Volume 16 (2018)
  Number 3

Full text of the journal: Volume 16  Number 3

Contents


Pages

621-633 R. Abrahám, R. Majdan and R. Drlička
Comparison of consumption of tractor at three different driving wheels on grass surface
Abstract |

Comparison of consumption of tractor at three different driving wheels on grass surface

R. Abrahám¹*, R. Majdan¹ and R. Drlička²

¹University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Transport and Handling, Tr.A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
²Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Quality and Engineering Technologies, Tr.A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
*Correspondence: rudolf.abraham@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The paper deals with possibility of reduction of tractor fuel consumption when working on grass surface, and compares use of two versions of spike devices embedded to the original tyre body. The device was designed at Department Transport and Handling (Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra). Older as well as newer system proposed in 2017 comprises spikes and it is assembled to common tractor tyre tread pattern with auxiliary grooves cut in. Same device can be set to two positions, allowing to work as 8-spikes and 16-spikes system. The spikes are tilted in grooves when moving on paved road. The spikes are ejected out to reduce wheels slip when operated in field. Remaining eight spikes are tilted in case of 8-spikes system. Measurements were realised on grass surface. Tractor Mini 070 type was loaded with heavier tractor MT8-065 type in tests with 3 different driving wheels, balancing the actual weight in all cases. Drawbar pull and fuel consumption were measured in tests, allowing to compute specific drawbar consumption and fuel consumption per hour for three different loads. The results pointed out a fact the tyre slip loss and energy consumption of tractor movement increase at the soil humidity 19.45%. It follows from results achieved that use of both 8- and 16-spikes wheel device versions reduced fuel consumption when cultivating higher humidity soil, preferable for tillage. Eight spikes system with semi-tilted remaining spikes is the most efficient method.

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634-645 O.L. Akangbe, R. Adamovský and F. Mošna
Optimising cold compressive recovery of oil from the seeds of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)
Abstract |
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Optimising cold compressive recovery of oil from the seeds of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)

O.L. Akangbe¹*, R. Adamovský¹ and F. Mošna²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kamýcka 129, CZ16521 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics, Kamýcka 129, CZ16521 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: akangbe@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Effects of the time rate of deformation and aspect ratio on mechanical response and performance in single cycle cold compression scheme were investigated for bulk sesame seeds and response forms fitted using forward stepwise multiple regression technique. The degree of deformation was dependent on the time rate of its induction and the equipment’s aspect ratio. Energy requirement correlated positively with deformation rate and aspect ratio. Energy expenditure was however more efficient with larger aspect ratios than with smaller ones, given the associated volume energy demands. Strain resistance correlated positively with each of the two influence factors. The time rate of deformation was the most important predictor of oil yield and performance. All the fitted forms had highly significant effects in predicting the responses investigated with 76.7–99.6% of the behaviours of the system explained. The results are valid within the ranges of the influence parameters investigated.

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646-655 G. Bambi, G. Rossi and M. Barbari
Comparison between different types of bedding materials for horses
Abstract |
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Comparison between different types of bedding materials for horses

G. Bambi, G. Rossi and M. Barbari*

University of Firenze, Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems (GESAAF), Via San Bonaventura 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: matteo.barbari@unifi.it

Abstract:

The sports horse lives a large part of the time inside the pen in constant contact with the bedding. Therefore the bedding material can deeply affect the welfare and health of horses kept in pens. The materials have to ensure the realization of a double aim: to create a comfortable and soft surface on which the animal can stand and relax; to give appropriate hygienic and sanitary conditions. Other important factors influence the choice, such as: the material must not be appetizing for the horse; the litter has to maintain a proper level of moisture, so that the hoof is kept healthy, elastic and hydrated. Also the costs for material and litter management have to be taken into account. In the present study, different organic materials are compared: wood chips, hemp, rice, flax and coconut. The trials took place in five box stalls, with square plan of 3 x 3 m. Environmental data were collected during the trials (air temperature and humidity, ammonia concentration, litter moisture). Management data were also collected, regarding the use of bedding materials, working time, costs. In the paper the main results of the comparison between the different litter materials used in horses pens are presented.

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656-668 A. Brunerová, H. Roubík, M. Brožek and J. Velebil
Agricultural residues in Indonesia and Vietnam and their potential for direct combustion: with a focus on fruit processing and plantation crops
Abstract |

Agricultural residues in Indonesia and Vietnam and their potential for direct combustion: with a focus on fruit processing and plantation crops

A. Brunerová¹*, H. Roubík², M. Brožek¹ and J. Velebil³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Department of Sustainable Technologies, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: brunerova@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Energy consumption in Indonesia and Vietnam has grown rapidly in recent decades. To meet the energy needs of both countries, a higher utilisation of waste biomass sources may represent an adequate solution. Investigated samples represent major crop residues (waste biomass) originating mainly from the agriculture sector of the selected countries. Herbaceous waste biomass from Indonesia is, namely, cassava stems and root peelings (Manihot esculenta), coffee leaves (Coffea arabica), cacao leaves (Theobroma cacao), banana leaves (Musa acuminata), bamboo leaves (Bambusoideae spp.) and aloe vera leaves (Aloe vera). Furthermore, fruit and aquatic waste biomass originating from Vietnam is, specifically, sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum officinarum), durian peelings (Durio zibethinus), rambutan peelings (Nephelium lappaceum), banana peelings (Musa acuminata), water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). All mentioned types of waste biomass were subjected to proximate and calorimetric analysis: moisture, ash and volatile matter contents (%) and higher and lower heating values (MJ kg–1). Obtained values indicated the highest level of ash content in fruit biomass samples in the case of sugarcane bagasse (0.84%), in herbaceous biomass in the case of cassava stems (3.14%) and in aquatic biomass in the case of water hyacinth (14.16%). The highest levels of lower heating values were achieved by following samples (best samples from each biomass type): cassava stems (17.5 MJ kg–1); banana peelings (17.3 MJ kg–1) and water hyacinth (12.8 MJ kg–1). The overall evaluation of all observed samples indicated that the best suitability for energy utilisation by direct combustion of investigated representatives is fruit waste biomass, followed by herbaceous waste biomass and then aquatic waste biomass.

