Volume 16 (2018)
  Number 5

Full text of the journal: Volume 16 Number 5

Contents


Pages

1921-1930 G.A. Bich, M.L. Castrillo, L.L. Villalba and P.D. Zapata
Evaluation of rice by-products, incubation time, and photoperiod for solid state mass multiplication of the biocontrol agents Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae
Abstract |
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Evaluation of rice by-products, incubation time, and photoperiod for solid state mass multiplication of the biocontrol agents Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae

G.A. Bich¹²*, M.L. Castrillo¹², L.L. Villalba¹ and P.D. Zapata¹²

¹University of Misiones, Institute of Biotechnology Misiones, Laboratory of Molecular Biotechnology, Route 12 km 7.5. Posadas, Misiones, Argentina
²National Scientific and Technical Research Council of Argentina (CONICET)
*Correspondence: gustavobich@gmail.com

Abstract:

The success of biological control of insect pests depends not only on the isolation, characterization, and pathogenicity, but also on the success of the mass production of the microbial agents. The biological control strategy using entomopathogenic fungi like B. bassiana and M. anisopliae can only be useful if practical and economic methods of mass multiplication are available. Rice by-products like broken rice grains, rice hulls and their combination was evaluated for solid state multiplication of B. bassiana and M. anisopliae. The influence of photoperiod and incubation time in the production of conidia was also evaluated. This study showed that, broken rice was the most productive substrate for conidial production of both fungal genera, with a yield of 4.62 x 107 and 2.22 x 106 conidia g-1 respectively. Also, under the evaluated solid state multiplication conditions, the best conidia production was achieved with a photoperiod of 24 h of light for B. bassiana (with 4.43 x 107 conidia g-1) and M. anisopliae (with 1.35 x 106 conidia g-1). The results here demonstrated that these two fungal species could viably be multiplied with good yields of conidia on agro-industrial by-products using solid-state culture and regulating some culture conditions.

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1931-1949 V. Bulgakov, V. Adamchuk, M. Arak and J. Olt
The theory of cleaning the crowns of standing beet roots with the use of elastic blades
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The theory of cleaning the crowns of standing beet roots with the use of elastic blades

V. Bulgakov¹, V. Adamchuk², M. Arak³ and J. Olt³*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine,
15 Heroyiv Oborony street, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²National Scientific Centre, Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification,
11 Vokzalna street, UA08631 Glevaкha-1, Vasylkiv District, Kiev Region, Ukraine
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi street,
EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

A standing beet root crown cleaner has been designed. The design comprises the vertical drive shaft that carries two flat elastic cleaning blades installed on axes and connected through the articulated connection. The aim of the study was to develop the new theory of cleaning the crowns of standing roots with the use of an elastic blade installed on the vertical drive shaft in order to determine its optimal design and kinematic parameters. The first step was to design an equivalent schematic model of the interaction between the elastic cleaning blade installed on the vertical drive shaft and the spherical surface of the beet root fixed in the soil. The interaction between the blade and the root’s crown took place at the point, where all the forces that can arise during such interaction are applied. A three-dimensional coordinate system was set and the design and kinematic parameters of the considered interaction were designated. Using the original differential equations projected on the set coordinate axes, the system of four nonlinear differential equations of the three-dimensional motion of the elastic cleaning blade on the spherical surface of the root crown was set up, then it was transformed into the system of two differential equations in the normal form. Further, to determine the force that strips off the remaining haulm, which is part of the obtained system of differential equations, the problem of its analytical determination was solved separately. Also, the additional equivalent schematic model of the interaction between the elastic blade as a cantilever beam and the root’s crown was designed, the differential equation of the beam’s deflection curve (taking into account the beam’s simultaneous bending and twisting) was set up and, on the basis of it, the projections of the stripping force on the coordinate axes were found. The values of the force were substituted in the earlier obtained system of differential equations.

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1950-1959 V. Bulgakov, S. Ivanovs, M. Arak, V. Kuvachоv, L. Shymko and V. Bandura
Experimental investigation of the work of a ploughing aggregate, operating according to the system ‘push-pull’
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Experimental investigation of the work of a ploughing aggregate, operating according to the system ‘push-pull’

V. Bulgakov¹, S. Ivanovs²*, M. Arak³, V. Kuvachоv⁴, L. Shymko¹ and V. Bandura⁵

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Heroiv Obrony street 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
⁴State Agrotechnological University, 18 B. Khmelnytsky Ave, UA72310 Melitopol, Zaporizhia obl., Ukraine
⁵Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, Soniachna street 3, UA21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
*Correspondence: semjons@apollo.lv

Abstract:

The use of ploughing machine-and-tractor aggregates, operating according to the principle of ‘push-pull’, finds increasing application in the world since it allows ensuring the stability of the movement and the depth of ploughing, reduction of the energy indicators. The aim of this experimental study is to determine under field conditions the dynamic and operational technological parameters of the ploughing machine-and-tractor aggregate, operating according to the ‘push-pull’ system. This aggregate was an integral ploughing-tillage wheeled HTZ 16131 tractor, in front of which there was mounted a two-bottom plough, and at the rear – four-bottom ploughs. This aggregate has satisfactory path parameters of the movement during the execution of the technological process of ploughing. The oscillations of the furrow path for this aggregate are of a low-frequency nature and are concentrated in a rather narrow frequency range (0…50 m-1). At the operating speed of 2.0 m∙s-1 it is 0…0.16 Hz. The maximum value of the mutual correlation function between the input impact (the turning angle of the driven wheels of the aggregating tractor) and the output value – its relative bearing is positive and reaches a value of 0.88. Stability of the ploughing depth for the aggregate according to the ‘2 + 4’ scheme is ± 1.65 cm2, which is normally the smaller value of the same indicator for a serial ploughing aggregate (± 1.98 cm2).

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1960-1965 V. Bulgakov, S. Ivanovs, J. Nowak, V. Bandura, A. Nesvidomin and Ye. Ihnatiev
Experimental study of an improved root crop cleaner from admixtures
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Experimental study of an improved root crop cleaner from admixtures

V. Bulgakov¹, S. Ivanovs²*, J. Nowak³, V. Bandura⁴, A. Nesvidomin¹ and Ye. Ihnatiev⁵

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Heroiv Obrony 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Liela 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
³University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, PL20–618 Lublin, Poland
⁴Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, Soniachna street 3, UA21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
⁵Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18 B. Khmelnytsky Ave, UA72310 Melitopol, Zaporizhia obl., Ukraine
*Correspondence: semjons@apollo.lv

Abstract:

One of the ways to raise the quality of sugar beet harvesting is the use of improved digging tools that are able to dig out root crops from the soil without any loss and considerable damage, as well as cleaners of the heap from admixtures. Perspective are the root crop harvesting machines, built according to the modular principle, where, depending on the state of the beet plantation, the composition of the cleaning tools, and the kinematic and technological modes of their operation are determined. To carry out experimental studies, experimental equipment was made which, under laboratory and field conditions, made it possible to obtain qualitative separation indicators of the heaps of sugar beet roots with wide variation in the range of kinematic and design parameters of the improved cleaner. As the results of the laboratory and field experimental studies showed, in each of the two stages of cleaning the beet heap, a sufficiently high degree of removal of the soil admixtures and plant residues is ensured. Thus, at the first, preliminary stage of cleaning, the removal of admixtures amounted to 65.5–75.8%. After the second, basic stage of cleaning, the transported heap contained no more than 1.9% of admixtures. The results of the laboratory and field tests indicate that the proposed design of an improved sugar beet root cleaner from admixtures is prospective.

