Volume 16 (2018)
  Number 2

Full text of the journal: Volume 16 Number 2

Contents


Pages

313-319 A. Aboltins, J. Tomsu and P. Kic
Red clover drying coefficient dependencies on air velocity at constant drying temperature
Abstract |
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Red clover drying coefficient dependencies on air velocity at constant drying temperature

A. Aboltins¹*, J. Tomsu² and P. Kic²

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Institute of Agricultural Machinery, Cakstes blvd.5, LV–3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamycka 129, CZ16500 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: aivars.aboltins@inbox.lv

Abstract:

The clover is widely used as feed of animals and preservation of fodder is an important problem. This paper informs about the experimental and theoretical investigations of red clover (Trifolium pratense) drying by forced convection. This research is focused on verification of influence of different air velocities on the drying process of red clover in thin layer in mild temperatures (22 °C) and rather high relative humidity of air (70%). The initial moisture content of clover was determined by gravimetric method using the hot air drying in the electric oven. Special device for convection drying with air flow passing through material from the bottom through supporting trays with a sieve (dimensions of mesh 3 x 4 mm) by constant temperature was used for drying when the air velocity 0.7 m s-1, 1.0 m s-1, 1.2 m s-1 and 2.0 m s-1. These results was compared with drying by free convection. Changes of clover samples were determined from the measured values of weight using the gravimetric method. The function of drying coefficient K(t) is determined (using thin layer theory) and theoretical results are compared with experimental results. Using experimental results were determined relationships between air velocity and parameters included in function of drying coefficient. This allows theoretically to predict the drying process depending on the air velocity.

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320-327 R.R. Andrade, I.F.F. Tinôco, C.F. Souza, K.P. Oliveira, M. Barbari, V.M.F. Cruz, F.J.F. Baptista, M.O. Vilela, L. Conti and G. Rossi
Effect of thermal environment on body temperature of early-stage laying hens
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Effect of thermal environment on body temperature of early-stage laying hens

R.R. Andrade¹, I.F.F. Tinôco¹, C.F. Souza¹, K.P. Oliveira¹, M. Barbari²*, V.M.F. Cruz³, F.J.F. Baptista³, M.O. Vilela¹, L. Conti² and G. Rossi²

¹University of Viçosa, Department of Agricultural Engineering of Federal, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n Campus University of Viçosa, CEP: BR36570-900, Viçosa, Brazil
²University of Firenze, Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems – Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
³University of Évora, Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas (ICAAM), Apartado 94, PT7006-554 Évora, Portugal
*Correspondence: matteo.barbari@unifi.it; rafaella.andrade@ufv.br

Abstract:

The thermal comfort condition of early-stage laying hens can be verified by means of physiological variations. The mean surface temperature and cloacal temperature are important parameters to demonstrate the effect of the thermal environment on the birds. The objective of the present study was to correlate homeostasis and stress with physiological responses (mean surface temperature and cloacal temperature) of lightweight laying hens of the Lohmann LSL Lite line aged from one to forty-two days when submitted to different thermal environments. A total of 864 birds with the same age, origin and uniform body weight were randomly distributed in four climatic chambers. The characterization of the different environments was as follows: thermal comfort temperature (33.0–19.0 °C), two cold stress levels (28.0–17.0 °C and 25.0–17.0 °C) and one level of heat stress (38.0 °C – 22.0 °C). The experiment was performed in a completely randomized design in the subdivided plots scheme, with four treatments in the plots and the evaluations (days) in the subplots. The means were compared using the Tukey test, adopting the 5% probability level. The birds maintained the physiological responses, based on cloacal and surface temperatures, within the normal range for all evaluated treatments during the period between 01 and 42 days of life. The surface temperature of the birds varied as a function of the air temperature of each breeding environment, with lower surface temperatures for mild cold and moderate cold treatments.

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328-336 E. Aplocina
The role of field beans in nutrition of Boer goat
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The role of field beans in nutrition of Boer goat

E. Aplocina

Institute of Agrobiotechnology, Latvia University of Agriculture, Liela street 2, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia
Correspondence: elita.aplocina@llu.lv

Abstract:

A study on the effective using of field beans to Boer mother goats feeding was carried out on a farm whose main activity is the production of goat meat. Since the Boer goat breed is still very rare in Latvia, there is a lack of experience in the feeding of meat goat. Goat productivity was analyzed according to the birth weight of goat kids and kids live weight at 50 days, as well as the average live weight gain of kids per day up to 50 days old. For control group goats a relatively high energy shortage (14% of the daily requirement) and protein deficiency (29% of the daily requirement) were observed in feed ratio. Adding fodder beans and maize into the feed, it is possible to optimize feed ratio for energy and protein supply. Experimental activities had shown that by the inclusion of field beans and maize in feed ratio of goat’s mothers, the average increase in live weight of kids up to 50 days old was by 58.2% higher (P < 0.05) than that of kids in which goats’ mothers received only oats as concentrated feed. By the optimization of feed ratio, it is possible to achieve a higher milk productivity of goat mothers and hence larger live weight gain for kids, which reduces the feed costs by up to 9% for 1 kg of live weight. By optimizing the breeding and feeding of mother goats and kids, it is possible to achieve greater animal fast-growing, hence, more efficient and cost-effective management.

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337-348 S. Benlahrech, G. Kaci, M. Teffahi and S.M. Ounane
Influence of inoculation and phosphorus regimes on symbiotic nitrogen fixation and phosphorus use efficiency of Algerian cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)) landraces
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Influence of inoculation and phosphorus regimes on symbiotic nitrogen fixation and phosphorus use efficiency of Algerian cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)) landraces

S. Benlahrech*, G. Kaci, M. Teffahi and S.M. Ounane

Integrative Breeding of Vegetable Production Laboratory, National High School of Agronomy, Avenue Hassen Badi, El Harrach, DZ16200 Algeria
*Correspondence: benlahrechsamia@gmail.com

Abstract:

To study the genotypic variation of cowpeas on plant growth and phosphorus (P) uptake which is a function of different P regimes in the soil rhizosphere, 6 landraces of cowpea commonly found in northern Algeria (NE4, NE10, NE11, NKT5, NKT7, NKB7) and 4 landraces from Sahara in southern Algeria (NAG4, NAG5, NAT2 and ND3) were studied during 2013–2014 in greenhouse. They were inoculated with Mesorhizobium sp. (S1), Bradyrhizobium sp. (S2) and co–inoculation (S1–S2) under three P treatments: no P supply (P0), soluble P (PP) and insoluble P (TCP). Only varieties commonly found in northern Algeria nodulated with soluble P (PP) and inoculation containing Mesorhizobium sp. (S1). As a result of the symbiosis, the use of S1 has significantly increased shoot dry weight by 22%, total P content by 20% and P use efficiency for symbiotic nitrogen fixation by 18% compared to no inoculation (T). The landraces from the northern of Algeria expressed a higher growth than those from Sahara in the south of Algeria, especially three of them (NE4, NE10 and NE11) who showed a high performance under all P regimes. We suggest that these three landraces may be useful for improving symbiotic nitrogen fixation in cowpeas when growth is limited by low–P soils and that they could contribute to sustainable farming systems through reduction of farmer’s dependence on fertilizers.