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669-678 J. Čedík, J. Chyba, M. Pexa, S. Petrásek, J. Jedelský and M. Malý
Air flow conditions in workspace of mulcher
Abstract |
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Air flow conditions in workspace of mulcher

J. Čedík¹*, J. Chyba², M. Pexa¹, S. Petrásek², J. Jedelský³ and M. Malý³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Department of Thermodynamics and Environmental Engineering, Technická 2896/2, CZ616 69 Brno, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: cedikj@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Currently, there has been a great effort on increasing the efficiency of agricultural machinery. The energy demands of mulching with the vertical axis of rotation depends on the amount of processed material per unit of time, its properties and efficiency of material processing. Another important factor that is affecting the overall energy demands is the energy losses, which can be even higher than energy, required for the processing of material. The efficiency of the material processing and the energy losses are influenced to a large extent by the air flow inside the mulcher workspace, which is created by the movement of working tools. The air flow ensures the repeated contact of the processed material with the working tools, affects the energy losses and the quality of work. The contribution deals with the air flow conditions inside the workspace of mulcher with the vertical axis of rotation. The velocity of the air flow was measured my means of LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometry) method in three planes above the surface (180, 100 and 20 mm) and in two directions (peripheral and radial). The laboratory model of one mulcher rotor from mulcher MZ 6000 made by BEDNAR Ltd. company was used for the measurement. From the results it is evident that the maximum values of peripheral velocity of the air flow reach approx. 50% of the velocity of the tools. In the radial plane an air vortex is created between 20 and 100 mm planes above the surface around the tip of the blade.

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679-687 L. Conti, S. Bartolozzi, S. Iacobelli, V. Racanelli and F. Sorbetti Guerri
Alarm guard systems for the prevention of damage produced by ungulates in a chestnut grove of Middle Italy
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Alarm guard systems for the prevention of damage produced by ungulates in a chestnut grove of Middle Italy

L. Conti*, S. Bartolozzi, S. Iacobelli, V. Racanelli and F. Sorbetti Guerri

University of Florence, Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems – Via
San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145, Italy
*Correspondence: leonardo.conti@unifi.it

Abstract:

Wildlife populations, in particular ungulates and carnivores, have had a significant
increase in most Italian regions over the last decades and for this reason ecosystems and
agricultural and forest productions are threatened by damage produced by wildlife. In order to
evaluate effective methodologies and technologies to mitigate the impact of this phenomenon,
innovative protection systems, such as electronic acoustic alarm guard sensors, were tested. These
devices are able to randomly produce a significant number of sounds and light projections. At the
same time, camera traps were used, as a support instrument to show the presence or absence of
wild fauna. Video analysis has provided information on the effectiveness of security systems, on
the most suitable methods of installation and management of devices and their ecological impact.
Experimental trials were carried out in a chestnut grove located in an Apennine area of the Middle
Italy during the harvesting period (autumn). The results obtained have shown that these
technologies seem to be particularly suitable for crops that concentrate production in a short time
(e.g. vine and chestnut) and in areas not excessively large. Widespread use of devices could
mitigate the conflict between public bodies involved in the management of wildlife and farmers.

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688-695 V. Dubrovskis, I. Plume and I. Straume
Anaerobic co-fermentation of molasses and oil with straw pellets
Abstract |
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Anaerobic co-fermentation of molasses and oil with straw pellets

V. Dubrovskis*, I. Plume and I. Straume

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Energetics, Cakstes blvd. 5, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: vilisd@inbox.lv

Abstract:

The average grain and straw production in Latvia is increasing in last decade. Straw is not always managed properly and its utilisation in biogas plants can be considered as an alternative. Straw is not the best feedstock for methane production, because it has high C/N ratio. Co-fermentation with other biomass with higher N content can improve the methane production. Purpose of investigation is to evaluate the wheat straw pellets biomass suitability for production of the methane and effect of its co-fermentation with molasses, fried sunflower oil and catalyst Metaferm. The anaerobic digestion process for biogas production was investigated in 0.75 L digesters, operated in batch mode at temperature 38 ± 1.0°C. The average biogas yield per unit of dry organic matter added from digestion of wheat straw pellets was 0.540 L g-1DOM and methane yield was 0.285 L g-1DOM. Average biogas yield from co-fermentation of wheat straw pellets and molasses was 0.777 L g-1DOM and methane yield was 0.408 L g-1DOM. Average biogas yield from fermentation of wheat straw pellets with 1ml Metaferm was 0.692 L g-1DOM and methane yield was 0.349 L g-1DOM. Average biogas yield from co-fermentation of wheat straw pellets and sunflowers oil was 1.041 L g-1DOM and methane yield was 0.639 L g-1DOM. All investigated biomasses can be used for methane production.

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696-707 E. Haiba, L. Nei, K. Herodes, M. Ivask and M. Lillenberg
On the degradation of metformin and carbamazepine residues in sewage sludge compost
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On the degradation of metformin and carbamazepine residues in sewage sludge compost

E. Haiba¹, L. Nei¹*, K. Herodes², M. Ivask¹ and M. Lillenberg³

¹University of Technology, Tartu College, Puiestee 78, EE51008 Tartu, Estonia
²University of Tartu, Institute of Chemistry, Ravila 14A, EE51010 Tartu, Estonia
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 58A, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: lembit.nei@ttu.ee

Abstract:

Recent decades have shown intensive studies devoted to the fate of pharmaceuticals in the environment. These studies have involved the development of analytical tools, determination of pharmaceuticals in different compartments, composting technologies, and plant uptake of pharmaceuticals. The presence of organic pollutants in sewage sludge, including pharmaceuticals, is a problem of major concern. The re-use of sewage sludge should be encouraged since it represents a long-term solution provided that the quality of the sludge re-used is compatible with public health and environmental protection requirements. Composting is a widely recognized way of making the soil application of sewage sludge safer.
In this study, the impact of sewage sludge composting on the degradation of metformin (MET), by far the most often prescribed antidiabetic drug worldwide, and carbamazepine (CBZ), a poorly biodegradable but widely used as an anticonvulsant drug to cure depression and seizures, were analysed. The anaerobically digested and dewatered sewage sludge samples were collected from municipal wastewater treatment plant. Composting experiments were performed under fixed conditions during 30 days. The results of the experiment showed that during a 1-month composting period more than 90% of MET residues degraded, but no degradation of CBZ took place during the composting period. The half-life of MET was 3 days for the compost mixture with the ratios of 1:3 and 1:2 (v:v). The results of this study show that composting maylead to the efficient degradation of MET, whereas for the elimination of CBZ from sewage sludge different means should be used.