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1966-1975 V. Chaloupková, T. Ivanova and A. Muntean
Particle size distribution analysis of pine sawdust: comparison of traditional oscillating screen method and photo-optical analysis
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Particle size distribution analysis of pine sawdust: comparison of traditional oscillating screen method and photo-optical analysis

V. Chaloupková, T. Ivanova* and A. Muntean

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Department of Sustainable Technologies, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: ivanova@ftz.czu.cz

Abstract:

Particle size and particle size distribution (PSD) are crucial parameters which affect properties of particulate and agglomerated materials, and have an impact on a quality and utilization of a final product. The aim of this paper was to determine PSD as well as to assess dimensional features of pine sawdust fractions via mechanical sieve analysis and photo-optical analysis. The first one is a traditional and standard method taking into account only one parameter of particle shape and the second one is a modern method based on a digital image processing that considers also irregular shapes of biomass particles. Pine sawdust was grinded into three fractions: 4, 8 and 12 mm and analysed using two mentioned methods. A horizontal vibrating sieve shaker comprising 11 sieves and a bottom pan was used, and the obtained data of retained particles on each sieve were evaluated. For comparison, a computerized photo-optical particle analyser was applied with max Feret’s diameter as a measurement algorithm for a particle length, and PSD was analyzed by grouping the particles according to their distinct lengths adjusted to the sieves’ sizes used in the screening method. Moreover, additional results in dimensions and parameters of PSD were obtained and evaluated through the photo-optical method. Pine sawdust particles can be described as non-uniform, mainly prolonged, finer particles dominated in all fraction samples. The study showed differences in the results, inaccuracy and other drawbacks of the conventional sieving method such as clogging and falling-through phenomena as well as the limitations of the machine vision. Strong sides of both methods were discussed, too. Overall, the results contributed to a better knowledge of the material properties and different methods of PSD analysis.

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1976-1985 G.N. Chupakhina, M. Shansky, A. Parol, N.Y. Chupakhina, P.V. Feduraev, L.N. Skrypnik and P.V. Maslennikov
Comparative characteristics of antioxidant capacity of some forage plants of the Baltic Sea Region (a case study of the Kaliningrad Region and Estonia)
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Comparative characteristics of antioxidant capacity of some forage plants of the Baltic Sea Region (a case study of the Kaliningrad Region and Estonia)

G.N. Chupakhina¹*, M. Shansky², A. Parol², N.Y. Chupakhina³, P.V. Feduraev¹, L.N. Skrypnik¹ and P.V. Maslennikov¹

¹Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Universitetskaya street 2, RU236040 Kaliningrad, Russia
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
³Kaliningrad State Technical University, Sovetskiy prospect 1, RU236000 Kaliningrad, Russia
*Correspondence: natalie-tch@yandex.ru

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate changes in the antioxidant levels (anthocyanins, leucoanthocyanins, catechins) and the total water-soluble antioxidants capacity in forage plants in relation to their geography, i.e. proximity to northern or coastal areas. We demonstrate that the antioxidant content increases in unfavorable conditions, being higher in plants growing closer to the sea and in northernmost plants. Thus, since the total water-soluble antioxidants capacity is influenced by ecological factors, it may be used as one of the indicators in complex environmental assessment.

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1986-2004 G. Di Vita, T. Stillitano, G. Falcone, A.I. De Luca, M. D’Amico, A. Strano and G. Gulisano
Can sustainability match quality citrus fruit growing production? An energy and economic balance of agricultural management models for ‘PGI Clementine of Calabria’
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Can sustainability match quality citrus fruit growing production? An energy and economic balance of agricultural management models for ‘PGI Clementine of Calabria’

G. Di Vita¹, T. Stillitano², G. Falcone²*, A.I. De Luca², M. D’Amico¹, A. Strano² and G. Gulisano²

¹University of Catania, Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Via S. Sofia 98, IT95123 Catania, Italy
²Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, Department of Agriculture, Via Graziella, Feo di Vito, IT89100 Reggio Calabria, Italy
*Correspondence: giacomo.falcone@unirc.it

Abstract:

This paper analyses energy and economic balances for different growing methods (conventional, integrated and organic cultivation) for Protected Geographical Indications (PGI) Clementine of Calabria, a quality-oriented citrus species in South Italy. Through a double methodological approach, the economic and energy sustainability of each production system was assessed by accounting for the farm net value (FNV) of farms. The energy employment in terms of direct (D) and indirect (I) sources and in terms of renewable (R) and non-renewable (NR) energy sources was also analysed. Regarding FNV, the results show that in the presence of European subsidies, organic farming (with 6.06 k€ ha-1) is more profitable than other systems (4.33 k€ ha-1 for integrated farming and 4.99 k€ ha-1 for conventional farming) due to the higher sales price of organic PGI clementines, which allow producers to obtain the highest remuneration for their capital (1.65 B/C organic, 1.48 B/C integrated, 1.61 B/C conventional). In addition, from an energy perspective, the organic farming systems showed better performances than conventional and integrated systems because they required the lowest average energy employment (49.5 GJ ha-1 year-1) compared with the integrated (57.2 GJ ha-1 year-1) and conventional scenarios (59.1 GJ ha-1 year-1).

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2005-2015 I. Diordiieva, L. Riabovol, I. Riabovol, O. Serzhyk, A. Novak and S. Kotsiuba
The characteristics of wheat collection samples created by Triticum aestivum L/Triticum spelta L hybridisation
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The characteristics of wheat collection samples created by Triticum aestivum L/Triticum spelta L hybridisation

I. Diordiieva¹*, L. Riabovol¹, I. Riabovol¹, O. Serzhyk¹, A. Novak² and S. Kotsiuba¹

¹Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Agronomy, Department of Genetics, Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, 1 Institytska street, UA20305 Uman, Ukraine
²Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Agronomy, Department of General Agriculture, 1 Institytska street, UA20305 Uman, Ukraine
*Correspondence: diordieva201443@gmail.com

Abstract:

The aim of our research was to create, analyzes, and systematise wheat collection samples for the selection of valuable initial forms, to involve them in breeding process, and to create new productive cultivars. For this purpose the hybridisation of soft and spelt wheat was carried out, along with an evaluation of the hybrids that were obtained, between 2006 and 2018 (F5–F10). A collection of wheat samples, containing more than a thousand numbered items, was formed from the obtained diversity of samples. The economically-valuable and morphological characteristics of newly-developed materials were analysed. According to the results of our research, we selected forms of spelt, soft wheat, and speltoid samples which have high levels of productivity and high gluten and protein contents in grains.
Spelt wheat sample 1817 contains 45.2% gluten, 22.3% protein, and has a yield capacity of 6.55 t ha-1. Soft wheat sample 1689 has 32.4% gluten, 15.8% protein, and a yield capacity of 7.19 t ha-1. These samples were submitted for state scientific and technical expert evaluation in 2018. The created varieties of European spelt wheat and Artemisia soft wheat were included in the ‘State Register of Plant Varieties Suitable for Distribution in Ukraine’.
The varieties, Artaniia and Artaplot, were submitted for state scientific and technical expert evaluation.

