Tag Archives: agriculture.

xxx M. Mimra and M. Kavka
Risk analysis regarding a minimum annual utilization of combine harvesters in agricultural companies
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Risk analysis regarding a minimum annual utilization of combine harvesters in agricultural companies

M. Mimra* and M. Kavka

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilisation, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6–Suchdol, Czech Republic *Correspondence: mimra@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This article presents the results of entrepreneurial risk analysis concerning a minimum annual utilization of harvesters in a company providing agricultural services where a group of combine harvesters is used. Furthermore, this article presents the following analysed key operating parameters with the greatest influence on reaching the minimum annual utilization and performance: the changing market price of mechanized work, the volatile purchase price of the machines, average maintenance costs).
Partial profit which an enterprise can reach through operating combine harvesters is directly affected by the level of their annual utilization. Not reaching the minimum annual utilization of combine harvesters would create losses that could result in termination of business activity in the specific field or even insolvency of the company. It is therefore necessary to monitor the key factors which influence the minimum annual usage and in case of negative developments to take timely corrective actions.

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490–500 J. Nagy and A. Zseni
Human urine as an efficient fertilizer product in agriculture
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Human urine as an efficient fertilizer product in agriculture

J. Nagy¹* and A. Zseni²

¹Széchenyi István University, Faculty of Mechanical, Informatics and Electrical Engineering, Department of Applied Mechanics, Egyetem tér 1. HU9026 Győr, Hungary
²Széchenyi István University, Audi Hungaria Faculty of Automotive Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Egyetem tér 1. HU9026 Győr, Hungary
*Correspondence: nagyju@sze.hu

Abstract:

Flush toilet based water infrastructure, which handles blackwater and greywater together, causes a lot of environmental problems. Among these, the loss of valuable organic material and nutrient content of human excreta (faeces and urine) is not sufficiently emphasized yet. Utilization of human excreta for agricultural purposes is based on the separate collection of greywater and human excreta. As urine contains most of the nutrients of human excreta, researches focus mainly on urine’s treatment and utilization for agricultural purposes. We reviewed the data in literature about the nutrient content of human excreta. In this paper we present the content of macro and microelements of human urine to show its potential value as a fertilizer. To confirm the necessity of urine’s utilization in agriculture instead of treated it by traditional waste water treatment methods, we have collected and compared the most important advantages and disadvantages of traditional wastewater treatment, separated handling of greywater and excreta as well as human urine’s agricultural utilization.

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1069–1077 Č. Mizera,, D. Herák and P. Hrabě
Relaxation and creep behaviour of false banana’s fibre (Ensete ventricosum)
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Relaxation and creep behaviour of false banana’s fibre (Ensete ventricosum)

Č. Mizera¹,*, D. Herák² and P. Hrabě³

¹,²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ 165 21 Praha 6 Suchdol, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Kamýcká 129, CZ 165 21 Praha 6 Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: mizera@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This study was focused on the analysis of viscoelastic behaviour of fibres of false banana (Ensete ventricosum). The aim of the experiment was to describe the short term creep and relaxation behaviour under tension loading. The fibers of Ensete ventricosum, originally from Ethiopian region Hawasa, were used in this experiment. Moisture content Mc = 8.40 ± 0.67% (d. b.) and true density ρt = 668 ± 44 kg m-3 of the samples were determined. The specimens had initial gauge length of L0 = 100 ± 1 mm and the average yarn breaking load (YBL) after 20 tests was σr = 14.3 ± 1.7 N. To determine the relationship between tension force and deformation, tension device (Labortech, MPTest 5.050, Czech Republic) was used to record the course of deformation function. All tests were performed using a constant rate α = 3.1 N s-1. The short term creep tests were performed using constant loads of 30%, 60% and 90% of the average YBL. The short term relaxation tests were performed using constant strain of 30%, 60% and 90% of maximal strain. Measured data were analysed by computer software Mathcad 14. Experimental reep and stress relaxation curves at different load levels were determined. Experimental creep lifetimes tr for different load levels: 24,311 ± 7,489 s (30% YBL), 1,831 ± 462 s (60% YBL) and 17.6 ± 5.5 s (90% YBL) were determined. Initial modulus of elasticity, finite modulus of elasticity and initial energy of stress relaxation and creep of Ensete fibres were determined.