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349-356 V. Bulgakov, V. Bandura, M. Arak and J. Olt
Intensification of rapeseed drying process through the use of infrared emitters
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Intensification of rapeseed drying process through the use of infrared emitters

V. Bulgakov¹, V. Bandura², M. Arak³ and J. Olt³*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15, Heroyiv Oborony street, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Vinnytsia National Agrarian University of Ukraine, Soniachna street 3, UA21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; *Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The theoretical basis of the agricultural material drying techniques has been formed in the world for two and a half centuries. Nevertheless, despite the multitude of studies well presented in the literature, the industry still lacks universally recognized methods of design calculation for the majority of drying problems. Presumably, this is due to the fact that the dehydration of foodstuffs is one of the most energy-intensive and complicated work processes. In the process of thermal treatment during the drying, the physical state of the water in the treated item changes, the properties of the item itself are altered.
Recently, the drying of foodstuffs by means of infrared (IR) radiation has been gaining ever wider acceptance. At the same time, the technologies for dehydrating foodstuffs and materials are now far ahead of the theory of drying. Not only the classical literature on the drying problems, but even special studies on the subject cannot provide any specific recommendations for the design of installations with the electro-magnetic principle of energy input. Whereas that is exactly the type of installations that are now actively making headway, while offering serious challenges in their modelling. For that reason, experimenting has until now been the only reliable way of their studying. Despite the available extensive scientific literature on the drying, including works on IR units, the practical issues of engineering IR driers have not been tackled. All the existing studies consider solely particular cases. This study discusses the process of drying the fixed bed of rapeseeds with the use of the electromagnetic infrared emitter. The energy intensity of the process and the optimum thickness of the product bed are determined. The aim of the paper is to examine the effect that the operating condition parameters (energy input intensity, temperature, grain bed thickness) have on the drying kinetics and the energy characteristics of the process. The methods of research are based on the thermophysical analysis of the material’s structure. The experimental studies were carried out with the use of monitoring and measuring equipment, up-to-date methods and instruments, including solutions developed by the authors. The analytical treatment was performed with the use of the software packages: MathCAD, Excel. The sample testing and examination took place in the laboratory and the methods were in compliance with the applicable standards. A comprehensive experimental investigation of the effect that the operating parameters (specific load and power) have on the rape seed IR-drying kinetics had been accomplished.

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357-364 D. Čepauskienė, N. Pedišius and D. Milčius
Chemical composition of agromass ash and its influence on ash melting characteristics
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Chemical composition of agromass ash and its influence on ash melting characteristics

D. Čepauskienė¹, N. Pedišius¹ and D. Milčius²

¹Lithuanian Energy Institute, Laboratory of Heat–Equipment Research and Testing, Breslaujos str. 3, LT–44403 Kaunas, Lithuania
²Lithuanian Energy Institute, Center for Hydrogen Energy Technologies, Breslaujos str. 3, LT–44403 Kaunas, Lithuania
*Correspondence: Deimante.Cepauskiene@lei.lt

Abstract:

The increasing demand for biofuels leads to a growing need for agromass, such as herbaceous plants and agricultural waste. However, agromass contains high quanitites of alkali metals, mainly potassium and sodium, which limits agromass usage in thermoconversion processes. Alkali metals react with other ash forming elements which leads to ash related problems such as agglomeration, fouling and slagging during agromass burning. In this study, chemical composition and melting behaviour of ashes formed at 550 °C are investigated. Three herbaceous plants (reed canary grass, hemp, orchard grass), four types of agricultural waste (straws of rye, wheat, buckwheat and canola) and two types of woody biomass (birch, spruce) are selected. Ash melting behaviour, composition and bulk structure are determined using a high temperature furnace with a video camera, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission–spectrometry and X–ray diffraction technique, respectively. Ash melting behaviour of selected agromass types shows that the hemp ash has the highest shrinkage starting temperature which reaches 1,079 °C. This is due to the high content of calcium and low content of potassium and sodium in hemp ash. Three main components calcium carbonate, potassium sulfate and potassium chloride have been identified in ashes after agromass and woody biomass are heat–treated at temperature of 550 °C.

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365-376 V. Chiteculo, A. Brunerová, P. Surový and M. Brožek
Management of Brazilian hardwood species (Jatoba and Garapa) wood waste biomass utilization for energy production purposes
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Management of Brazilian hardwood species (Jatoba and Garapa) wood waste biomass utilization for energy production purposes

V. Chiteculo¹*, A. Brunerová²*, P. Surový¹ and M. Brožek²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Department of Forest management, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: brunerova@tf.czu.cz; chiteculo@fld.czu.cz

Abstract:

In the Federative Republic of Brazil, Jatoba (Hymenaea courbaril) and Garapa (Apuleia leiocarpa) trees are intensively harvested. The yield of one log is approximately 45–55%, which indicates a great amount of produced wood waste biomass.Present research monitored the suitability of wood waste biomass from Jatoba and Garapa trees for bio–briquette for solid biofuel production. The research was focused on chemical parameters,and energy potential of such biomass kinds. Jatoba wood waste biomass was used for the production of bio–briquette fuel and its final mechanical quality was investigated by determination of their mechanical quality indicators. Results of chemical analysis (in wet basis) exhibited great level of ash content in case of both species (Jatoba – 0.31%, Garapa – 3.02%), as well as high level of energy potential; net calorific value equal to 18.92 MJ kg–1 for Jatoba and to 18.395 MJ kg–1 for Garapa. Analysis of elementary composition proved following levels of oxygen content: Jatoba – 41.10%, Garapa – 39.97%. Mechanical analysis proved bio–briquette samples volume density ρ equal to 896.34 kg m–3 which indicated quality bio–briquette fuel, while the level of rupture force RF occurred at a lower level – 47.05 N mm–1. Most important quality indicator, the mechanical durability DU, unfortunately, occurred at a lower level; DU = 77.6% compared to the minimal level of bio–briquette fuels intended for commercial sales which must be > 90%. Overall analysis proved materials suitability for energy generation purpose with certain limitations which can improve by changing production parameters of briquetting.