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2016-2025 L. Dubova, I. Alsiņa, A. Ruža and A. Šenberga
Impact of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivation on soil microbiological activity
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Impact of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivation on soil microbiological activity

L. Dubova*, I. Alsiņa, A. Ruža and A. Šenberga

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Soil and Plant Sciences, Liela Street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: laila.dubova@llu.lv

Abstract:

Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is widely grown not only as an important protein source for food and feed, but as a component in different cropping systems to improve soil quality. Beans are grown using different soil management practices, moreover, legume seeds often are inoculated before sowing. Microorganisms, introduced in the soil as an inoculum, affect not only inoculated plants, but these microorganisms can remain in the soil for the next growing season and can also affect the subsequent crops. Seed inoculation can stimulate production of root exudates as well as change microbial diversity and structure. The aim of the present study was to estimate the soil microbiological activity in soils where faba beans were cultivated with different rhizobia inoculants obtained from collection of Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies. Another trial was established where faba beans were included in different crop rotations under two tillage systems. During both trials, soil microbiological activity was analysed. Soil respiration intensity was measured by changes of carbon dioxide. Soil enzymatic activity was assessed by dehydrogenase activity and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis intensity. The total number of bacteria, fungi and rhizobia was expressed as colony forming units (CFU) g-1 dry soil. Soil microbiological activity depended on the cultivated crop and the crop rotation. Faba bean inoculation method had less impact on the ratio between analysed microorganism groups than on the activity of soil enzymes.

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2026-2036 I.Y. El Masri, J. Rizkallah and Y.N. Sassine
Effects of Dormex (Hydrogen Cyanamide) on the performance of three seedless table grape cultivars grown under greenhouse or open-field conditions
Abstract |
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Effects of Dormex (Hydrogen Cyanamide) on the performance of three seedless table grape cultivars grown under greenhouse or open-field conditions

I.Y. El Masri¹*, J. Rizkallah² and Y.N. Sassine³

¹University of Forestry, 10 Kliment Ohridski Blvd., BG1797 Sofia, Bulgaria
²Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon
³Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon
*Correspondence: israa.elmasri@st.ul.edu.lb

Abstract:

Greenhouse cultivation of table grapes is still limited to some experimental trials at Lebanese coast. One major constraint facing this type of cultivation is the lack of enough chilling hours causing irregular bud-break and yield reductions. Dormex, with Hydrogen Cyanamide as active ingredient, is an effective mean for dormancy release adopted in warm winter regions. The work investigated separate and combined effects of two factors: greenhouse cultivation and Dormex application on vine buds (following winter pruning) on three-year old seedless cultivars (ARRA15, ARRA18, and ARRA19). Control consisted of non-treated plants grown in open-field. Results showed that Dormex application under greenhouse induced budburst uniformity, increased budburst percent (by 60%), number of flowers and fruits per shoot (by 83%) and vine productivity (by 90%) in all cultivars compared to control. Bud formation was increased under greenhouse and was reduced by Dormex treatment. Under greenhouse, elongation of current season shoots was delayed and shoot length was reduced in treated plants, harvest was earlier by 7, 14, and 30 days in non-treated plants of ARRA18, ARRA19 and ARRA15 respectively and full fruit set (100%) occurred for all plants. Dry weight of shoots was improved by Dormex application in both cultivation systems. All ARRA cultivars responded similarly to experimental factors except ARRA 19 under greenhouse where shoot length was enhanced in all plants while bud formation only in treated plants. Finally, treating vine by Dormex under greenhouse was found as efficient tool to improve bud break and advance harvest under the specific Lebanese coastal conditions.

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2037-2048 M. Hromasova, A. Vagova, M. Linda and P. Vaculik
Determination of the tension limit forces of a barley malt and a malt crush in correlation with a load size
Abstract |

Determination of the tension limit forces of a barley malt and a malt crush in correlation with a load size

M. Hromasova¹*, A. Vagova², M. Linda¹ and P. Vaculik²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6-Suchdol, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6-Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: hromasova@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This article deals with determination of selected parameters of barley malt (whole grain and crushed grain). The barley malt is besides water, hops and brewer’s yeast, one of the basic ingredients necessary for the production of traditional Czech pilsner type of beer. The aim of this research is to determine limit force and internal friction angle with depending on the size of the load. The assessed malt crush was produced using a 2-roller malt mill. The 2-roller malt mill is based on the principle of grinding the material in a milling gap between two milling rollers, which is a very commonly used production of the malt crush. By determining the tension limits of the barley malt and the malt crush in correlation with the load, we can obtain very important parameters that inform us of the bulk material behavior, particularly with respect to the storage method (storage shape, height of the stored material layer, and the removal method from the storage, etc.), and to the transport (route gradient, transport speed, etc.). The determination of the tension limits has a direct link with cohesion of the bulk material and thereby contributes to establishing of the basic parameters of the bulk material, such as – the friction angle. The measurement for the angle of internal friction determination were performed on a prototype device. The principle of measurement on a mobile prototype devices is, the upper square chamber slides down the lower square chamber. Barley malt (whole grain and crushed grain) were loaded from 100 g to 5,000 g. The results of measuring were statistically analyzed with software Statistica 12.

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2049-2055 J. Ivanovs and A. Lupikis
Identification of wet areas in forest using remote sensing data
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Identification of wet areas in forest using remote sensing data

J. Ivanovs* and A. Lupikis

Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, Rigas street 111, LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia
*Correspondence: janis.ivanovs@silava.lv

Abstract:

Aim of this study is to evaluate different remote sensing indices to detect spatial distribution of wet soils using GIS based algorithms. Area of this study represents different soil types on various quaternary deposits as well as different forest types. We analyzed 25 sites with the area of 1 km2 each in central and western part of Latvia. Data about soil characteristics like thickness of peat layer and presence of reductimorphic colors in soil was collected during field surveys in 228 random points within study sites. ANOVA test for comparing means of different soil wetness classes and binary logistic regression analysis for evaluating the accuracy of different remote sensing indices to model spatial distribution of wet areas are used for analysis. Main conclusion of this study is that for different quaternary deposits and soil texture classes different algorithms for soil wetness prediction should be used. Data layers for predicting soil wetness in this study are various modifications and resolutions of digital elevation model like depressions, slope and SAGA wetness index as well as Sentinel-2 multispectral satellite imagery. Accuracy of soil wetness classification of soils on moraine, fluvial and eolian sediments exceeds 94%, whereas on the clayey sediments it is close to 80%.