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708-716 G. Hampejs, A. Jäger, S. Steiner and K. Steiner
Odour reduction of manure through addition of boracic charcoal
Abstract |
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Odour reduction of manure through addition of boracic charcoal

G. Hampejs¹*, A. Jäger¹, S. Steiner¹ and K. Steiner²

¹University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Bio & Environmental Technology, Stelzhamerstr. 23, AT4600 Wels, Austria
²HBLA Ursprung, Ursprungstraße 4, AT5161 Salzburg Austria
*Correspondence: g.hampejs@fh-wels.at

Abstract:

Odours released during the land application of manure results from different gases released from the liquid phase. These gases do create objectionable odours in the vicinity of the land-applied manure. In order to reduce the intensity of odour during manure application, we investigated the effectiveness of combining Borkohle with manure during land application.
Boracic acid is widely used as a flame retardant in cellulose insulation. During demolition of existing buildings, this insulation is sorted into its own residual waste fraction. The cellulose fibres are extracted and pelletized on site. Subsequently, the pellets are charred in a pyrolysis furnace. The resulting Borkohle – charcoal containing boron in various compounds – can be used as a soil enhancer and provides the trace element Boron to the fields. Furthermore, Borkohle provides long-term storage of carbon in the soil. Initial trials of combining boracic charcoal with manure additionally showed that odour emissions seemed to be significantly lower when manure was combined with Borkohle.
This work presents methods to quantify the odour reductions resulting from the addition of Borkohle to manure as well as first results. Parameters like the influence of the amount of charcoal added and exposure time have been investigated.
Charcoal was added at concentrations between 5 and 250 g L-1. While applying typical amounts of charcoal, a reduction of odour concentration of up to 85% was observed. A positive correlation between odour reduction and the amount of charcoal added was observed. Charcoal has a negligible effect when exposure times are less than 30 minutes.

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717-722 J. Hart and V. Hartová
Development of new elements to automatized greenhouses
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Development of new elements to automatized greenhouses

J. Hart¹* and V. Hartová²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: janhart77@gmail.com

Abstract:

Development of new elements to automatized of greenhouses is always needed and be it is to improve the current situation because of the increase effectiveness in greenhouses or their control. Czech University of Life Sciences Prague was to increase efficiency in greenhouses and therefore, devices designed to improve the automation in greenhouses have been designed and patented. The aim was to propose new improvements for automated greenhouses based on demand. This is primarily about solving the problem of lack of daylight and regularly occurring moss on the roof. This research and development are guided primarily because it is a agriculture branch in the stage of expansion, and it is essential that there is a continuous innovation and research in this field of science. New automatic features or upgrades to existing features in greenhouses, was solved on the basis of the current state of development current technology. When designed new technologies also help us grants, personal experience with a real installation and cooperation with manufacturers (or with distributors) greenhouses systems. Designs for a light routing system and a system for removing moss from the roof were made.

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723-727 P. Heřmánek, A. Rybka and I. Honzík
Determination of moisture ratio in parts of the hop cone during the drying process in belt dryer
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Determination of moisture ratio in parts of the hop cone during the drying process in belt dryer

P. Heřmánek*, A. Rybka and I. Honzík

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Praha 6 - Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: hermanek@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The paper deals with monitoring the moisture content of hop cones and their parts (strigs and bracts) in PCHB 750 hop belt dryer. When drying hop cones, the critical point is the sufficient drying of the strig. These are therefore dried to a moisture content of 6 to 8%. This exact moisture provides a sufficient guarantee ensuring that the strig is dried up. On the other hand, bracts are dried up to such a level which makes pressing the hops impossible. Therefore, after drying, the bracts are remoistened. This is called hops conditioning. After conditioning the moisture content of hops is optimal, ranging between 8 and 11%. There is no doubt that drying or any further moistening does not benefit the hop cone.
During the experiment, the moisture content was determined regarding the whole hop cones as well as the bracts and strigs separately, the samples of which had been taken from the hops prior to entering the dryer, from different parts of belts in the dryer and subsequently before and after the conditioning. The moisture content was determined by means of Mettler HE53 moisture analyzer. After the bracts and strigs had been dried, we calculated their weight ratio which was approx. 90% of bracts and 10% of strigs. Based on this ratio the weighted average was calculated which corresponds to the moisture content of the whole hop cone.
The measured values indicate that the average moisture content of hops below 10% was already at the beginning of the third belt of the dryer. The hops had been unnecessarily overdried along the whole third belt. Another output refers to the moisture ratio of hop cones, bracts and strigs in different parts of the dryer. The obtained values will serve as a basis for the follow-up design of a device for monitoring the dryer parameters and its visualisation.

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728-736 H. Hospodarenko, I. Prokopchuk, S. Prokopchuk and А. Trus
Humus content in a podzolized chernozem after a long-term application of fertilizers in a field crop rotation
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Humus content in a podzolized chernozem after a long-term application of fertilizers in a field crop rotation

H. Hospodarenko¹, I. Prokopchuk¹*, S. Prokopchuk¹ and А. Trus²

¹Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Agronomy, Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, 1 Instytutska street, UA20305 Uman, Ukraine
²Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Department of Applied Engineering and Labor Protection, 1 Instytutska street, UA20305 Uman, Ukraine
*Correspondence: pivotbi@ukr.net

Abstract:

The article presents the results of the research into influence of a long-term (50 years) application of different fertilizer rates and fertilizer systems in the field crop rotation on the humus composition and optical parameters of humic acids of a heavy- loamy podzolized chernozem of the Right Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine.
It was found that application of fertilizers significantly affects the dominance of humic acids over fulvic acids in the composition of soil, which indicates humate type of soil. Chroma index of humic acids is within 3.56–3.75 depending on a fertilizer. Indicators of the optical properties of humic acids of a podzolized chernozem have a high degree of humification.