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377-388 A. Cristobal-Sarramian and D. Atzmüller
Yeast as a production platform in biorefineries: conversion of agricultural residues into value-added products
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Yeast as a production platform in biorefineries: conversion of agricultural residues into value-added products

A. Cristobal-Sarramian* and D. Atzmüller

University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, School of Engineering, Stelzhamerstraße 23, AT4600 Wels, Austria
*Correspondence: alvaro.cristobal@fh-wels.at

Abstract:

In contrast to a petroleum-based economy, which relies on the unlimited presence of fossil fuels, a biobased economy utilizes a broad spectrum of natural crops and biomass as raw substrates for the production of valuable materials. Biorefineries represent a promising approach for the co-production of bioenergy (biofuels, biogas) and value-added products (biochemicals, biomaterials, food). Within Europe, wheat straw represents the major crop residue and has been extensively considered as a promising feedstock in the biorefining process. Firstly, wheat straw is hydrolysed to obtain a sugar solution that is further converted into the desired product in a biocatalytic manner. Microbial fermentation is the core component of biorefineries and yeast, as for instance Candida guilliermondii, is an effective production platform for both, biofuels and biochemicals. One limiting aspect in using yeast in the biorefinery approach is the presence of inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, such as acetic acid or furfural, influencing cellular growth and diverse metabolic processes. In order to overcome this problem, several genetic engineering approaches are used to increase yeast resistance towards these inhibitors and to enhance the overall production. In this paper, we summarized: 1) the pretreatment technologies for wheat straw bioconversion; 2) the Candida guilliermondii genetic engineering technologies and their biotechnological potential. In conclusion, biorefineries are a crucial factor in the transition towards a biobased and circular economy, and the implementation of yeast into this system offers a great opportunity to develop innovative strategies for a sustainable production in an environmentally friendly and economically feasible manner.

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389-397 L. Degola and D. Jonkus
The influence of dietary inclusion of peas, faba bean and lupin as a replacement for soybean meal on pig performance and carcass traits
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The influence of dietary inclusion of peas, faba bean and lupin as a replacement for soybean meal on pig performance and carcass traits

L. Degola and D. Jonkus

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Institute of Agrobiotechnology, Liela 2, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia
Correspondence: lilija.degola@llu.lv; daina.jonkus@llu.lv

Abstract:

The effect of peas, faba bean and lupin seed inclusion in growing and finishing pig diets was evaluated. The control diet included soybean meal at 15%, but in the trial groups diets peas were 15 or 28%, faba bean 20 or 25%, lupin seed 12 or 15%, completely replacing soybean meal. Diets formulated to be isoenergetic for ME and with the same crude protein content. The faba bean and, especially, lupin seed meal inclusion in pig diets for growing period significantly reduced ADG P = 0.02 and 0.01), and G : F was also significantly influenced (P = 0.02) for pigs in lupin seed meal groups. There were no effects on finisher pigs average daily gain, inclusion peas or faba bean, daily gain were, respectively 892 ± 19 and 915 ± 11, 867 ± 12 and 828 ± 11, except lupin seed meal (P = 0.04) inclusion. There were no significantly effects on carcass quality and to pork chemical content, but pigs fed the diets with peas 28% and faba bean 25% had less of lean meat content, greater backfat thickness and internal fat than other groups which have a similar results. The muscle chemical content show that inclusion of pulses increased the total fat content in pork. In conclusion, results from this experiment suggest that pigs fed peas and faba bean have equal or slightly lower growth performance and carcass traits than pigs fed soybean meal, except lupin seed meal.

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398-409 A. Gruduls, K. Balina, K. Ivanovs and F. Romagnoli
Low temperature BMP tests using fish waste from invasive Round goby of the Baltic Sea
Abstract |

Low temperature BMP tests using fish waste from invasive Round goby of the Baltic Sea

A. Gruduls*, K. Balina, K. Ivanovs and F. Romagnoli

Riga Technical University, Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Azenes street 12-K1, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: Arturs.Gruduls@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) is an invasive fish species in the Baltic Sea. While meat can be used for human consumption, fish processing residues are considered as a waste. Within circular economy and bio-economy perspectives fish waste could be used as a valuable feedstock for biogas production. However, the research is mostly focused on evaluating biogas yield at mesophilic conditions (i.e. 37 °C). In this study the impact of low temperature on Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests has been investigated. Round goby’s processing leftovers – heads, intestines and skin/bone mixture were tested in codigestion with sewage sludge. Anaerobic digestion (AD) was carried out in 100 mL batch tests at low temperature 23 °C and 37 °C conditions, over an incubation period of 31 days. The results show that AD at low temperature occurs twice as slowly as under 37 °C conditions. However, after 31 days the BMP values for 23 °C samples were only 2% lower than for high temperature samples. Heads and skins showed similar BMP values reaching on average 502 L CH4 kgVS-1 and 556 L CH4 kgVS-1 respectively. BMP for fish intestines was higher, reaching on average 870 L CH4 kgVS-1. Average BMP for mixes of fish heads, skins, intestines and bones was 660 L CH4 kgVS-1. Acquired BMPs were further compared with the theoretical BMPs from Buswell’s formula. Research results suggests that anaerobic digestion of fish waste under low temperature conditions could be feasible as the process still efficiently occurs, in fact opening a new opportunity to explore the overall sustainability of technologies based on these conversion processes.

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410-415 V. Hartová and J. Hart
Improvement of monitoring of cattle in outdoor enclosure using IQRF technology
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Improvement of monitoring of cattle in outdoor enclosure using IQRF technology

V. Hartová¹* and J. Hart²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: nverca@seznam.cz

Abstract:

Monitoring of cattle in the outdoor enclosure is a very important issue. Currently, the increasingly stealing cows and other cattle from the pasture. For businesses that manage it, this is a very lossy business. For thieves, the electric fences, which are currently the most widespread, are easily surmountly. And the owner does not have a chance early on to learn the fact theft of cattle. For this reason, a system for monitoring cattle on outdoor enclosure using IQRF (intelligent local network topology) technology has been developed. We have been dealing with this issue for a long time and the biggest problem was the monitoring of only the inner part of the enclosure. Previously, there was an overlap of monitoring in the area beyond grazing. This problem has been solved by using a shielded base for mounting IQRF receivers.