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2056-2067 L. Jankevica, O. Polis, A. Korica, I. Samsone, V. Laugale and M. Daugavietis
Environmental risk assessment studies on new plant protection products which have been elaborated from coniferous tree bark
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Environmental risk assessment studies on new plant protection products which have been elaborated from coniferous tree bark

L. Jankevica¹*, O. Polis², A. Korica², I. Samsone¹, V. Laugale³ and M. Daugavietis²

¹University of Latvia, Institute of Biology, Department of Experimental Entomology and Microbiology, Miera street 3, LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia
²Latvian State Forest Research Institute 'Silava', Rīgas street 111, LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia
³Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Institute of Horticulture, Graudu street 1, Ceriņi, Dobele District, LV- 3701, Latvia
*Correspondence: liga.jankevica@lu.lv

Abstract:

Nowadays there are still various chemical pesticides being applied in the course of ensuring plant protection. Since 2010, we have been working on the development of new, environmentally-friendly plant protection products which will provide an effective tool against pathogenic fungi and bacteria which cause disease in crop plants. The specific aim of this study was to evaluate a risk assessment for new plant protection products that have been elaborated on the basis of coniferous tree bark. Various products were tested which are extracted during the processing of wood bark from pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Ethanol extracts were formulated and applied during these experiments. Two formulations, which showed anti-fungal activity in vitro and in field trials on fruit crops (involving strawberries and raspberries) were selected for the risk assessment studies. The impact was studied of formulation treatment on crop plants and soil biological activity, and the accumulation of residues of active substances in crop plants and soil. The application of new formulations did not show any negative effect on the chlorophyll content and the chlorophyll fluorescence of plant leaves. The results showed that pine and spruce bark extract formulations contain active compounds (coumaric acid, quercetin, epicatechin, and ferulic acid) within the range of 5.1–5.9 mg kg-1 and 11.1–443.9 mg kg-1 respectively. The amount of active substances which were determined in most cases was higher in the spruce bark extract formulation when compared to the pine bark extract formulation. Our results confirmed the presence of active compounds – epicatechin, quercetin, and coumaric acid – in strawberry fruits which remained untreated and in those that were treated with spruce ethanol extract formulation. Untreated raspberry fruits contained all four active substances within the range of 81–5,300 μg kg-1. We observed a significant increase of coumaric acid and quercetin in raspberries after their having been treated with spruce bark extract formulation in a 2% concentration, P < 0.05, and did not find any negative impact for spruce bark extract formulations when used on soil microbial biomass.

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2068-2078 S. Kalēja, A. Lazdiņš, A. Zimelis and G. Spalva
Model for cost calculation and sensitivity analysis of forest operations
Abstract |

Model for cost calculation and sensitivity analysis of forest operations

S. Kalēja*, A. Lazdiņš, A. Zimelis and G. Spalva

Latvian State Forest Research Institute "Silava", 111 Rigas str., LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia *Correspondence: santa.kaleja@silava.lv

Abstract:

Forest operations include logging, off-road and road transport of round wood, harvesting residues and wood chips, soil scarification and pre-commercial thinning, as well as other less conventional operations like stump extraction and undergrowth removal before felling. The process of harvesting can involve different interfering phases with specific productivity parameters, which will have impact on the productivity of harvesting and delivery, as well on the prime cost of logs and forest biofuel. Detailed prime cost calculation allows to assess the impact of various factors on costs of the products, as well as to define threshold values for certain parameters affecting the productivity. The base model elaborated within the COST action FP0902 is complemented with standard economic methods and adopted to the harvesting process or any other forest or farming operation including systems consisting from several machines. The model is designed in a way, which is simple in use, easily extensible with additional parameters and machines and with possibility to change individual input data. The cost calculation section of the model consists from investments (base machines and equipment), labor costs (salaries, social charges, insurance and other payments) and operational costs (fuel, lubricants, maintenance, repair and other consumables). The average hourly cost is calculated according to forecast of number of working hours per year. Engine hours are used in calculation to synchronize input data with service statistics from dealers’ centers. The parameters of the forest stands affecting productivity, like diameter or volume of an average extracted tree, number of relocations per year, average off-road transport distance, driving speed and other parameters are defined in the calculation. Productivity and load size can be set as fixed values or equations (in case if the sensitivity analysis should be done). The model calculates the hourly cost (productive, engine and proposed working hours) and the unit price for each phase of the work process. The sensitivity analysis demonstrates impact of various factors, like number of working hours per year, dimensions of the average extracted tree, forwarding and road transport distance, fuel price and fuel consumption as a default parameters or any other indicator, which can be added to the sensitivity analysis. The model is validated against the actual harvesting contracts and hourly cost of rental machines. Default parameters in the calculation are summaries of information provided by contractors or service companies.

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2079-2087 Y. Kretova, L. Tsirulnichenko, N. Naumenko, N. Popova and I. Kalinina
The application of micro-wave treatment to reduce barley contamination
Abstract |

The application of micro-wave treatment to reduce barley contamination

Y. Kretova*, L. Tsirulnichenko, N. Naumenko, N. Popova and I. Kalinina

South Ural State University, School of Medical Biology, Department of Food and Biotechnology, 85 Lenin Avenue, RU454080 Chelyabinsk, Russia
*Correspondence: kretova555@mail.ru

Abstract:

The goal of this work is to study the applicability of ultra high frequency electromagnetic field treatment for decontaminating barley grain used in brewing while preserving its technological properties. The germination rates and/or yield of the treated sample seed were compared with those of the untreated seed germinated under normal conditions. To determine optimal treatment conditions, a two-factor analysis was carried out, taking the mycological state of the grain into account. The heating rate and the duration of electromagnetic exposure were chosen as variables; these values varied from 0.4 to 0.8 °C s-1 and from 30 to 90 s, respectively. It was found that germination of the treated barley seed was increased about 10.1–15.7% compared with that of the untreated seed. The microbial load decreased up to 80%. A heating rate of 0.4 °C s-1 and treatment exposure time of 30 s showed the strongest effect of decontamination while preserving the viability of the barley grain.

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2088-2096 S. Kumar, J. Cerny and P. Kic
Air-conditioning in the cabins of passenger
Abstract |
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Air-conditioning in the cabins of passenger

S. Kumar*, J. Cerny and P. Kic

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: surenderduhan88@gmail.com

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to analyse the current state of the constructional design and operational conditions of air-conditioning device in passenger cars. The research was focused on the function of air-conditioning equipment of passenger cars Skoda and KIA in various modes of operation during the winter, spring and summer season at different levels of air conditioning (without air-conditioning, minimum, medium and maximum level). Air temperature, air humidity, globe temperature, CO2 concentration, dust concentration and noise inside the cabin were measured. Solar radiation plays a big role to rise up temperature inside the cabin. It resulted in the higher values of globe temperature than temperature of the air. The results of the measurements showed that CO2 values were significantly lower than 2,500 ppm at minimum air-conditioning, lower than 600 ppm at medium and lower than 500 ppm at maximum level of air-conditioning. For all vehicles, dust concentration was greater when it measured with the air conditioning switched off than with the air conditioning system turned on. The measurements confirmed that the total dust concentration was not more than 47 μg m-3, PM10 lower than 28 μg m-3 and PM1 lower than 27 μg m-3. The noise levels ranged from 49.1 to 68.7 dB(A). The air-conditioning had very positive impact on the inside comfort in car cabins from all points of view during all periods of the year.