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737-748 I. Janoško and P. Kuchar
Evaluation of the fuel commercial additives effect on exhaust gas emissions, fuel consumption and performance in diesel and petrol engine
Abstract |

Evaluation of the fuel commercial additives effect on exhaust gas emissions, fuel consumption and performance in diesel and petrol engine

I. Janoško* and P. Kuchar

Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Technical Faculty, Department of Transport and Handling, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
*Correspondence: ivan.janosko@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The paper deals with the impact assessment of the additives used in diesel and petrol fuel to improve the power and emission parameters of the vehicle and its consumption. The usage of additives in engine fuels have an increasing tendency. The manufacturers claim that additives have positive impact on engine operating parameters, cleaning the fuel supply system and decreasing fuel consumption by improving the engine combustion process. Based on the above statements, measurements were performed to determine change in the engine parameters utilising additives. Measurements were performed under laboratory conditions on the MAHA MSR 500 test bench (dynamometer) to simulate free driving cycle selected by authors, which were carried out at constant engine speeds and constant load. Focus have been given on tracking of the vehicle’s external speed characteristic and measurement of selected parameters: CO, HC, O2, fuel consumption (petrol engine) and smoke, fuel consumption (diesel engine). Resulting values of the driving cycles measured before and after additives application have been then compared. The result of experiment confirmed that tested fuel additives improved performance and torque depending on engine mileage and fuel type. Tested diesel engine with the higher mileage (approx. 388 k km) showed significant increase in power (cca 3.57%) and torque while in newer petrol engine (approx. 73 k km) improvement has not been measured. Emissions were improved in both engines. Difference has been also measured in fuel economy as in petrol engine consumption insignificant increased while in the diesel engine it decreased. This paper brings new complex view on energetical and emission changes in internal combustion engines.

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749-757 J. Kadeřábek, V. Shapoval and P. Matějka
Evaluation of the RTK receiver’s capability of determination the accurate position
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Evaluation of the RTK receiver’s capability of determination the accurate position

J. Kadeřábek¹*, V. Shapoval¹ and P. Matějka²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: jkaderabek@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The main aim of this experiment was to compare low-cost RTK receiver, that possible can be used for precise agricultural application, another that is currently used for these applications and the third one that suits for static measurement the most and gives the reference point for results comparison. The main idea of this research was to compare the measured positions during static measurement of RTK receivers. Were discovered that the receiver Trimble 750 was not able to work in fix mode (mode when the RTK receivers are capable to measure the most accurately) for the whole time. This fact affects the results from whole measurement and showed that errors were a little higher than producers specifies. The low-cost receiver u-Blox C94-M8P showed satisfying results when in most cases it was capable to solve the problem of ambiguity integer phases. The main parameters in this work that were counted and summarized were: accuracy, precision, RMS error, system status ratio and number of satellites.

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758-768 A. Kešner, R. Chotěborský, M. Linda and M. Hromasová
Using the FEM model for design the heat treatment of an agricultural tools
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Using the FEM model for design the heat treatment of an agricultural tools

A. Kešner¹*, R. Chotěborský¹, M. Linda² and M. Hromasová²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Eletrical Engineering and Automation, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: kesner@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Agricultural tools need mechanical properties such as abrasive wear, hardness and toughness. These mechanical properties are achieved by choosing a suitable steel and subsequent heat treatment of the steel. Phases of the microstructure affects the final steel properties. The phase composition in the steel is influenced with the designing of the heat treatment. 25CrMo4 steel was investigated for the production of agricultural tools. The heat treatments ware designed for different cooling conditions. The salt bath was used to cooling as a medium with subsequent cooling on the water or in the air. The FEM method was used to designing the heat treatment conditions. The Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov equation and the Koistinen-Marburger equations were used to prediction the microstructure phases. The microstructures were verified with experimental measurements. The ASTM G65 method was using for abrasion resistance tests. The results show that this procedure can be used to designing parameters of heat treatment of agricultural tools.

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769-783 K. Krištof and J. Gaduš
Effect of alternative sources of input substrates on biogas production and its quality from anaerobic digestion by using wet fermentation
Abstract |
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Effect of alternative sources of input substrates on biogas production and its quality from anaerobic digestion by using wet fermentation

K. Krištof¹* and J. Gaduš²

¹Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Biosystems, Tr.A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovakia
²Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of European Studies and Regional Development, Department of Regional Bioenergy, Tr.A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovakia
*Correspondence: koloman.kristof@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to confirm the suitability of alternative input substrates for production of biogas in order to decrease the need of utilization of high quality maize silage. All of the experiments were conducted by employment of wet fermentation process in mesophilic conditions (temperature in fermentor 40 ± 1 °C) in experimental fermentor with volume 5 m3. The experiments were realised in operating conditions of biogas station designed for utilization of agricultural biowaste. The experiments were divided into two alternatives (I and II cycle) and one control input substrates. In the first alternative (I cycle) was daily dosage formed by 33 kg of Amaranth and 250 L of control manure mixture. In this cycle, more than 3–times greater specific production of biogas was observed with average methane content 63.9% in comparison with control manure mixture (80 : 20%, liquid manure and manure). In the second alternative (II cycle) was daily dosage formed by 19.5 kg of sugar beer cuts, 3.3 kg of maize silage, 1.9 kg of oil-seed rape moldings, 2.5 kg of glycerin and 250 L of control manure mixture. In this cycle, more than 5.9–times greater specific production of biogas was observed. The decrease in average methane content 55.1% however also decrease in average content of hydrogen sulfide (128 ppm) was observed as well. An unquestionable advantage for both tested alternative mixed substrates was increase in biogas production and its quality in comparison with control substrate based on manure. At the basis of these findings can be concluded that both tested alternative input substrate mixtures are suitable as co–fermentation substances with great potential to increase the biogas production and its quality in case of wet fermentation processes.