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416-425 T. Jehlička and J. Sander
Differential thermal regulation of the growth of the bee colonies in the early spring period
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Differential thermal regulation of the growth of the bee colonies in the early spring period

T. Jehlička* and J. Sander

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: jehlickat@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This paper addresses the issue of the control of activity and growth of the bee colonies (brooding) in the early spring period. The bees are brooding up already in the late winter, and the intensity of brooding in this period is determined by daytime temperatures and sunshine hours that increase the temperature of the inner hive space. The objective is to design and verify a technology that would ensure the conditions for the optimal brooding in the early spring period and thus the numerically strong bee colonies. The experimental part was based on the temperature regulation in the inner hive space. A preset temperature was maintained inside the hive by an electric heating system with regulation. A differential thermal regulation which enabled the optimal growth of the bee colonies in accordance with the phenophases was chosen for verification. To verify the proposed method, two groups of the bee colonies were assembled. One group of the bee colonies had a heating system with regulation installed inside the hive. The second group of the bee colonies was in the hives without the heating system installed. The dependence of the brood area on time was monitored for the evaluation of both groups of the bee colonies. It was proven that the differential thermal regulation enables the optimal growth of the bee colonies in the early spring period in accordance with the phenophases. The brood area increased evenly for the group of the bee colonies with a regulated temperature of the hive space, reaching a larger area.

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426-442 J. Jobbágy, K. Krištof, A. Schmidt, M. Križan and O. Urbanovičová
Evaluation of the mechanized harvest of grapes with regards to harvest losses and economical aspects
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Evaluation of the mechanized harvest of grapes with regards to harvest losses and economical aspects

J. Jobbágy, K. Krištof*, A. Schmidt, M. Križan and O. Urbanovičová

Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Biosystems, Tr.A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovakia
*Correspondence: koloman.kristof@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to evaluate the mechanized grape harvest conducted by the trailed harvester. As a criterions was introduced the performance, harvest losses of grapes and economic efficiency from the perspective of its introduction. The calculations consist of total annual and partial unit costs also with regards to indirect costs which are formed by the grape losses during the harvest. Evaluation was conducted on three varieties of grapes. The losses of grapes, total annual and partial unit costs were calculated for selected varieties of grapes and also for whole production area. The mean grape losses for whole production area were determined at 470 kg ha-1, while the greatest portion of these losses (9.7%) was observed in case of Neronet variety. Among other analysed aspect were the efficiency of mechanized harvest introduction by definition of labour costs and the ransom price of grapes in relation with minimum required area. A substantial part of total costs for area 100 ha was formed by direct costs up to 15.24% greater than the indirect costs. The efficiency of machinery introduction into the harvest process was observed at minimum area of 16.92 ha in case of rental mechanized harvest of grapes. In case of mechanized harvest conducted by previously bought trailed grape harvester the value of minimal efficiency was determined at 27.42 ha year-1. As a result then serves an effective utilization of mechanized grape harvest in selected company but it is not limited to it and can be applied on any other scenario.

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443-453 M.A. Kamberi, S. Muji, A. Kryeziu, R. Kastrati and N. Mestani
The excretion of Ca, Mg, Zn and Cu via excreta of laying hens fed low phosphorus diets and phytase
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The excretion of Ca, Mg, Zn and Cu via excreta of laying hens fed low phosphorus diets and phytase

M.A. Kamberi, S. Muji*, A. Kryeziu**, R. Kastrati and N. Mestani

University of Prishtina, ‘Hasan Prishtina’, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary, Department of Biotechnology in Zootechnics, Tahir Zajmi 34, XK10000 Prishtinë, Republic of Kosovo
*Correspdence: skender.muji@uni–pr.edu
**This author contributed equally to this work

Abstract:

An 8–week experiment was conducted to study the effect of adding phytase (Natuphos® 5000 BASF) to low and normal available phosphorus diets of laying hens on the excreta content and excretion of Ca, Mg, Zn and Cu. A total of 144 Hisex Brown laying hens that were 22 weeks old at the start of the experiment were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments. Treatments included three replicates (12 hens each) or 36 hens per treatment in total. Four corn-soybean meal-based diets were formulated to contain two levels of available phosphorus (AP; 0.12 and 0.46%) and two phytase levels (0 and 600 FTU kg–1). The results showed that there was no significant effect of added phytase on excreta Ca and Mg content (P > 0.05), but there was a significant effect of the dietary treatment on the content of Zn (P = 0.0075) and Cu (P = 0.0002). In terms of the excretion of these minerals, the dietary treatment had no effect on Ca and Zn excretion and a borderline effect (P = 0.0522) on Mg excretion measured as the amount of the mineral excreted per egg mass produced is observed. The results however showed a very strong effect of all three factors (available phosphorus, phytase and their interaction) on Cu excretion. The results indicate that adding 600 FTU to the corn-soybean meal laying hen diet with 0.12% or 0.46% AP beneficially affects the content and the excretion of Ca, Mg, Zn and Cu. Therefore, we can conclude that a laying hen diet containing 0.12% available phosphorus and 600 FTU during the first production cycle may not only satisfactorily support hens’ performance but will also beneficially affect the environment.

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454-463 A. Karlsons, A. Osvalde, G. Čekstere and J. Pormale
Research on the mineral composition of cultivated and wild blueberries and cranberries
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Research on the mineral composition of cultivated and wild blueberries and cranberries

A. Karlsons*, A. Osvalde, G. Čekstere and J. Pormale

Institute of Biology, University of Latvia, Laboratory of Plant Mineral Nutrition, Miera street 3, Salaspils, LV-2169 Salaspils municipality, Latvia
*Correspondence: andis.karlsons@lu.lv

Abstract:

European cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos L.) and European bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) are among the most popular wild-harvested fruits in Latvia, traditionally used in folk-medicine and food. The commercial cultivation of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) and highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) was successfully started during last 20 years. With a berry production increase due to considerable hectarage of plantings and growing consumer interest in health-improving foods cultivated blueberries and cranberries have found a place in a daily intake as an excellent source of phenolic and nutritive compounds, vitamins and minerals. As the chemical composition of Vaccinium spp. has an important implication on human health, detailed information on the nutritional content of berries are of special importance. The aim of this study was to compare the contents of twelve biologically essential elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Mo, B) in berries of four Vaccinium species: cultivated and wild blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum and Vaccinium myrtillus) and cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon and Vaccinium oxycoccus). Together 136 (leaf and berry) samples were collected from 7 main cranberry and blueberry producing sites and 17 native woodland areas and bogs in Latvia. A comparison of wild and cultivated species showed similar concentrations for the macroelements K, Ca and S in cranberry and N, P in blueberry fruits. While statistically significant differences were found for N, P and Mg in case of cranberries and Ca, K, Mg and S for blueberries. The research revealed statistically significant differences of most micronutrients in cultivated and wild berries. Plant leaf and fruit analysis revealed the organ-specific distribution of mineral elements in all species studied. In most of the cases, leaf analysis supported concentration differences in fruits.