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2097-2109 M. Militello, G. Sortino, G. Talluto and G. Gugliuzza
Split water application for a water supply reduction in Callistemon Citrinus pot plant
Abstract |

Split water application for a water supply reduction in Callistemon Citrinus pot plant

M. Militello¹, G. Sortino²*, G. Talluto¹ and G. Gugliuzza¹

¹Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA) – Research Centre for Plant Protection and Certification (CREA-DC), Bagheria (PA), Italy
²Department of Agriculture, Food and Forest Sciences (SAAF) – University of Palermo -Viale delle Scienze, ed.4, ingresso H, - IT90128 Palermo, Italy
*Correspondence: giuseppe.sortino@unipa.it

Abstract:

Irrigation management in Greenhouse Nursery Production (GNP) is based on empiric methods based on farmer personal experiences with over-irrigation results. The effects of irrigation volume and daily application were studied in a pot experiment carried out on rooted cuttings in a greenhouse The irrigation volume treatment was performed on Full and reduced Treatment. The treatment of water application was carried out with split supply and unsplit supply. The effects of the treatments were evaluated in terms of biomass accumulation and partitioning, leaf area, photosynthesis and stomatal response, chlorophyll content, and water productivity. Callistemon showed a good adaptation to the different treatments tested during the experiment. A positive relation was found between biomass accumulation and irrigation volume, moreover split water application increased plant Dry Weight.
Therefore, the highest biomass accumulation was registered in full irrigation volume in split application treatment, and this behavior was confirmed by the photosynthetic rate. No statistical differences were found, in terms of Relative Water Content (RWC), between the treatments. Stem water potential and stomatal conductance values suggest in Callistemon an anysohidric water stress response behavior.
Our results evidenced that, in Callistemon potted plants, an irrigation volume reduction is possible when a split application occurs during the daytime. A full irrigation volume amounts to 10.8 L per plant during the trial period of 90 days while the reduced volume amounts to 8.2 L per plant. Therefore, an increased water productivity can be obtained if the daily water requirement is split on two applications during the daytime. Our results highlighted a possible reduction in environmental impact of Callistemon greenhouse pot production, through the 25% reduction of the volume irrigation.

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2110-2116 V. Mironovs, M. Lisicins, I. Boiko and J. Karulis
Tools for building production and woodworking made from the perforated steel wastes
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Tools for building production and woodworking made from the perforated steel wastes

V. Mironovs¹, M. Lisicins¹*, I. Boiko² and J. Karulis¹

¹Riga Technical university, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Building Production, Kipsalas street 6a-331, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
²Riga Technical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Transport and Aeronautics, Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Viskalu street 36A, LV-1006 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: mihails.lisicins@gmail.com

Abstract:

The rising of efficiency of the building and construction production is an actual task. One of the possible ways to ensure higher efficiency is using innovative tools and facilities of small-scale mechanization, which increase productivity and enhance working condition. Most observable influence of such strategy is on concrete works, plastering and earthworks. Another important tendency in production engineering, building and construction production is recycling of the technological wastes, which sufficiently reduce cost of the products and improve ecology. The goal of the present paper is to offer new possibility for recycling of the technological wastes, i.e. perforated steel tapes achieved after stamping of fine parts, by producing from mentioned perforated tapes the building tools and facilities of small-scale mechanization. In particular, the technological wastes of the JSC ‘Ditton’ (Daugavpils, Latvia) – perforated steel tapes – received after stamping of the elements of driving chains for different apparatus were used in this research. The prototypes of the scrapers for the finishing building work, as well as cutting edges and circular coronas for the woodworking were elaborated and offered in this work. The results of approbation of elaborated prototypes of the tools are offered. It was proven, that proposed innovative tools could be used effectively in building production and woodworking.

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2117-2129 L. Nadtochii, A. Orazov, L. Kuznetsova, A. Pinaev, L. Weihong, S. Garbuz and M. Muradova
Identification of yeast species involved in fermentation of the Kazakh camel dairy product–shubat
Abstract |

Identification of yeast species involved in fermentation of the Kazakh camel dairy product–shubat

L. Nadtochii¹*, A. Orazov¹*, L. Kuznetsova², A. Pinaev³, L. Weihong⁴, S. Garbuz¹ and M. Muradova¹

¹ITMO University, Department of Applied Biotechnology, Lomonosov street 9, RU191002 Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation
²The Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, The Saint Petersburg Branch State Research Institute of a Baking Industry, Podbelsky Chaussee 7, RU196608 Saint Petersburg, Pushkin, Russian Federation
³All-Russia Research Institute for Agriculture Microbiology, Laboratory of Genetics of Plant-Microbe Interactions, Podbelsky Chaussee 3, RU196608 Saint Petersburg, Pushkin, Russian Federation
⁴Harbin Institute of Technology, Institute of Food Science and Engineering, School of Chemistry Engineering, Xidazhi street 92, CN150001, Harbin, Heilongjiang, P.R. China
*Correspondence: l_tochka@corp.ifmo.ru, orazov@corp.ifmo.ru

Abstract:

In certain countries of the world, camel’s milk is used for food on a level with cow’s milk. Shubat is a traditional food product based on camel milk in Kazakhstan. It is a fermented milk product obtained as a result of spontaneous fermentation of camel’s milk under the influence of native microflora. Received dairy product from the southern region of Kazakhstan became the object of the investigation of the microflora of the fermented milk product shubat. The aim of the research was to study the microflora of camel milk, which causes its spontaneous fermentation. During the experiment, the dynamics of acid accumulation by the change in active acidity (pH) and titratable acidity (°T) was studied. In addition to lactic fermentation fermented product (shubat), alcoholic fermentation was noted, which has given the finished product an increased acidity and a high degree of gassing. To enumerate and identify microorganisms, shubat was sown to the following nutrient media: MRS, Malt wort-agar medium at 36 °C and 30 °C respectively both for 3 days. We suppose that the dominant component of the shubat’s microflora was yeasts: Brettanomyces anomalus, Naumovozyma castellii. Pathogenic microorganisms, such as Salmonella, Shigella, were not detected during the research, considering that the shubat is formed as a result of spontaneous fermentation and has poor hygienic characteristics in comparison with pasteurized milk. Identification of individual strains of bacteria allows us to simulate a starter microflora for the production of a safe fermented product based on camel milk on an industrial scale in Kazakhstan. The identified microflora, which causes spontaneous fermentation of camel milk and isolated strains of lactic acid bacteria, will make a significant contribution to the improvement of food safety in arid regions.

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2130-2136 V. Obraztsov, D. Shchedrina and S. Kadyrov
Film agents as an effective means of reducing seed shattering in Festulolium
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Film agents as an effective means of reducing seed shattering in Festulolium

V. Obraztsov*, D. Shchedrina and S. Kadyrov

Voronezh State Agrarian University, Department of Crop Science, Forage Production and Agricultural Technologies, ul. Michurina 1, RU394087 Voronezh, Russia
*Correspondence: ovennn@mail.ru

Abstract:

In the conditions of the forest steppe of the Central Chernozem region, methods were studied to reduce shatter losses in the pre-harvesting period for Festulolium during the period 2009–2011, applying the film forming agents, Elastik (0.8–1.2 L ha-1), Bifaktor (0.8–1.2 L ha-1), and Metylan Universal Premium (1.4–3.8 kg ha-1). The agents were used at seed humidity levels of between 60–65%. Following anti-shattering treatment, seed moisture content gradually decreased. The application of film forming agents prevented seed shattering, and seeds were harvested by direct combining at a humidity of between 20–25% without heavy losses being suffered. Moreover, decreased seed losses due to film forming agents significantly reduced the cost of seed heap drying. In the control treatment, the seed yield amounted to 214.8 kg ha-1, and 360.7 kg ha-1 was lost as a result of natural seed shattering in the process of ripening. The Elastik and Bifaktor preparations prevented seed shattering and contributed to the preservation of a seed yield of between 522.1–563.5 kg ha-1. The application of film forming agents contributed to a reduction in losses during harvesting within the range of 9.7–16.8%. Application of the Metylan Universal Premium glue in the studied doses provided a significant increase of seed yield. The highest seed yield (490.1–495.2 kg ha-1) was obtained in the treatment which used a Metylan application at a dose of 3.0–3.4 kg ha-1, where seed shattering was reduced by 14.8–17.6%.