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784-793 K. Křížová, J. Haberle, M. Kroulík, J. Kumhálová and J. Lukáš
Assessment of soil electrical conductivity using remotely sensed thermal data
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Assessment of soil electrical conductivity using remotely sensed thermal data

K. Křížová¹²*, J. Haberle³, M. Kroulík¹, J. Kumhálová⁴ and J. Lukáš²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
²Crop Research Institute, Division of Crop Protection and Plant Health, Drnovská 507/73, CZ 16106 Prague, Czech Republic
³Crop Research Institute, Division of Crop Management Systems, Drnovská 507/73, CZ16106 Prague, Czech Republic
⁴Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamýcká 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: krizovak@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Detection of heterogeneity (crop, soil, etc.) gained a lot of importance in the field of site-specific farming in recent years and became possible to be measured by different sensors. The thermal spectrum of electromagnetic radiation has a great potential today and experiments focused on describing a relation between canopy temperature and various vegetation characteristics are conducted. This paper was aimed to examine the relation between canopy temperature and electrical conductivity as one of staple soil characteristics. The related experiment was undertaken in Sojovice, Czech Republic, within an agricultural plot where winter wheat was grown in 2017 growing season. The examined plot was composed of three sub plots and 35 control points were selected within this area which the data were related to. A canopy was sensed by UAV (eBee carrying thermoMAP (FLIR TAU2) camera). Soil conductivity data were collected by terrestrial sampling using EM38-MK2 Ground Conductivity Meter in 1 m depth and 2 m sampling point distance. This dataset was later interpolated using the kriging method. The correlation analysis results showed a strong negative correlation between conductivity and thermal data (-0.82; p < 0.001). When comparing conductivity with NDVI representing the aboveground biomass, there was an opposite trend but also strong result (0.86; p < 0.001). Correlation coefficient of thermal data and NDVI comparison was -0.86; (p < 0.001). These preliminary results have a potential for further research in terms of soil characteristics studies.

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794-805 L. Leso, L. Conti, G. Rossi and M. Barbari
Criteria of design for deconstruction applied to dairy cows housing: a case study in Italy
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Criteria of design for deconstruction applied to dairy cows housing: a case study in Italy

L. Leso, L. Conti, G. Rossi and M. Barbari*

Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems, University of Firenze, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: leonardo.conti@unifi.it

Abstract:

This work aims at presenting the design process of a new barn for dairy cows. Project embraces several concepts that are rather new to the dairy industry and will deeply affect its environmental, economic and social sustainability. The barn will be built on a green field site located in Cervasca (CN) in the region of Piedmont. Building has been designed applying the emerging principle of “design for deconstruction” extensively. A series of constructive solutions was developed allowing for complete end-of-life disassembly and reuse of building materials. Structural system will consist of locally sourced timber connected by steel joints. Foundations will be realized by means of chestnut wood piles driven into the ground. The employment of an alternative housing system for dairy cows based entirely on cultivated pack will allow limiting the use of cast-in-place concrete, which is largely employed in conventional dairy barns. The cultivated pack needs a large space per cow leading the building to be particularly extended. The large covered area combined with the high snow load of the building site posed several challenges. Accumulation of snow on the roof would increase dramatically the structural load and therefore construction costs. Therefore, the building will consist of several 12m-large modules with 4m free space between them. Given the unusual shape of the barn and the limited use of concrete for flooring, the development of efficient systems for livestock management required the study of dedicated solutions. A first module, already realized to collect useful information for final design, is described.

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806-820 H. Luik-Lindsaar, R. Põldaru, A. Põder and J. Roots
Performance evaluation of rural areas: the case of Estonian rural municipalities before the administrative reform
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Performance evaluation of rural areas: the case of Estonian rural municipalities before the administrative reform

H. Luik-Lindsaar*, R. Põldaru, A. Põder and J. Roots

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu Estonia
*Correspondence: helis.luik@emu.ee

Abstract:

Estonian municipalities have recently passed an administrative reform that has resulted in the reorganisation of municipal management and decreased the number of municipalities. Unfortunately, no thorough scientific research has been done to find out whether the emerging helps to increase the efficiency. The aim of this paper is to estimate the efficiency of Estonian rural municipalities and to identify the factors that influence their efficiency. In this study we use a two stage analysis. In the first stage, we use the DEA Slacks-Based Model’s (SBM) output-oriented approach. In the second stage, we use the Fractional Regression Model (FRM) to determine relevant exogenous factors that are associated with efficiency. 170 Estonian rural municipalities have been analysed. According to the DEA results, 28% of municipalities (48) are efficient, the average efficiency of municipalities is 0.762. The analysis implies that there are considerable differences between smaller and larger rural municipalities. FRM results revealed that larger share of subsidies characterize inefficient municipalities. The weaker the municipality, the more state support the municipality must receive. A larger share of people with a higher education increases the efficiency, it is related to higher salaries and therefore higher revenue to the municipality. Elderly residents in the population increases the efficiency, however it isn’t sustainable in the long-run because more inputs are needed to offer various public services. The results indicate that the further away a municipality is from the capital, the more inefficient the municipality becomes.

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821-837 P.A. Marziliano, D. Russo, V. Altieri, G. Macrì and F. Lombardi
Optimizing the sample size to estimate growth in I-214 poplar plantations at definitive tree density for bioenergetic production
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Optimizing the sample size to estimate growth in I-214 poplar plantations at definitive tree density for bioenergetic production

P.A. Marziliano*, D. Russo, V. Altieri, G. Macrì and F. Lombardi

Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, Department of AGRARIA, Loc. Feo di Vito, IT89165 Reggio Calabria, Italy
*Correspondence: pasquale.marziliano@unirc.it

Abstract:

In Europe, over the last decades, the arboriculture for woody biomass production has significantly expanded, often using poplar plantations. In order to maximize production, the flexibility of the cultivation algorithms becomes necessary. For this reason, it is necessary to apply monitoring tools for the evaluation and estimate of the wood productions, without significantly affect the production costs. In particular, for the estimate of the productions, the choice of the sample size is of particular importance. The aim of this study was to verify a simplified sampling approaches in poplar plantations characterized by constant tree density. The research was conducted in a poplar plantation on the Tuscan hills (Italy). The surveys were carried out each year for 13 years, from 4 to 16 years old. Through different statistical techniques, the change in the social position of each tree over time was evaluated. The results showed that the social position of each tree has been characterized by the first years after the plantation. Consequently, the estimate of the productions can be carried out by analysing the diameter increment of 10% of the trees, included in the diameter classes around the medium-sized tree at the time of the survey. This study provided a valid method for forest managers characterized by a simplified approach useful to estimate the growth and yield of hybrid poplars. This method will permit reliable biomass estimates, but also a reduction of the costs in the sampling activities in the field.