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464-473 V. Komasilovs, A. Zacepins, A. Kviesis, A. Nasirahmadi and B. Sturm
Solution for remote real-time visual expertise of agricultural objects
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Solution for remote real-time visual expertise of agricultural objects

V. Komasilovs¹, A. Zacepins¹, A. Kviesis¹, A. Nasirahmadi² and B. Sturm²

¹University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Information Technologies, Department of Computer Systems, Liela iela 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²University of Kassel, Process and Systems Engineering in Agriculture Group, Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Nordbahnhofstrasse 1a, D-37213, Witzenhausen, Germany.
*Correspondence: aleksejs.zacepins@llu.lv

Abstract:

In recent years automated image and video analyses of plants and animals have become important techniques in Precision Agriculture for the detection of anomalies in development. Unlikely, machine learning (i.e., artificial neural networks, support vector machine, and other relevant techniques) are not always able to support decision making. Nevertheless, experts can use these techniques for developing more precise solutions and analysis approaches. It is labour-intensive and time-consuming for the experts to continuously visit the production sites to make direct on-site observations. Therefore, videos from the site need to be made available for remote viewing and analysis. In some cases it is also essential to monitor different parts of objects in agriculture and animal farming (e.g., bottom of the plants, stomach of the animal, etc.) which are difficult to access in standard recording procedures. One possible solution for the farmer is the use of a portable camera with real-streaming option rather than a stationary camera.
The aim of this paper is the proposition of a solution for real-time video streaming of agricultural objects (plants and/or animals) for remote expert evaluation and diagnosis. The proposed system is based on a Raspberry Pi 3, which is used to transfer the video from the attached camera to the YouTube streaming service. Users will be able to watch the video stream from the YouTube service on any device that has a web browser. Several cameras (USB, and Raspberry Pi camera) and video resolutions (from 480p till 1,080p) are compared and analysed, to find the best option, taking into account video quality, frame rates, and latency. Energy consumption of the whole system is evaluated and for the chosen solution it is 645 mA.

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474-482 M. Križan, K. Krištof, M. Angelovič, J. Jobbágy and O. Urbanovičová
Energy potential of densified biomass from maize straw in form of pellets and briquettes
Abstract |
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Energy potential of densified biomass from maize straw in form of pellets and briquettes

M. Križan, K. Krištof*, M. Angelovič, J. Jobbágy and O. Urbanovičová

University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Biosystems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK94976 Nitra, Slovakia
*Correspondence: koloman.kristof@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The aim of the study was the evaluation and comparison of energy potential of briquettes and pellets produced from the maize straw and woody biomass based on various diameters of pellets. By experimental measurements a calorific value and ash content was observed. Calorific value was measured by laboratory calorimeter IKA C 6000 (IKA® Works, Inc., USA) and laboratory combustion chamber Lindberg/Blue M (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., USA). Individual calorific values and ash content was observed and subsequently confronted to obtain differences with replication. The analysis showed that calorific value of pellets with diameter 6 mm ranged from 16.99 MJ kg-1 to 17.80 MJ kg-1. Calorific value of pellets with 8 mm diameter ranged from 16.63 MJ kg-1 to 17.20 MJ kg-1. However, compared calorific value of briquettes ranged from 14.99 MJ kg-1 to 15.66 MJ kg-1. Further analysis showed that ash content of samples varied as well and it’s even affected by diameter of pellets. While ash content of pellets with diameter 6 mm was observed as 4.9% of total volume in case of pellets with 8 mm it was observed at value 5.5%. Briquettes produced from maize straw have ash content at value 5.4%. In contrary, ash content of woody biomass was significantly higher, 11% of volume, specifically. At the basis of observed parameters it can be concluded that maize straw densified in form of briquettes and pellets have a great energy potential which is comparable and competitive with currently used materials for production of briquettes and pellets.

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483-491 A.J. Kryeziu, N. Mestani, Sh. Berisha and M.A. Kamberi
The European performance indicators of broiler chickens as influenced by stocking density and sex
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The European performance indicators of broiler chickens as influenced by stocking density and sex

A.J. Kryeziu, N. Mestani, Sh. Berisha and M.A. Kamberi*

Department of Biotechnology in Zootechny, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary, The University of Prishtina, “Bill Clinton” Boulevard, nn, XK10000, Prishtinë, Republic of Kosovo.
*Corresponding author: E-mail: muhamet.kamberi@uni-pr.edu

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different stocking densities on the growth performance of Ross 308 broiler chickens up to six weeks of age. A total of 216 one-day broiler chicks were randomly assigned to three treatment groups based on the stocking density: Low (LSD) = 14 chickens m-2, Medium (MSD) = 18 chickens per m2 and High (HSD) = 22 chickens m-2, with four replications. Higher body weight gain (TWG) was observed for the low (2,043.89 g) and medium (2,008.03 g) compared to the high (1,901.51 g) density. The study revealed that chickens of the LSD treatment consumed significantly (P < 0.01) more feed compared to the HSD chickens. High stocking density (22 m-2) tended to improve feed conversion ratio compared to medium (18 m-2) and low (14 m-2) stocking density, but the differences were not significant (P > 0.05). From the results of this study it can be concluded that broiler chicks can be stocked up to 22 chickens m2, as far as required standards are assured.

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492-499 J. Lev and J. Blahovec
Effect of I2/KI water solution to wheat seeds imbibition assessed by image analysis
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Effect of I2/KI water solution to wheat seeds imbibition assessed by image analysis

J. Lev* and J. Blahovec

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Physics, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: jlev@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Water plays key role in a seed germination due to its participation in starting of many metabolic processes that accompany the seed germination. Rate of water uptake into seeds is a usual basis for determination of the three germination phases. The water uptake into seeds during their germination was investigated by many researchers who used various methods (e.g. magnetic resonance micro-imaging, near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and visualization with I2/KI solution (Lugol’s iodine)). The method of using I2/KI water solution for this purpose is quite popular for its relatively applicability. In this paper we compared the seed surface area projection and shape development of the seeds imbibed in the I2/KI solution and in the pure water via image analysis. It was found that the presence of the I2/KI in water changes the increase of seeds volume during germination and the effect is different during the initial imbibition and during the next germination phases. The seed shape development is similar for both variants, pure water and I2/KI solution.

