Tag Archives: 2010)

307-314 J. Čedík, M. Pexa, M. Kotek and J. Hromádko
Effect of E85 fuel on performance parameters, fuel consumption and engine efficiency – Škoda Fabia 1.2 HTP
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Effect of E85 fuel on performance parameters, fuel consumption and engine efficiency – Škoda Fabia 1.2 HTP

J. Čedík, M. Pexa, M. Kotek and J. Hromádko

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamycka 129, 16521 Prague – 6 Suchdol, Czech Republic; e-mail: cedikj@tf.czu.cz, pexa@tf.czu.cz, kotekm@oikt.czu.cz, janhromadko@tf.czu.cz Abstract: This article deals with the effect of the E85 fuel on the performance parameters, specific fuel consumption and engine efficiency of a spark ignition engine Škoda Fabia 1.2 HTP and it is related to the article Effect of E85 Fuel on Harmful Emissions – Škoda Fabia 1.2 HTP. The measurement was performed on a test bench using a test cycle that simulates real traffic conditions and simultaneously the external rotation speed characteristics were measured. Three variants were chosen for burning E85 fuel. The first one was the usage of the E85 fuel without modifications on the engine control unit (variant 1 – E85), the second one was the usage of the E85 fuel with prolonged time of the injection by 28% (variant 2 – E85+) and the last third variant was the reference fuel petrol Natural BA95 (variant 3 – N95) for comparison. The results of the measurement showed a non-negligible decrease of the engine torque and power for both variants using E85 fuel. Further, there was a considerable increase of the specific fuel consumption for variants 1 and 2 (E85, E85+). Engine efficiency for the driving cycle increased for variants 1 and 2 (E85, E85+) approximately by one percent. For the external rotation speed characteristics the engine efficiency increased approximately by 5% for variant 1 – E85 and approximately by 2% for variant 2 – E85+. Key words: E85 fuel, performance parameters, fuel consumption, engine efficiency.INTRODUCTION

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The increase in the usage of bioethanol as a fuel in Europe is significant (up to15% annually) (Beran, 2011). The reason could be the European Parliament and the European Council, which adopted the so called action plan concerning with the issue of biofuels in transport. In the action plan the strategy for achieving the planned 20% substitution of conventional liquid motor fuels with alternative fuels by 2020 is defined (Šebor et al., 2006). Furthermore according to the European Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequent repealing directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC the target is a 20% share of energy from renewable sources and a 10% share of energy from renewable sources in transport (EU Directive 2009/28/EC; Hromádko et al., 2009; Beran, 2011; Pirs & Gailis, 2013). The second reason could be the dependence of Europe on the imported crude oil products. European OECD countries were dependant on the imported crude oil in the year 2007 from about 65% and by 2030 the dependence could increase up to 83%. The transport in Europe is dependant on the crude oil products from about 98% (Šebor et al., 2006; IEA, 2009; Gnansounou, 2010). France is the major consumer of307

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239-248 T. Jokiniemi and J. Ahokas
A review of production and use of first generation biodiesel in agriculture
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A review of production and use of first generation biodiesel in agriculture

T. Jokiniemi* and J. Ahokas

University of Helsinki, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Agrotechnology, P.O. Box 28, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland; *Correspondence: tapani.jokiniemi@helsinki.fi Abstract. Biofuels manufactured by transesterification from organic fats and oils, usually known as first generation biodiesel, have often been rejected in recent energy policy discussions. Major reasons for this have been the low energy return on investment ratio and greenhouse gas emissions emerging from the production of biodiesel raw material. Studies have indicated that total greenhouse gas emissions from the production chain of first generation biofuels can be equal to fossil fuels or even somewhat bigger. However, considering the constantly rising energy prices and decreasing fossil energy resources, and the fact that a true substituent for fossils does not exist at the moment, first generation biodiesel could still offer some new possibilities as an energy source at farm level. Because of the limited production capacity and competition with food production, it would be rational to focus the use of this kind of fuel inside the agriculture system. The object of this review was to examine the use and production of first generation biodiesel at farm level in the present situation. This includes production of biodiesel, suitability for different applications, and economical and environmental evaluation. It was concluded that even though the first generation biodiesel would not reduce emissions, it can assist to save nonrenewable energy. Farm scale biodiesel production is not economically viable at the moment, but the viability is strongly influenced by feedstock price and several other factors. Key words: biodiesel, biofuel, rapeseed, RME, FAME, energy ratio, energy analysis.INTRODUCTION

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Biofuels refer to fuels manufactured from different kinds of organic biomass.Since also the fossil fuels are fundamentally organic, another criterion for biofuels is renewability: the raw materials have to renew with the same rate they are used in fuel production. Biofuels can be solid, gaseous or liquid, for example wood in different forms, biogas or carbon monoxide, alcohols and several biodiesel fuels. Absolute advantages of liquid biofuels are the high energy density, homogenous composition and good manageability, which lead to reduced storage space, long operation time without refueling and simple and familiar storage and handling technology. These factors are crucial especially in vehicle and moving machinery applications.Liquid biofuels are usually divided into first and second generation biofuelsaccording to the raw materials and production methods. First generation includes the ‘conventional biofuels, such as alcohols produced by fermentation and fatty acid esters produced from vegetable oils or animal fats. Second generation biofuels can be239

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255-260 U. Sannik, T. Reede, L. Lepasalu, J. Olt,A. Karus, A. Põldvere, R. Soidla, K. Veri and V. Poikalainen
Utilization of animal by-products and waste generated in Estonia
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Utilization of animal by-products and waste generated in Estonia

U. Sannik¹⋅², T. Reede¹, L. Lepasalu², J. Olt²,A. Karus², A. Põldvere², R. Soidla², K. Veri² and V. Poikalainen²⋅*

¹Competence Center of Food and Fermentation Technologies, Akadeemia tee 15A, EE12618 Tallinn, Estonia 2Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; *Correspondence: vaino.poikalainen@emu.ee Abstract. Three main directions must be considered in valorisation studies of animal by-products:1. Creation of a monitoring system that reflects the generation of animal by-products andwaste in the food production chain (livestock farming companies – meat industries – marketing and consumer); this includes mapping of by-products and waste, and the creation of a relevant database and models;2. Study of pre-treatment of various types of animal by-products and waste, whichincludes of size-reduction and fractioning as well as a physical and chemical study;3. Studies concerning the use of animal by-products and waste fractions (fat, protein,carbohydrates etc.) for the production of goods and energy. Large amounts of waste and by-products, which are suitable for further use, are generated in the food production chain. Animal by-products and waste consist of organic substances, which contain fat, protein, carbohydrates and often also important bioactive compounds. However, their use in Estonia is still rather modest and there is no complex approach to this. For example, the common technology for processing the by-products generated in meat industry is not designed for optimal use of protein-rich materials suitable for food (connective tissue, tendons, bones, rind and blood) to reduce the deficit of food protein of animal origin, but instead it is used for technical purposes, poured into sewerage or burnt. Many positive examples of the reuse of animal by-products and food waste can be found in European Union Member States (Denmark, Finland, Germany and Austria). This reduces environmental pollution and supplies energy production and industry with additional raw material. In this paper establishing research for a complex approach in the utilisation of animal by-products and waste for food, feed and technical purpose in the production chain is proposed. Keywords: animal by-products, food, feed, energy, biofuels.

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INTRODUCTIONFood production volumes generally meet the biological needs of the world’spopulation, but up to a billion people around the world are suffering from hunger due to the uneven availability of food. Deficit for proteins, including protein of animal origin, is high. Proteins of animal origin should comprise approximately half of the255

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