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838-845 J. Mašek and P. Novák
Influence of soil tillage on oats yield in Central Bohemia Region
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Influence of soil tillage on oats yield in Central Bohemia Region

J. Mašek* and P. Novák

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamýcká 129,
CZ165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: masekj@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The paper describes results of the field experiment with two technologies of oats crop stand establishment. First technology is conventional technology and second is no-tillage technology. The article describes an experiment which was conducted in years 2013–2017. The experiments were located in Nesperská Lhota at Central Bohemia region. Altitude of selected field is 460 m. The experimental field is covered by a light cambi-soil. The differences between the two technologies stand establishment are discussed. Statistical evaluation was performed on both methods in the parameter number of tillers per m2 and yield. Crop yield is the basic indicator of agricultural production and usually affected by quality of soil tillage. One of the parameters affecting the yield is tillage (technology, working tools, depth, turning of soil etc.). Tillage depends mainly on the depth of processing and other quality parameters. An examination of the crop yield is necessary in terms of sensitivity, depending on agro-technical conditions. Among those can be included processing plant soil nutrition and plant protection. It’s always necessary commemorate, in these experiments can’t be excluded some parameters like locality or meteorological parameter influences. Field trial was conceived as multi-year experiment with minimal changes of agro-technical conditions. During the experiment, the positive effect of conventional technology on crop yields was found. This difference was reflected in the number of tillers and in total yield. The measurement shows the beneficial effect of the loosening of soil on the state of the oat crops. The results of experiment show that, the average yield in 5 years observation was 2.11 t ha-1 for no-till technology and 4.22 t ha-1 for conventional technology of tillage.

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846-853 V. Obraztsov, D. Shchedrina and S. Kadyrov
Festulolium seed production dependence on fertilizer application system
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Festulolium seed production dependence on fertilizer application system

V. Obraztsov*, D. Shchedrina and S. Kadyrov

Voronezh State Agrarian University named after Emperor Peter the Great, Department of Crop Science, Forage Production and Agricultural Technologies, ul. Mitchurina 1, RU394087 Voronezh, Russia
*Correspondence: ovennn@mail.ru

Abstract:

FestuloliumFestulolium F. Aschers. et Graebn.) is a new perennial grass Роасеае family. The benefits of this culture are good regrow capacity, increased sugars content and higher winter hardiness. It can be used as a green feed when creating cultivated hayfields and pastures. Widespread application of this new culture for forage production is constrained by the shortage of seeds, due to the imperfection of their production technologies. There are still very few of studies on the biology and technology of Festulolium cultivation in the forest-steppe of the Central Chernozem Region of Russia (CCR). The experiments involved the VIC-90 Festulolium variety with the first crop being the vetch-oat mixture harvested for green fodder. The soil in the experimental plots was leached medium thick medium loamy chernozem. The humus content in the arable horizon was 4.56%, pH was 4.9, degree of base saturation was 74‒86%, P2O5 content was 129 mg kg-1, K2O content was 115 mg kg-1 (according to Chirikov) and the hydrothermal index was 1.13. The experiment included the following variants: no fertilizer application (control) and application of mineral fertilizers (ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate phosphate fertilizer) at different doses. Soil preparation was conventional for seed swards of perennial grasses in the CCR. Festulolium was sown in broad drills by coverless sowing to the depth of 0.5–1.0 cm at the seeding rate of 6.0 kg ha-1. Experiments, records, observations and determination of economic and bioenergetic efficiency were carried out according to conventional procedures. It was found that the climatic conditions in the forest steppe of the CCR were favorable for Festulolium seed cultivation. Application of mineral nitrogen fertilizers in autumn at a dose of 60 kg ha-1 of active ingredient (AI) ensures the formation of high yielding erect seed-producing sward, and can increase harvest energy efficiency an average by 1.45‒1.82 times and obtain 591‒620 kg ha-1 of certified seeds. The greatest profitability of production (179%) and the highest notional farm net income (RUB 43,000 per hectare) are provided by a single application of ammonium nitrate fertilizer at a dose of 60 kg ha-1 of active ingredient in autumn (after vegetative mass topping).

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854-861 S. Rakutko, E. Rakutko, A. Avotins and K. Berzina
Irradiation level affects fluctuating asymmetry value of bilateral traits of cucumber in juvenile phase
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Irradiation level affects fluctuating asymmetry value of bilateral traits of cucumber in juvenile phase

S. Rakutko¹*, E. Rakutko¹, A. Avotins² and K. Berzina²

¹Institute for Engineering and Environmental Problems in Agricultural Production
(IEEP), 3 Filtrovskoje Shosse, RU196625, p.o. Tiarlevo, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
²Institute of Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Riga Technical
University, 1 Kalku street, LV-1658 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: sergej1964@yandex.ru

Abstract:

Light is an important factor of the plant’s environment. The aim of research was to confirm the hypothesis on the influence of different irradiation levels on the fluctuating asymmetry (FA) value of bilateral traits of plants cultivated in the indoor plant lighting. The object of research was the plants of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L) as one of the main glasshouse crops. Young 14-day-old cucumber plants in the first true leaf phase were studied. Different irradiation levels (15.0, 22.5 and 30 W m-2) were maintained by fluorescent lamps. An essential asymmetry of bilateral structures in plants grown under different irradiation levels was observed. It was found that statistically significant lower values of FA, that is greater stability of plant development, correspond to increased plant performance. When the irradiation level was switched from 15 to 30 W m-2 (by 100%), the FA index for different bilateral structures varied by different amount: in terms of cotyledons mass it decreased from 0.046 to 0.032 relative units (by 30.2%), in terms of chlorophyll content in cotyledons it increased from 0.038 to 0.073 relative units (by 88.6%). In some bilateral structures the FA index variation was rather small: in terms of the cotyledon area it was zero, in terms of the cotyledon thickness – by 1.8%. It was experimentally prove through the example of cucumber plants that FA index could be used as an indicator of plant developmental stability, characterizing the deviations of the growing environment parameters from the normal state in the indoor cultivating.