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680-689 Č. Mizera, D. Herák, M. Müller and P. Hrabě
Mechanical behaviour of polymeric composite with fibres of false banana (Ensete ventricosum)
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Mechanical behaviour of polymeric composite with fibres of false banana (Ensete ventricosum)

Č. Mizera¹*, D. Herák², M. Müller³ and P. Hrabě⁴

¹ ²Czech University of Life Science Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ-16521 Praha 6 Suchdol, Czech Republic
³ ⁴Czech University of Life Science Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Kamýcká 129, CZ-16521 Praha 6 Suchdol, Czech Republic *Correspondence: mizera@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This study was focused on the analysis of the deformation characteristics of the polymer composite with continuous phase in the form of two-part epoxies and discontinuous phase (reinforcing particles) in the form of fibres of false banana (Ensete ventricosum). The aim of the experiment was to describe the mechanical behaviour of polymeric composite reinforced by fibres of false banana under tensile loading and to determine the modulus of elasticity and deformation energy. The fibres of Ensete ventricosum, originally from Ethiopian region Hawasa, were used in this experiment. Reinforcing fibres were prepared in sizes of lengths 1–2, 2–3, 3–5, 5–6, 7–8, 9–10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 mm with randomly fibres arrangement in matrix. The fibres with length of 1–2, 2–3, 3–5, 5–6, 7–8 and 9–10 mm were used in short fibres composites and fibres with length of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 mm in long fibres composites. The composite material was created with 2 wt.% of the filler. The modulus of elasticity of the short-fibre composite material was increased of 28 ± 12% by adding Enset fibres as the filler. The modulus of elasticity of the long-fibre composite material was increased of 46 ± 14%. The influence of the fibre length on the value of the volume deformation energy was not proved.

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81-94 T. Jokiniemi, S. Jaakkola, M. Turunen and J. Ahokas
Energy consumption in different grain preservation methods
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Energy consumption in different grain preservation methods

T. Jokiniemi*, S. Jaakkola, M. Turunen and J. Ahokas

University of Helsinki, Department of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 28, 00014, University of Helsinki, Finland;
*Correspondence: tapani.jokiniemi@helsinki.fi

Abstract:

The energy consumption of hot air drying and alternative feed grain preservation methods was examined. Alternative methods were airtight preservation, acid preservation and grain crimping. The results indicate that significant energy savings can be achieved by using any of these methods instead of hot air dying for preservation of home-grown grain used for animal feeding. Remarkable differences in the energy consumption between the alternative methods were also found. Grain crimping showed the lowest energy consumption, but the effect of the used additive and especially the storage system was large. A suitable option for different farm animal species can be found among these methods, and the limitations, when they exist, are set rather by the feeding technology than the nutritive value of the preserved grain.

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291-298 P. Valášek and M. Müller
EPDM rubber material utilization in epoxy composite systems
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EPDM rubber material utilization in epoxy composite systems

P. Valášek* and M. Müller

¹Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, Prague; *Correspondence: valasekp@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Observing of possibilities for secondary raw materials utilization should rank among the key interests of the society. Nowadays, there are a lot of modern workplaces which are devoted to the possibilities of collecting, processing and using rubber materials. EPDM waste rubber in the form of particles is one of the many products of these workplaces. One of the possibilities for recycling this waste particles material is their interaction with another polymeric material. A reactoplastic which is filled with these particles comes into consideration. This way of utilization of the material is inexpensive and simple. The paper focuses on chosen mechanical qualities of the Epoxy/EPDM waste rubber composite. The waste rubber was gained as one of the outputs of a recycling line of the firm Gumoeko, Ltd., the reactoplastic was represented by a two-component epoxy resin. Distraction of rubber particles in the epoxy matrix was achieved by mechanical mixing without using the technology of vacuum. In the paper, the porosity, tensile strength and shear strength of the composites with various concentrations of EPDM are described. The resulting composite systems may find their application in the field of agriculture – especially during joining and sealing materials of larger units where high quality connections are not required.

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523-527 J. Ahokas,, H. Mikkola, T. Jokiniemi, M. Rajaniemi, W. SchäferH. Rossner, V. Poikalainen, J. Praks, I. Veermäe, J. Frorip and E. Kokin
ENPOS – Energy positive farm
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ENPOS – Energy positive farm

J. Ahokas¹,*, H. Mikkola¹, T. Jokiniemi¹, M. Rajaniemi¹, W. Schäfer²H. Rossner³, V. Poikalainen⁴, J. Praks⁴, I. Veermäe⁴, J. Frorip⁵ and E. Kokin⁵