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2137-2145 V. Obraztsov, D. Shchedrina and S. Kadyrov
The effect of herbicides on seed productivity of Festulolium
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The effect of herbicides on seed productivity of Festulolium

V. Obraztsov*, D. Shchedrina and S. Kadyrov

Voronezh State Agrarian University named after Emperor Peter the Great, Faculty of Agricultural Science, Department of Crop Science, Forage Production and Agricultural Technologies, ul. Michurina 1, RU394087 Voronezh, Russia
*Correspondence: ovennn@mail.ru

Abstract:

An artificially developed intergeneric hybrid FestuloliumFestulolium F. Aschers, et Graebn.) is the best forage crop with high energy and protein nutrition value which can be used for green fodder when creating cultural haylands and pastures. The advantages of this crop are high regrow capacity, high content of sugars and good winter hardiness. Wide use of this new crop in fodder production is constrained, firstly, because the crop is yet new and little known and, secondly, because there is a lack of seeds due to imperfections in the production technology. There are still very few scientific studies on the biology and technology of Festulolium cultivation in the forest-steppe of the Central Chernozem Region of Russia. In our works we were the first to study the biological features of Festulolium and develop the main technological methods of growing and harvesting its seeds. The work was carried out in long-term studies of the Department of Crop Science, Forage Production and Agricultural Technologies of Voronezh State Agrarian University in 2009–2011. The soil in the experimental plot was leached medium loamy chernozem. The experiments involved the VIK-90 Festulolium variety with the preceding crop being the vetch-oat mixture harvested for green fodder. The soil preparation was conventional for seed herbage of perennial grasses in the Central Chernozem Region. The associated records and observations were made according to conventional methods adopted in the seed production of perennial grasses. A high efficiency of the Aurorex (0.55 L ha-1) and the Dicamba (0.15 L ha-1) herbicides in the suppression of annual and perennial dicotyledonous weed plants has been identified. The application of these herbicides has significantly reduced (by 40–73%) the weed infestation of seed herbage in the first year of vegetation and, as a result, has improved its structure and crop quality. The use of the developed agricultural techniques allows reducing the energy costs and receiving an average of 433–496 kg ha-1 of certified seeds.

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2146-2155 E. Pannacci and S. Bartolini
Effect of nitrogen fertilization on sorghum for biomass production
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Effect of nitrogen fertilization on sorghum for biomass production

E. Pannacci* and S. Bartolini

University of Perugia, Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, Borgo XX Giugno, 74, IT06121 Perugia, Italy
*Correspondence: euro.pannacci@unipg.it

Abstract:

Two field experiments were carried out in 2005 and 2006 in central Italy in order to evaluate the effects of different nitrogen (N) application rates (0, 50 100 and 150 kg ha-1) on flowering date, plant height, biomass production and partitioning (leaves, panicles and stems) and biomass quality of a sorghum hybrid (H133). Sorghum showed a high potential in terms of biomass production without N fertilization (18.5 t ha-1 of d.m. in 2005 and 26.6 t ha-1 of d.m. in 2006). The rate that maximized the biomass production was 100 kg ha-1 of N, increasing the biomass dry weight by 23.8% in 2005 and 18.8% in 2006, with respect to unfertilized sorghum; higher N rates are not advisable in order to avoid increasing fertilization costs and environmental impact without benefit of greater biomass production. The two highest N rates when combined with low water availability appeared to increase the rate of plant development, causing earlier flowering and increasing the percentage of panicles in total biomass. Higher heating value (HHV), lower heating value (LHV) and ash concentration of biomass varied among N rates, with values of HHV and LHV lower for unfertilized sorghum (17.6 and 16.7 MJ kg-1 d.m., respectively) than when N was applied (from 19.0 to 19.7 and from 18.1 to 18.8 MJ kg-1 d.m., respectively); on the contrary, ash concentration was greater for unfertilized sorghum (7.5% d.m.) than for fertilized sorghum (from 5.8 to 6.7% d.m.). This research showed the high potential of sorghum in terms of biomass production also when cultivated with limited irrigation and fertilization inputs. The biomass dry yield obtained by one hectare of sorghum crop without N nitrogen fertilization (i.e. 22.6 t ha-1 of d.m., average of 2005 and 2006 values) produces the same energy, by thermal utilisation, of 9.3 toe, that is equivalent to energy produced by 10,385 L of diesel fuel or 11,097 m3 of methane fuel. This aspect increases the certainty of the energetic and environmental sustainability of sorghum crop.

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2156-2168 E.N. Shcherbakova, A.V. Shcherbakov, P.Yu. Rots, L.N. Gonchar, S.A. Mulina, L.M. Yahina, Yu.V. Lactionov and V.K. Chebotar
Inoculation technology for legumes based on alginate encapsulation
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Inoculation technology for legumes based on alginate encapsulation

E.N. Shcherbakova¹*, A.V. Shcherbakov¹, P.Yu. Rots², L.N. Gonchar³, S.A. Mulina¹, L.M. Yahina¹, Yu.V. Lactionov¹ and V.K. Chebotar¹

¹All-Russia research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology, Shosse Podbelskogo 3, RU196608 Pushkin, St. Petersburg, Russia
²Biocad Biotechnology Company, Sviazi street 34, Strelna, RU198515 St. Petersburg,
Russia
³National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Plant Science Department, Heroyiv Oborony street 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
*Correspondence: alonagonchar@mail.ru

Abstract:

The main purpose of seeds inoculation is to provide the sufficient number of viable efficient bacteria that are able to actively colonize the plant roots immediately after germination. One of the promising forms of bacterial preparations is cells encapsulation in the polymer gel. Advantages of using alginate microspheres are slow, controlled release of bacteria, biodegradation in the soil and an increased shelf life. As a result of this study the effectiveness of using capsulated biopreparation was established to increase the nitrogen-fixing potential of legumes. The advantage in colonization activity is shown in comparison with other forms of the biopreparations due to the slow release of rhizobium from the capsules. The optimal composition for formulation is established which ensures the storage of biopreparation for more than 1 year. The prospect of using encapsulated biopreparations under adverse environmental conditions and for joint application with chemical pesticides and agrochemicals is analyzed.

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2169-2178 D. Tabti, M. Laouar, K. Rajendran, S. Kumar and A. Abdelguerfi
Analysis of gamma rays induced variability in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)
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Analysis of gamma rays induced variability in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)

D. Tabti¹*, M. Laouar¹*, K. Rajendran², S. Kumar² and A. Abdelguerfi³

¹Laboratoire d’Amélioration Intégrative des Productions Végétales (AIPV, C2711100) ENSA El Harrach DZ16200, Algiers, Algeria
²Biodiversity and Integrated Gene Management Program. The International Centre for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas, Rabat-Institutes, MA10112, Morocco
³Cité des Annassers 4 Bt 68 N°8 Kouba Algiers, Algeria
*Correspondence: tdahbia1990@gmail.com; m.laouar@ensa.dz

Abstract:

In this study, a lentil variety, Idlib-3, was subjected to 100 Gy (LD50) gamma-ray irradiation. At M2, mutant families were characterized for the most beneficial agronomic traits. High genotypic coefficient of variation, broad sense heritability and genetic advance of the traits such as seed yield per plant and hundred-seed weight indicated expression of additive gene action and confirmed the response at early generation selection. Total number of pods per plant had positive correlation and the highest positive direct effect on seed yield per plant and hence the preference should be given for this trait during selection. The novel mutant families identified with early flowering, early maturity (families 5 and 90) in cluster I, and more first pod height (families 10, 70 and 82) in cluster II could be utilized to breed short duration lentil varieties suitable for machine harvest.