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862-871 B. Rivza, M. Kruzmetra and L. Sunina
Changes in composition and spatial distribution of knowledge-based economy in rural areas of Latvia
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Changes in composition and spatial distribution of knowledge-based economy in rural areas of Latvia

B. Rivza, M. Kruzmetra and L. Sunina

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies Faculty of Economics and Social Development, Institute of Economics and Regional Development, 18 Svetes street, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
Correspondence: swonders@apollo.lv

Abstract:

One of the features in the 21st century is growth of knowledge-based economic sector, which is referred as new growth theory. New growth theory reflects the attempt to understand the role of knowledge and technology in driving productivity and economic growth. In this view, key factors are investments in research and development, education and training and new managerial work structures. The aim of research is to estimate the composition and geographic location of knowledge economy and its perspectives in rural areas of Latvia in post-crisis stage. A special focus was placed on the mentioned processes in territorial units of the regions – municipalities, as the life of residents is influenced not only by national policies, but also by on-going processes in the administrative territories of local governments. The Eurostat classification of industries was used for the analysis of changes in composition and spatial distribution of knowledge-based economy. Data were processed by quantitative and qualitative statistical analysis, as well as grouping methods. The analysis of the information allows concluding that: municipalities with high and medium-high business is increasing and the business directions with bioeconomic features are the fastest growing ones in terms of composition. It must be stated that the economic growth in the rural territories was greatly affected by the quality of local governance and the fact that local community residents’ readiness for active, innovative and inclusive action is strengthened.

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872-883 T.K. Sajyan, N. Shaban, J. Rizkallah and Y.N. Sassine
Effects of Monopotassium-phosphate, Nano-calcium fertilizer, Acetyl salicylic acid and Glycinebetaine application on growth and production of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crop under salt stress
Abstract |

Effects of Monopotassium-phosphate, Nano-calcium fertilizer, Acetyl salicylic acid and Glycinebetaine application on growth and production of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crop under salt stress

T.K. Sajyan¹*, N. Shaban¹, J. Rizkallah² and Y.N. Sassine³

¹University of Forestry, 10 Kliment Ohridski blvd, BG1797 Sofia, Bulgaria
²Lebanese University, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Medicine, Department of Food Technology, Dekwaneh, Beirut, Lebanon
³Lebanese University, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Medicine, Department of Horticulture, Dekwaneh, Beirut, Lebanon
*Correspondance: Tony.sajyan@hotmail.com

Abstract:

Salinity problem is increasingly affecting tomato production in Lebanon leading to economic losses. The study investigated the potential effects of nano-Calcium (LITHOVIT®), monopotassium-phosphate (MKP: 0-52-34) fertilizers, Acetyl salicylic acid (Aspirin) and the osmoregulator glycinebetaine (GB) on salt tolerance of potted determinate tomato (variety Sila) plants in open-field. Salt stress was induced by irrigation solutions of EC = 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mS cm-1 and MKP (2, 3 and 3.5 g L-1), Aspirin (50, 75 and 100 mg L-1), LITHOVIT® (0.5, 0.75 and 1 g L-1) and GB (4.5, 6 and 7.5 g L-1) were applied through foliar application or fertigation. Comparisons between treated and non-treated plants at each salinity level (control) showed that LITHOVIT® decreased the salinity-induced reductions in stem diameter, leaf area and chlorophyll content. Medium concentrations of LITHOVIT® and Aspirin improved stem diameter and all products except Glycinebetaine improved flower number compared to control. Root dry weight and Root Mass Fraction were mostly enhanced in MKP and Aspirin-treated plants. Best improvement in plant yield (76%) was obtained with low concentrations of MKP and LITHOVIT® at EC = 8 mS cm-1 due to improvement in fruit number rather than fruit weight. Consequently, LITHOVIT® and MKP showed superior effects under salt stress compared to Aspirin and Glycinebtaine.

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884-891 L. Šenfelde and D. Kairiša
Effect of Automatic Feeding Station use on fattening performance in lambs and intake activity periods
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Effect of Automatic Feeding Station use on fattening performance in lambs and intake activity periods

L. Šenfelde* and D. Kairiša

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Agrobiotechnology, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: shenfeldel@gmail.com

Abstract:

Implementation of precise farming technology is very important for productivity increasing of livestock. One of the highest components of the production costs is feeding expenses. An automatic concentrate feeding stations (AFS) can ensure economic feed distribution and intake registration for animals individually. The aim of this research was to study the possibility and benefits of using AFS in fattening of lambs. Results show that during all the research average number of daily visits to AFS per lamb were 13 ± 0.2 visits, average daily live weight gain per lamb was 254 ± 15.7 g. For 1 kg lamb live weight gain 5.35 kg concentrate was used. More intesively acitivity periods of lambs was noted during following hours of day time: 02:00–02:59, 08:00–09:59 and 19:00–20:59. Significant (P ≤ 0.05) moderate positive correlation (r = 0.470) was found between average daily number of visits to the AFS per lamb and total amount of concentrate consumed during the research per lamb. Significant (P ≤ 0.05) strong negative correlation (r = -0.806) was found between average daily number of visits to the AFS per lamb and average amount of concentrate consumed during one visit.

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892-899 D. Sergejeva, I. Alsina, M. Duma, L. Dubova, I. Augspole, I. Erdberga and K. Berzina
Evaluation of different lighting sources on the growth and chemical composition of lettuce
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Evaluation of different lighting sources on the growth and chemical composition of lettuce

D. Sergejeva¹, I. Alsina¹*, M. Duma², L. Dubova¹, I. Augspole², I. Erdberga¹ and K. Berzina³

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Plant and Soil Science, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Chemistry, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
³Riga Technical University, Faculty of Power and Electrical Engineering, Kalku street 1, LV-1050 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: ina.alsina@llu.lv

Abstract:

Experiment were carried out in Latvia University of Agriculture in plant growth room. Lettuce Lactuca sativa L. var foliosum cv. ‘Dubacek’ and L .sativa L. cv. ‘Michalina’ were grown under 4 types of lights (luminescence lamps, commercial light emitting diodes (LED) lamps (V-TAC premium series – for plant growing) and two different Lumigrow LED strips – dominant wavelength- blue or red with 14 h photoperiod and total photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) 100 μmol m-2 s-1 in all variants. Plant weight, length, amount of leaves were measured. Content of chlorophylls, carotenoids, phenols, flavonoids in lettuce was determined three times per vegetation period. In experiments were found that higher lettuce yield was under commercial LED (V-TAC premium series), but these plants contain less soluble sugars, pigments and phenols. Better plant quality was obtained with luminescence lamps. These lettuces have higher sugar, phenols and flavonoids content. Lettuce growth under blue dominate LED (LEDb) was delayed, but these plants contain higher chlorophylls content. The differences in plant growth, response to light and biochemical content between cultivars were detected.

