brown breed – 19.10 ± 0.76 kg. Better milk coagulation properties were observed in Latvian brown breed – shorter milk renneting time (16.86 ± 1.15 min), highest curd yield (24.0 ± 0.79%) and curd firmness (3.21 ± 0.17 N).

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1419–1425 L. Tsirulnichenko,, I. Potoroko, O. Krasulya, I. Gudina
Increasing the level of hydration of biopolymers in meat processing systems based on the use of acoustically activated brines
Abstract |
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Increasing the level of hydration of biopolymers in meat processing systems based on the use of acoustically activated brines

L. Tsirulnichenko¹,*, I. Potoroko¹, O. Krasulya², I. Gudina¹

¹ South Ural State University, Higher School of Medicine and Biology, Department of Food and Biotechology, 85 Lenina Avenue, 454080, Chelyabinsk, Russia
² Moscow State University of Technologies and Management named after K.G. Razumovskiy, Department of regulation of raw food products and examination of goods, 73, Zemlyanoy Val, 109004, Moscow, Russia
*Correspondence: linchikz@mail.ru

Abstract:

The study aims to develop effective ways to improve the level of protein hydration of poultry. We studied the chemistry of the process of moisture binding by minced meat produced from pectoral and femoral muscles of broiler chickens. The reference brines were prepared from potable water and the test brines were sonicated. The samples which were held for a predetermined time and evaluated for structural integrity and heat treatment losses. The parameter values shown in the experimental session turned out to be higher in comparison with that shown in the reference session. A positive effect of ultrasound on the increase of hydration properties of poultry proteins and reduction of brine treatment time by more than 2 times and reduction of losses during heat treatment by 10% were recorded.

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1426–1434 P. Vaculik,, A. Smejtkova, M. Prikryl, O. Drabek, Z. Votruba and L. Lexa
Selected wastewater parameters from the vegetable washing process
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Selected wastewater parameters from the vegetable washing process

P. Vaculik¹,*, A. Smejtkova¹, M. Prikryl¹, O. Drabek², Z. Votruba¹ and L. Lexa¹

¹ Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Building Technological Equipment, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague 6-Suchdol, Czech Republic
² Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Soil Science and Soil Protection, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague 6-Suchdol, Czech Republic
* Correspondence: vaculik@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This article follows selected parameters in wastewater which arise from the washing process for root vegetables, which is one of those problems which are current in terms of water usage. With a growing population, industrialisation, and urban development, there is also a growing demand for water resources. Industries which are dealing with the processing of agricultural products and food production in general significantly contribute to the growing consumption of water. Technology which is used for cleaning vegetables also significantly affect this growth in water consumption. Increasing demands on the quality of vegetables (eg. the cleanliness of vegetables at the point of sale), also leads to the necessity for more effective postharvest cleaning, something which is carried out both with dry and wet methods. This article examines the cleaning process for selected root vegetables, particularly carrots and potatoes, by determining selected properties of the output process water in an assessed technological line. This line is specific with regard to its methods for cleaning carrots and potatoes. Following the investigation, the line was assessed as being satisfactory with respect to the quality of the input and output water. The monitored parameters of the process water (eg. concentrations of selected elements in the process water and concentrations of selected inorganic anions in the process water, mainly Na and Pb) from cleaning carrots and potatoes were considered as being satisfactory for recirculation into the cleaning process and therefore a reduction was achieved in overall water consumption.

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