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2179-2198 S. Targetti, A. Messeri, G. Argenti and N. Staglianò
A comparative analysis of functional traits in semi-natural grasslands under different grazing intensities
Abstract |

A comparative analysis of functional traits in semi-natural grasslands under different grazing intensities

S. Targetti¹, A. Messeri², G. Argenti²* and N. Staglianò²

¹University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Forestry Economics, Feistmantelstrasse 4, AT1180 Wien, Austria
²University of Florence, Department of Agri-Food Production and Environmental Sciences, P.le delle Cascine 18, IT50100 Florence, Italy
*Correspondence: giovanni.argenti@unifi.it

Abstract:

The reduction of traditional management practices is a major threat for the conservation of permanent grasslands in many European marginal areas. The ecological importance of grasslands is acknowledged by the European Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC (1992) which includes many natural or semi-natural grassland types, and by the growing attention of society towards functions and services provided by these ecosystems. Nonetheless, the efficiency of conservation policies is questioned also for the lack of local-scale information on trends and state of grasslands hampers the definition of local-tailored schemes. The main objective of this work is to assess the potential of a set of functional traits in discriminating between different management intensities and their capacity to describe the dynamics occurring in semi-natural grasslands. The research was carried out in a hilly area of Tuscany (Italy) on four grassland sites characterized by similar environmental features (soil, climate, topography), and by different management practices for 10 or more years. The survey concerned collection and analysis of different functional traits related to foliar features, litter and botanical composition. The functional traits were able to differentiate the four sites under different management practices, but their effectiveness was different. Results support the possibility to perform a rapid appraisal of grassland successional stages based on leaf functional traits of dominant species and by the assessment of presence of a reduced number of species among those occurring in the community.

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2197-2210 O. Urbanovičová, K. Krištof, P. Findura, M. Mráz, J. Jobbágy and M. Križan
The effect of soil conditioner on the spatial variability of soil environment
Abstract |

The effect of soil conditioner on the spatial variability of soil environment

O. Urbanovičová, K. Krištof*, P. Findura, M. Mráz, J. Jobbágy and M. Križan

Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Biosystems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK94976 Nitra, Slovakia
*Correspondence: koloman.kristof@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to assess and evaluate the effect of soil conditioner on the spatial variability of soil environment. Activator PRP-SOL conditioning soil properties was selected as a field of study. Assessment of soil environment was done through the evaluation of selected soil properties, namely, tensile resistance of the soil and soil infiltration ability. Two dose of PRP-SOL application was done twice in year 2015 (Autumn and Spring) and once in 2016 (Spring) with application rates 150 kg ha-1 and 140 kg ha-1, respectively. The area was divided into blocks where stimulators were applied and none treated as a control. The evaluation of recorded values showed that treatability and tillage itself was significantly better on the area which was treated by application of PRP-SOL activators. In addition, tensile resistance was decreased by 5.71% in comparison with non-treated area of experimental field. Since the infiltration ability is among the very important soil properties which have an effect on soil moisture regime as well as surface runoff and therefore soil erosion. The evaluation of recorded values has revealed the effect of treatment by PRP-SOL activators on soil infiltration ability and therefore it results in increases infiltration of precipitation as well. Overall increase of infiltration was recorded at value 2 mm h-1. It can be concluded that application of soil activators may increase the soil conditions and therefore not only conserve soil fertility but even increase it from the long term perspective.

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2211-2228 K. Vehovský, K. Zadinová, R. Stupka, J. Čítek, N. Lebedová, M. Okrouhlá and M. Šprysl
Fatty acid composition in pork fat: De-novo synthesis, fatty acid sources and influencing factors – a review
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Fatty acid composition in pork fat: De-novo synthesis, fatty acid sources and influencing factors – a review

K. Vehovský, K. Zadinová*, R. Stupka, J. Čítek, N. Lebedová, M. Okrouhlá and M. Šprysl

Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Animal Husbandry, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00, Prague – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Corresponding author: zadinova@af.czu.cz

Abstract:

Fats are among the basic nutrients the human organism needs as a source of energy, as well as to grow and regenerate cells, tissues, and organs. Particularly animal fats, with their higher proportion of saturated fatty acids and low content of n-3 fatty acids, are often seen by the public as relatively undesirable food components. Fatty acid (FA) composition of pork is affected by many factors: genotype, breeding, gender and feeding methods. Numerous research teams, therefore, have searched for means of effectively manipulating the chemical composition of animal fats. This paper reviews existing knowledge and means of effectively influencing the fatty acid composition in pig fat, which is a significant component of human food in European countries due to their high consumption of pork. The findings of various authors demonstrate that not only altering of fatty acids sources in animal diets but a range of other factors as well can significantly influence the composition of fatty acids in pig fat and consequently pork quality.

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2229-2241 I. Vitázek, R. Majdan and M. Mojžiš
Volatile combustible release in biofuels
Abstract |
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Volatile combustible release in biofuels

I. Vitázek*, R. Majdan and M. Mojžiš

Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Transport and Handling, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
*Correspondence: ivan.vitazek@uniag.sk

Abstract:

Plant biomass consists of varied materials. Biomass is used for different purposes, but it is most frequently burnt in modern combustion devices for heat production. The quality of solid biofuels depends on the total content of combustibles while the volatile combustible content affects the combustion process. The aim of the paper is to determine the exact content of the biofuel components by the means of the gravimetric method – namely volatile combustible, ash and moisture content – and to evaluate the process of volatile combustible release as a function of temperature during the experiment. The device Nabertherm L9/11/SW/P330 type with accessory was used to carry out the experiments. Various biofuel samples were examined, namely wood (9 kinds), wood cuttings and wood chips (2 kinds), pellets (4 kinds), sawdust (1 kind), compared to less traditional fuels (DDGS and RME – 2 kinds) and wood coal (1 kind). The tables and graphs present the experimental results, which allow evaluation of the components content in different biofuels and provide characteristics of the process of volatile combustible release in analysed fuels. Spruce wood without bark showed the highest content of combustible (99.89%). Sawdust of fruit trees contains the highest proportion of volatile combustible (93.978%) and releases the combustible at the highest rate (15.25 mg h-1).