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500-509 L. Litke Z. Gaile and A. Ruža
Effect of nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat yield and yield quality
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Effect of nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat yield and yield quality

L. Litke¹²* Z. Gaile¹ and A. Ruža¹

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Agrobiotechnology, Lielā iela 2, LV–3001, Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Research and Study Farm "Pēterlauki", Lielā iela 2, LV-3001, Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: linda.litke@llu.lv

Abstract:

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most common cereal, which is grown in Latvia. Nowadays, farmers are trying to get high grain yields in line with food quality, at the same time trying to minimize production costs and to use environmentally friendly technologies. The objective of this experiment was to clarify the impact of nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat yield and yield quality under two soil tillage systems and after two forecrops. Trials were conducted at the Research and Study farm ‘Peterlauki’ of Latvia University of Agriculture (56° 30.658’ N and 23° 41.580’ E). Researched factors were (1) crop rotation (wheat/wheat and oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera)/wheat), (2) soil tillage (traditional soil tillage with mould-board ploughing at a depth of 22–24 cm and reduced soil tillage with disc harrowing at a depth below 10 cm), (3) nitrogen fertilizer rate (altogether eight rates: N0 or control, N60, N90, N120(90+30), N150(90+60), N180(90+60+30), N210(90+70+50), and N240(120+60+60)), and (4) conditions of the growing seasons 2014/2015, 2015/2016 and 2016/2017. The results indicate that winter wheat yield has been significantly affected by soil tillage, nitrogen fertilizer rate (p < 0.001) and forecrop (p < 0.05). Three-year research confirmed significant yield increase until the nitrogen fertilizer rate N180. Significantly higher average grain yield was obtained under traditional soil tillage. Nitrogen fertilizer affected significantly all tested yield quality indicators (p < 0.001). Increase of nitrogen fertilizer rate secured significant increase of winter wheat grain quality indices, except starch content, after both forecrops and in both soil tillage variants. Values of yield quality indicators increased significantly enhancing N-rate from N150 up to N210

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510-522 K. Loit, L. Soonvald, M. Kukk, A. Astover, E. Runno-Paurson, T. Kaart and M. Öpik
The indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonisation potential in potato roots is affected by agricultural treatments
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The indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonisation potential in potato roots is affected by agricultural treatments

K. Loit¹²*, L. Soonvald¹, M. Kukk¹, A. Astover², E. Runno-Paurson³, T. Kaart⁴ and M. Öpik⁵

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Chair of Plant Health, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Chair of Soil Science, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Chair of Crop Science and Plant Biology, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
⁴Estonian University of Life Sciences, Chair of Animal Breeding and Biotechnology, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
⁵University of Tartu, Department of Botany, 40 Lai St., EE51005 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: kaire.loit@emu.ee

Abstract:

There is an urgent need to develop novel approaches to enhance sustainable agriculture while not reducing crop yields. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi establish symbiotic associations with most crop plants improving plant performance and soil health. This study investigated the extent of colonisation of potato roots by indigenous AM fungi in the arable soil under conventional and organic farming systems. Potato roots had greater AM fungal colonisation levels under organic than conventional farming, though in general, root colonisation levels were extremely low in both farming systems. Potato root AM fungal colonisation was lower with higher soil P content and higher with higher annual C input. Trap plant root AM fungal colonisation was considerably higher than in field potato roots and showed that soil mycorrhizal inoculum potential was higher in organic than in conventional farming. Thus, the positive impact of manure application in organic fields to the potato AM fungal colonisation can be explained by previous higher total annual C fresh organic matter input and lower soil P content under treatment. Furthermore, the natural AM fungal abundance in the soil was sufficient to colonise trap plant roots, suggesting a low mycorrhizal dependence of the studied potato cultivar.

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523-533 M. Macák, V. Rataj, M. Barát and J. Galambošová
Comparison of two sowing systems for CTF using commercially available machinery
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Comparison of two sowing systems for CTF using commercially available machinery

M. Macák*, V. Rataj, M. Barát and J. Galambošová

Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Biosystems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovakia
*Correspondence: miroslav.macak@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The crop establishment belongs to crucial technology operations. The quality of sowing is the basis for obtaining efficiency of production. Controlled Traffic Farming (CTF) is a technology which prevents excessive soil compaction and minimizes compacted area to the smallest possible area of permanent traffic lanes (PTL). There were two sowing systems compared, namely row and band sowing when growing winter barley. Sowing parameters as well as all other field operations were identical for both compared systems. Measurements were conducted at an experimental field on non-compacted and traffic lane areas where CTF system was introduced in 2009, with 64% of compacted and 36% of non-compacted soil. Six crop parameters were analysed. Generally, it can be concluded that the band sowing performed better in yield (by 9.3% in non-compacted area; by 3.8% in traffic lane), ear number (by 5.2% in non-compacted area; by 10.1% in traffic lane) and grain number (by 6.3% in non-compacted area; by 8.1% in traffic lane) as well as crop height (by 6.6% in non-compacted area; and by 2.4% in traffic lane). The only parameter performing worse was TGW with decrease of 6.6% in non-compacted area and decrease 2.8% in traffic lane for band system. Differences in number of grain per ear were negligible.

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534-542 J. Malaťák, J. Velebil and J. Bradna
Specialty types of waste paper as an energetic commodity
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Specialty types of waste paper as an energetic commodity

J. Malaťák*, J. Velebil and J. Bradna

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00, Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: malatak@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The collection and recycling rate of paper and paper packaging material has been on a rise. From 2010 to 2016 in Czech Republic, the recycled amount of all paper went up by 32%, while the share of energy use in waste paper utilization decreased from 5.5% to 3.8%. However, not every paper and cardboard product can be recycled, and some are rejected from the recycling stream. Recycling specialty types of paper with other grades of recyclable paper is often not possible and their production is not high enough for their separate recycling to be feasible. If material utilization is not feasible then within the waste hierarchy the next best treatment is their energy utilization. Therefore, this article evaluates selected types of specialty paper for their energy content. They were silicone coated papers, polymer coated papers, and paper cores. For all samples proximate, elemental and calorimetric analyses were determined and based on them stoichiometric combustion calculations were performed. Silicon coated papers fared generally well having small to reasonable ash content 1–10% and net calorific value from 15.10 to 17.10 MJ kg-1 on dry basis. Polymer coated papers had ash content around 6% and net calorific value from value from 16.29 to 22.98 MJ kg-1 on dry basis. With the exception of paper cores and self-copying paper, all evaluated paper types could be recommended as a component in refuse derived fuels. The least suitable samples were paper cores with nearly 20% wt. of ash and net calorific value 12.45 MJ kg-1 on dry basis.