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900-909 D. Smiltina and Z. Grislis
Molecular genetics analysis of milk protein gene polymorphism of dairy cows and breeding bulls in Latvia
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Molecular genetics analysis of milk protein gene polymorphism of dairy cows and breeding bulls in Latvia

D. Smiltina* and Z. Grislis

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Agrobiotechnology, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: dace.smiltina@llu.lv

Abstract:

Milk protein is the most valuable component of milk from a dietary point of view. More than 95% of ruminants’ milk proteins are coded by six structural genes: two whey proteins (α – lactalbumin and β – lactoglobulin) and four caseins (αS1 – and αS2 – caseins, β – casein, κ – casein). The object of the research was the genetic polymorphisms of milk protein genes in populations of cows and breeding bulls of milk producing breeds in Latvia. The aim was to promote cow breeding in Latvia by developing and testing molecular genetics analyses for future quantity and quality analysis of the dairy cows’ population in Latvia, based on the research of genes encoding milk protein polymorphism. In methodology the molecular markers were chosen which would be suitable for characterization of polymorphism of five milk protein genes in the population of dairy cows reared in Latvia. As a genetic method chosen the Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) method and most analysed alleles of milk proteins. Using data of 719 DNA samples of dairy cows, the analysis of Latvian cows’ population was carried out through six SNP of five milk protein genes: CSN1S1 c.–175A > G, CSN2 – c.4451A > C, CSN3 c.11625C > T and c.11661A > C, LAA c.15A > G and LGB c.3106T > C. The results of PCR-RFLP analysis showed, as it was expected, that all genotypes were found in the populations.

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910-916 A. Stunda-Zujeva, M. Zuteris and K. Rugele
Sunlight potential for microalgae cultivation in the mid-latitude region – the Baltic states
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Sunlight potential for microalgae cultivation in the mid-latitude region – the Baltic states

A. Stunda-Zujeva*, M. Zuteris and K. Rugele

Riga Technical University, Faculty of Materials Science and Applied Chemistry, Institute of General Chemical Engineering, Pulka 3, LV-1007 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: agnese.stunda-zujeva@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Products, e.g. food and feed from microalgae are a promising part of bioeconomy. One of the most investigated and highly demanded microalgae is Spirulina. Light is one of limiting factors for biomass cultivation by photosynthesis. Sunlight is cheap and climate friendly light source. The aim of this study was to evaluate available sunlight potential in the mid-latitude region – the Baltic states (Europe, 55–60 °N) for microalgae, e.g. Spirulina growth. The data of Climate atlas based on satellites of EUMETSAT and data from an observation station in Riga were analyzed. The latitude and climate (cloudiness) were main parameters affecting the total solar radiation received by Earth’s surface. The sunlight potential in the Baltic states was higher than in most of Europe in similar latitude. Multi-year mean daylight intensity in the Baltic states was slightly less than in Southern France or Bulgaria, (26 klux and 30 klux, respectively, in summer) where Spirulina is commercially produced. Hourly solar radiation varied a lot in the Baltic states – from 880 W m-2 to 200 W m-2, sunny and overcasted noon of summer day, respectively; average value (8 a.m.–4p.m.) was 450 W m-2. Summer days are longer than 12 h, reaching 18 h in midsummer. The sunlight potential is suitable for microalgae, e.g. Spirulina cultivation in this period. From November till February days are shorter than 10 h and solar radiation is less than 300 W m-2 even in noon of sunny days.

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917-922 E. Väljaots, H. Lehiste, M. Kiik and T. Leemet
Soil sampling automation using mobile robotic platform
Abstract |
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Soil sampling automation using mobile robotic platform

E. Väljaots¹*, H. Lehiste², M. Kiik³ and T. Leemet²

¹Tallinn University of Technology, School of Engineering: Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ehitajate tee 5, EE19086 Tallinn, Estonia
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Chair of Bioengineering Technologies, Fr.R.Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
³University of Tartu, Institute of Computer Science, J.Liivi 2, EE50409 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: eero.valjaots@gmail.com

Abstract:

Land based drone technology has considerable potential for usage in different areas of agriculture. Here a novel robotic soil sampling device is being introduced. Unmanned mobile technology implementation for soil sampling automation is significantly increasing the efficiency of the process. This automated and remotely controlled technology is enabling more frequent sample collection than traditional human operated manual methods. In this publication universal mobile robotic platform is adapted and modified to collect and store soil samples from fields and measure soil parameters simultaneously. The platform navigates and operates autonomously with dedicated software and remote server connection. Mechanical design of the soil sampling device and control software is introduced and discussed.

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923-935 L. Zihare, R. Soloha & D. Blumberga
The potential use of invasive plant species as solid biofuel by using binders
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The potential use of invasive plant species as solid biofuel by using binders

L. Zihare,* R. Soloha & D. Blumberga

Riga Technical University, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Āzenes iela 12/1, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence to the author: lauma.zihare@rtu.lv

Abstract:

The aim of the current research is to find sustainable pellet resources that are not made from forestry, agricultural materials, or food products. Evaluation has been carried out by experimentally determining the biofuel parameters of two invasive plant species. In comparison to the process of finding a new application, their use in the production of solid biofuel pellets would not require additional investment for the construction of a new pellet production plant. The article’s hypothesis suggests that biofuel parameters for invasive plant species are sufficient for the production of solid biofuel and that their properties can be improved by binders that are available worldwide in the form of residues.
The experiment was carried out for two invasive plant species that are widespread in Latvia – Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden and Solidago canadensis L. The binders used include potato peel waste and spent coffee grounds. All of the tests have been carried out according to ISO standards on biofuel testing. Results show that H sosnowskyi is more suitable for solid biofuel than S canadensis as it has a higher calorific value and an ash content that is two times lower – 3 wt%. Coffee grounds are a suitable binder because they increase calorific value.
The type and amount of binders partly confirms the hypothesis, since both binders reduced the amount of ash in pellets. Further research is needed to carry out pellet durability tests. It is also necessary to carry out an economic analysis in order to evaluate how beneficial it may be to use H sosnowskyi as a solid fuel in existing pellet production plants, thereby avoiding large initial investments and not encouraging the cultivation of invasive plant species.

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