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2242-2253 M. Zargar, G. Bodner, A. Tumanyan, N. Tyutyuma, V. Plushikov, E. Pakina, N. Shcherbakova and M. Bayat
Productivity of various barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars under semi-arid conditions in southern Russia
Abstract |
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Productivity of various barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars under semi-arid conditions in southern Russia

M. Zargar¹*, G. Bodner², A. Tumanyan¹, N. Tyutyuma³, V. Plushikov¹, E. Pakina¹, N. Shcherbakova³ and M. Bayat¹

¹RUDN University, Institute of Agriculture, Department of AgroBiotechnology, Miklukho-Maklaya steet 6, RU117198 Moscow, Russia
²University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Crop Sciences, Gregor-Mendel-Str. 33, AT1180 Vienna Vienna, Austria
³Near-Caspian Scientific Research Institute of Arid Agriculture, Village Solenoye Zaimische, Severny District 8, RU416251 Astrakhan Region, Russia
*Correspondence: zargar_m@pfur.ru

Abstract:

Drought is a significant factor limiting crop production in arid conditions. In the dry climatic weather situation of southern Russia, ten-year laboratory trials and subsequent field experiments were laid out on various barley varieties collected across the globe during 2007–2017 period. This study was conducted to ascertain from the collection of barley cultivars of the entire world which one is best suited to stressful climatic conditions by being tolerant to drought, heat and salinity which can be adopted for barley breeding. According to the results obtained, the varieties that are tolerant to dry climatic conditions are as follows: Alga (Lithuania), Brenda, Henni (Germany), Décor (Great Britain), Furat 5 (Syria), Vakula (Ukraine), Ataman (Belarus) and Vladimir (Russia); heat resistant varieties are: Brenda (Germany), Alga (Lithuania), Furat 5 (Syria), Ataman (Belarus), Vladimir and Ratnik (Russia); Salt-resistant varieties: Alga (Lithuania), Henni (Germany) and Vladimir (Russia). The selected varieties did not show any sign of adverse weather effect resulting in stable grain productivity throughout the entire duration of this research over the years, they had large grain size and stable 1,000 grains weight. However, the yield of selected cultivars varied over the years which was about 1.1–1.4 t ha-1.

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2254-2264 M. Zargar, P. Polityko, E. Pakina, M. Bayat, V. Vandyshev, N. Kavhiza and E. Kiselev
Productivity, quality and economics of four spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars as affected by three cultivation technologies
Abstract |
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Productivity, quality and economics of four spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars as affected by three cultivation technologies

M. Zargar¹*, P. Polityko², E. Pakina¹, M. Bayat¹, V. Vandyshev¹, N. Kavhiza¹ and E. Kiselev²

¹Department of AgroBiotechnology, Institute of Agriculture, RUDN University, RU117198 Moscow, Russia
²Moscow Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture “Nemchinowka” Odintsovo Area, RU143026 Moscow, Russia
*Correspondence: zargar_m@pfur.ru

Abstract:

Managing farming inputs in wheat production technologies is an issue of paramount importance to attain optimum profitable production. To examine how varying the farming inputs affects the nutrients uptake and productivity of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and to determine the economic efficiency of various cultivation technologies, three-year field experiments were laid out at the Russian Research Institute of Agriculture, during the 2015–2017 growing seasons. Experiments were conducted once a year using randomized complete block arranged in a split plot experimental design with three replications, with the cultivation technology treatments (basic, intensive and high intensive technology) as the main plots, and spring wheat cultivars (Zelata, Lubova, Liza and Ester) as the sub-main plots. The highest grain yield (10.8 t ha-1), harvest index (42.9%), gluten content (39.45%) and gluten index (71.17%) observed for spring wheat cultivar Lubova with the moderate application of farming inputs as an intensive cultivation technology. Highest protein content (18.02%) was attained for both intensive and high intensive cultivation technology with the cultivar Lubova, and the highest 1,000 grains weight (46.32 g) was recorded by cultivar Lubova in basic cultivation technology. Applying moderate amount of inputs as an intensive cultivation technology resulted in highest wheat yield and net income.

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2265-2281 O. Zinina, S. Merenkova, A. Soloveva, T. Savostina, E. Sayfulmulyukov, I. Lykasova, and A. Mizhevikina
The effect of starter cultures on the qualitative indicators of dry fermented sausages made from poultry meat
Abstract |

The effect of starter cultures on the qualitative indicators of dry fermented sausages made from poultry meat

O. Zinina¹*, S. Merenkova¹, A. Soloveva², T. Savostina³, E. Sayfulmulyukov³, I. Lykasova³, and A. Mizhevikina³

¹South Ural State University (national research university), Department of Food and Biotechnology, Lenin Avenue 76, RU454080 Chelyabinsk, Russia
²Meat processing complex Sitno, Laznik street 30, RU455000 Magnitogorsk, Russia
³South Ural State Agrarian University, Gagarin street 13, RU457100 Troitsk, Chelyabinsk Region, Russia
*Correspondence: zininaov@susu.ru

Abstract:

Changes in physicochemical, rheological and microbiological properties occurring throughout the ripening (on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28) of dry fermented sausages made from poultry meat were studied. The effect of starter bacteria on the microstructure and sensory attributes of dry fermented sausages has also been determined. The results of physicochemical analysis of dry fermented sausage shows no significant difference (P < 0.05) between the test (inoculated) and the control sausages in the protein, fat, moisture, salt, ash and nitrite content. However, the significant difference (P > 0.05) between the control and inoculated batches in lowering the pH level, changing the critical shear stress, growth of viable microorganisms, accumulation of amine nitrogen during ripening was established. The results show, that inculcation of starter cultures accelerates biochemical processes during fermentation and thereby provides the necessary functional and technological properties of minced meat. Sensory profiling showed a more significant (P < 0.05) acidic and spicy flavour and intensity of acidic and smoked meat aroma; and increased firmness and cohesiveness in inoculated sausage. The results of microstructural analysis showed that the dry fermented sausages that ripened with the starter bacteria (Lactobacillus curvatus, Staphylococcus carnosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus), differ from the control sample compacted as a thin surface layer which is formed during the drying, smoking and maturation, and that indicates more uniform moisture removal.

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2282-2302 V. Zubko, H. Roubík, O. Zamora and T. Khvorost
Analysis and forecast of performance characteristics of combine harvesters
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Analysis and forecast of performance characteristics of combine harvesters

V. Zubko¹*, H. Roubík², O. Zamora³ and T. Khvorost⁴

¹Sumy National Agrarian University, Engineering and Technology Faculty, Department of Tractors, Agricultural Machinery and Transport Technologies, H. Kondratiieva street 160, UA40020 Sumy, Ukraine
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Department of Sustainable Technologies, Kamýcká street 129, CZ165 00 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
³Sumy State University, Educational-Research Institute of Business Technologies “UABS”, International Economics Department, Petropavlivska street 57, UA40030 Sumy, Ukraine
⁴Sumy National Agrarian University, Engineering and Technology Faculty, Department of Department of Occupational Safety and Physics, H. Kondratiieva street 160, UA40020 Sumy, Ukraine
*Correspondence: zubkovladislav@ukr.net

Abstract:

This article presents results of an experimental research of qualitative indicators of the modern combine harvesters (Case IH Axil Flow 8230, MasseyFergusonMFT7, JohnDeereS680i, ClaasLexion760, NewHolland CR9.80) used for winter wheat harvesting. Based on the results obtained, determination was made regarding the productivity of combine harvesters on the field, fuel consumption, and field conditions influence the grain loss and grain damage caused by a harvester. When conducting the experimental research of a combine’s performance on the field, a study of the effectiveness of the combine JohnDeereS680i was made on different modes. A program ‘Machine Unit’, designed by the authors, was used for the determination of productivity, fuel consumption and quality indicator for harvesting.

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