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543-555 M. Mimra, M. Kavka and P. Markytán
Evaluation of break-even point and gross margin economic risks in producing winter oilseed rape
Abstract |

Evaluation of break-even point and gross margin economic risks in producing winter oilseed rape

M. Mimra¹*, M. Kavka¹ and P. Markytán²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilisation, Kamýcká 129, CZ–16521 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
²Union of Oilseeds Growers and Processors, Na Fabiánce 146, CZ–18200 Prague 8–Březiněves, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: mimra@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The economic result of growing winter oilseed rape is influenced by a number of variables, such as natural influences, input prices and the used technology. One of the ways to improve the business’s profitability is to use the experience and knowledge provided by consulting companies. This paper analyses two data series covering the period of 5 to 10 years regarding specific selected key parameters for companies using the counselling services of the Union of Oilseeds Growers and Processors in Prague (UOGP) and some other companies that make no use of these services (OTHERS).
For the selected key parameters, the risk analysis of reaching the gross margin and the break-even point was conducted with the aid of the Monte Carlo stochastic simulation method. The results of the calculations show that the companies using UOGP consulting achieve on average, at the same level of risk, a gross margin higher by 30% and their break-even point is lower by 11%. Taking advantage of the knowledge and services provided by a consulting company has positive economic benefits, and it increases the competitiveness of companies.

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556-563 K.P. Oliveira, C.F.S. Ferreira, I.F.F. Tinoco, R.R. Andrade, M. Barbari, V.M.F. Cruz, F.J.F. Baptista, M.F.A. Vieira, L. Conti and G. Rossi
Productive performance of broilers at the final stage of breeding submitted to different levels of metabolizable energy in different thermal environments
Abstract |
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Productive performance of broilers at the final stage of breeding submitted to different levels of metabolizable energy in different thermal environments

K.P. Oliveira¹, C.F.S. Ferreira¹, I.F.F. Tinoco¹, R.R. Andrade¹, M. Barbari²*, V.M.F. Cruz³, F.J.F. Baptista³, M.F.A. Vieira⁴, L. Conti² and G. Rossi²

¹University of Viçosa, Department of Agricultural Engineering of Federal, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n Campus University of Viçosa, CEP: BR36570-900, Viçosa, Brazil
²University of Firenze, Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
³University of Évora, Department of Rural Engineering, Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas, Núcleo da Mitra, Évora, Portugal
⁴Federal Rural University of Amazonia – UFRAPA-256, s/n – Nova Conquista, Paragominas – PA, 68627-451
*Correspondence: matteo.barbari@unifi.it; kelle.oliveira@ufv.br

Abstract:

The Brazilian poultry industry is an activity in constant development due to the high indices of productive efficiency. The accelerated evolution of poultry production has allowed to obtain early and very efficient broilers able to convert different foods into animal protein. However, due to this intensive breeding system, a series of metabolic and management problems appeared, with emphasis on thermal stress. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physiological responses of broiler chickens in the final stage of breeding (21 to 42 days of life), submitted to two thermal conditions, one representative of the thermoneutrality situation (T1) and one giving a situation of cyclic stress by heat (T2). For each experimental thermal condition, the birds were submitted to different levels of metabolizable energy of 3,050, 3,125, 3,200, 3,275 kcal kg-1. At 28, 35 and 42 days, the birds and the feed leftovers were weighed to measure the performance variables: CR (feed intake), GP (weight gain) and CA (feed conversion), viability of the rearing (Vb), productive efficiency index (PEI).
As conclusions, the GP was 13.6% higher for the birds maintained at the thermoneutrality situation T1. The PEI was 32.5% higher for the birds maintained in T1 condition, when compared to those kept in T2. However, both in thermoneutral and in heat stress conditions, the increase in the level of metabolizable energy in the diet did not influence the performance and the productive efficiency index of broiler chickens aged between 21 and 42 days of age.

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564-573 G. Rossi, L. Conti, K. Al-Fartosi and M. Barbari
Implementation of practical solutions to improve buffalo breeding development in rural areas of South Iraq
Abstract |
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Implementation of practical solutions to improve buffalo breeding development in rural areas of South Iraq

G. Rossi¹, L. Conti¹, K. Al-Fartosi² and M. Barbari¹*

¹University of Firenze, Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems (GESAAF), Via San Bonaventura 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
²Dhi-Qar University, College of Science, University Campus, IQ0096442 Nassiriyah, Iraq
*Correspondence: matteo.barbari@unifi.it

Abstract:

Buffalo breeding is widely spread in rural areas of southern Iraq, especially in marshlands. In the Provinces of Basrah, Dhi Qar and Maysan the buffalo represents the main source for survival of local people in marshlands. The paper shows the situation in these areas, remarking the main critical points for buffalo breeding development. A survey in 24 buffalo farms was carried out by the Department of University of Firenze to verify the situation of buffalo farming in southern Iraq (years 2014–2016). In particular the study shows problems related to the shortage of food for animals, to the lack of suitable structures and infrastructures, to the poor herd management by farmers. In the paper the main critical points, which compromise the success of the breeding, are pointed out, with particular reference to animal welfare, animal health and labour (care of animals and risks for workers). Solutions to mitigate the scarce results are indicated. In particular some practical interventions carried out during a project funded by Italian Agency for Cooperation and Development are presented and discussed. Such interventions refer mainly to the application of feeding racks, systems for a safe capture of the animals, plants and equipment for heat protection. As conclusion, also in difficult and poor areas like Iraqi marshes, a correct design and a right application of simple constructive and plant solutions, with little employment of technological resources, coupled with a good training of farmers, can give a contribution to solve problems in buffalo breeding.

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574-581 G. Rossi, L. Conti, G. Bambi, M. Monti and M. Barbari
Poultry farming solutions for a sustainable development of marshlands areas of South Iraq
Abstract |

Poultry farming solutions for a sustainable development of marshlands areas of South Iraq

G. Rossi, L. Conti, G. Bambi, M. Monti and M. Barbari*

University of Firenze, Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems (GESAAF), Via San Bonaventura 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: matteo.barbari@unifi.it

Abstract:

The Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems of University of Florence carried out cooperation projects in the South Iraq, funded by Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, focused on the development of rural areas. All the proposed interventions were designed taking into account some key points, such as the development of sustainable farming systems, the protection of the environment, the empowerment of women role. Among the main activities, a particular importance is given to the simple solutions for poultry breeding that represents an important economic resource for many farmers and a source of food for a large segment of the population. Therefore the main aim of the project was to define new building solutions to apply in the area of marshlands. A mobile poultry shelter was designed and built to meet the demand for meat and eggs from a typical rural family. This shelter was designed to be used for extensive breeding, with animals free to graze outside during the day. A suitable self-building methodology was applied to obtain results from farmers without specific skills for wood construction thanks to which they learn the appropriate way to build poultry shelters. As conclusion, poultry breeding can be spread in the area of marshlands using the simple self-building structures presented in the study.

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582-592 F.C. Sousa, I.F.F. Tinôco, M. Barbari, F. Baptista, C.F. Souza, A.O. Saraz, D.J.R. Coelho and A.L. Silva
Diagnosis of air quality in broilers production facilities in hot climates
Abstract |
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Diagnosis of air quality in broilers production facilities in hot climates

F.C. Sousa¹*, I.F.F. Tinôco¹, M. Barbari²*, F. Baptista³, C.F. Souza¹, A.O. Saraz⁴, D.J.R. Coelho¹ and A.L. Silva⁵

¹Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, Campus University of Viçosa, BR30570-000 Viçosa, MG, Brazil
²Università degli Studi di Firenze, Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems (GESAAF), Via San Bonaventura 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
³Universidade de Évora, Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas (ICAAM), Apartado 94, PT7006-554 Évora, Portugal
⁴Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Calle 59 A N 63, CO400-03 Medellin, Colombia
⁵Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Department of Animal Science, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, Campus University of Viçosa, BR30570-000 Viçosa, MG, Brazil
*Correspondence: matteo.barbari@unifi.it; fernanda.sousa@ufv.br

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate air quality of industrial farms of broilers production, located at Zona da Mata region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The environmental air quality was evaluated during the last rearing week, between 35 and 42 days of life of broilers. Facilities with beds constituted by two types of substrates were evaluated: coffee husks (6 reuse cycles) and shavings (4 reuse cycles). A total of 30 facilities (3 per each of the 10 reuse cycles) were investigated. Air quality was diagnosed by determining air temperature and relative humidity and by ammonia and carbon dioxide concentrations. Air temperature and relative humidity were not affected by reuse cycles in coffee husks bed, but these variables were affected by reuse cycles in shavings bed. Ammonia and carbon dioxide concentrations increased linearly according to the reuse cycles for both types of bed. The maximum concentrations of ammonia and carbon dioxide were 25 ppm and 1,348 ppm in facilities with bedding of coffee husks and 10 ppm and 1,075 ppm in facilities with bedding of shavings, respectively. Air quality of facilities using coffee husk bed tends to be worse when compared to facilities using shavings bed due to the higher values of ammonia and carbon dioxide concentrations, as observed in this study. In conclusion, regardless bedding type, increases in reuse cycles tend to decrease air quality inside the facility, since a linear increasing in ammonia and carbon dioxide concentrations can be observed in relation to the number of bed reuse cycles.

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593-603 I. Vitázek, J. Tulík and J. Klúčik
Combustible in selected biofuels
Abstract |

Combustible in selected biofuels

I. Vitázek*, J. Tulík and J. Klúčik

Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Transport and Handling, Tr.A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
*Correspondence: ivan.vitazek@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The aim of the research was to determine the moisture, combustible and ash content in selected biofuels, in dependence on temperature by the means of gravimetric method. For this purpose, the furnace Nabertherm L9/11/SW/P330 was used. Analyzed samples consisted of crushed biomass which is used in small heat sources (e.g. spruce wood, cherry wood, apple wood, black locust wood) with bark and without additives. Biomass for larger heat sources (woodchips cuttings from coniferous trees), sawdust mix (plum, cherry, walnut, apricot, apple) and pellets (90% spruce and 10% fir) were also analyzed. The results are processed graphically and enable to characterize the tested fuels. The highest content of combustible was found in spruce wood sample without bark (99.889%), the lowest content of combustible indicated cuttings from coniferous trees (88.402%). Gravimetric experiments were supplemented by DSC measurement of selected samples on calorimeter Toledo DSC822e. The graphic courses of reactions are provided up to 500 °C.

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604-614 T. Yezekyan, F. Marinello, G. Armentano and L. Sartori
Analysis of cost and performances of agricultural machinery: reference model for sprayers
Abstract |
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Analysis of cost and performances of agricultural machinery: reference model for sprayers

T. Yezekyan¹*, F. Marinello¹, G. Armentano² and L. Sartori¹

¹University of Padova, Department of Land, Environment, Agriculture and Forestry, Via dell'Università 16, IT35020, Legnaro, Italy
²Edizioni L'Informatore Agrario srl, Via Bencivenga - Biondani, 16, IT37133 Verona, Italy
*Correspondence: tatevik.yezekyan@phd.unipd.it

Abstract:

Management of agricultural operations is currently rapidly changing caused by increased attention to the concepts of sustainable development and sustainable intensification. Enhancement of productivity and efficiency of agricultural machinery are the leading factors in sustainable agriculture. The complete application and exploitation of engineering advances require the revision of traditional agricultural machinery management process. The definition of the farm fleet (tractors and implements), as well as machinery planning and management, must consider different parameters, including not only the cost of the machines but also their dimensions, weight, working width, needed power, etc. All of this information related to an agricultural machine is eventually influencing the impact on productivity, on the return on the investment, and also on the environment.
The present work is aimed at identifying the most relevant parameters which are influencing costs and performances of sprayers, including tank volume, maximum flow, needed power, weight and price. The different parameters are analysed in a correlation matrix, in order to allow identification of dependencies and to extract reference models.
The study is based on linear and multiple linear regression analysis carried out on technical specifications of about 700 models of sprayers. Relevant correlations were highlighted between price and weight, between weight and tank capacity and in some cases between power and weight. Following such correlations, models have been proposed, which can be implemented in order to support the decision making phases.

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