¹University of Helsinki Department of Agricultural Sciences, PL 28(Koetilantie 5), 00014 Helsingin Yliopisto, Finland;
*Correspondence: jukka.ahokas@helsinki.fi
²Agrifood Research Finland MTT, MTT, Kotieläintuotannon tutkimus,Jokioinen Vakolantie 55, 03400 Vihti, Finland
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural andEnvironmental Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, Tartu EE51014, Estonia
⁴Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine andAnimal Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 62, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
⁵Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56,EE51014 Tartu, Estonia

Abstract:

In ENPOS (Energy Positive Farm) project possibilities to save energy on Estoni anand Finnish farms was studied. Energy can be saved easily and without large financial costs10 –30%. The most important thing is to increase the energy knowledge of the farmers. Thismeans advisory work and energy education.Energy bookkeeping and energy analysis are important things in energy consumption follow-up. The farm energy consumption should be followed and with this acquired knowledge farmerscan notice where they consume more energy than on average and also where they are betterthan others.Energy consumption is not easy to follow because this would mean in most cases energy meterassemblies and this is costly. New agricultural machinery could be designed so that they includeenergy consumptions meters.

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85-95 T. Jokiniemi, H. Mikkola, H. Rossner, L. Talgre, E. Lauringson, M. Hovi and J. Ahokas
Energy savings in plant production
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Energy savings in plant production

T. Jokiniemi¹, H. Mikkola¹, H. Rossner², L. Talgre², E. Lauringson², M. Hovi³ and J. Ahokas¹

¹Department of Agrotechnology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 28, 00014 Helsinki,
Finland; e-mail: tapani.jokiniemi@helsinki.fi; hannu.j.mikkola@helsinki.fi;
jukka.ahokas@helsinki.fi
²Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life
Science, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: helis.rossner@emu.ee;
liina.talgre@emu.ee; enn.lauringson@emu.ee
³Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Science, Kreutzwaldi 56,
EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: mart.hovi@emu.ee

Abstract:

At the moment energy costs in agriculture are relatively low compared to other costs. In 2010 energy costs were 10% of the total agricultural costs in Finland. However, energy costs are expected to grow. The EU has made a directive on Energy End-Use Efficiency and Energy Services, which claims that agriculture must save 9% of their average energy consumption of the period 2001–2005. The highest energy consumptions in plant production originate from agro-chemicals (fertilizers, lime and pesticides). However, regarding energy statistics, energy consumption for agrochemicals is allocated to the industrial sector. Chemicals are for this reason seen as indirect energy in agriculture. Direct energy input in agriculture consists of fuels and electricity. The most dominating direct energy input in plant production is diesel and heating oil. Energy consumption can be easily decreased in plant production by some 10–30%. For instance, 10–20% of energy can be saved in grain drying by heat insulation. In machine operations the dominating factor in energy consumption is the driver. With properly implemented maintenance and adjustment and efficient driving habits, 10–30% savings can be achieved

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97-107 T. Jokiniemi, H. Rossner and J.Ahokas
Simple and cost effective method for fuel consumption measurements of agricultural machinery
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Simple and cost effective method for fuel consumption measurements of agricultural machinery

T. Jokiniemi¹, H. Rossner² and J.Ahokas¹

¹Department of Agrotechnology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 28, 00014 Helsinki,
Finland; e-mail: tapani.jokiniemi@helsinki.fi; jukka.ahokas@helsinki.fi
²Institute of Agricultural and Environmental, Estonian University of Life Sciences,
Kreutzwaldi 1, Tartu EE51014, Estonia; e-mail: helis.rossner@emu.ee

Abstract:

Energy saving objectives in agriculture have created a demand for energy consumption figures of single field operations and for total fuel consumption in farm level. Although the fuel consumption of field operations is quite well known in general level, the conditions in different locations and years result in variation between these figures. In order to create an energy analysis for a single farm, a way to measure the fuel consumption on site is needed. The most useful unit for fuel consumption in most of the farming field operations is l ha-1, since it enables the comparison between different farms and years. Using this unit also reduces the effect of uncontrollable factors, for example weather and soil conditions. In this study, a simple and cost effective way to measure the fuel consumption of agriculture machinery in l ha-1 was tested. The fuel consumption was measured by the voltage signal of machine’s own fuel level sensor. The signal was recorded with a voltage data logger, and movements of the machine were recorded with a simple personal GPS-tracker. Manual bookkeeping was also made to provide support for data analysis. A calibration curve was created for each machine to calculate the corresponding fuel level for each voltage reading. Measuring system was inexpensive, easy to install and did not require any modifications to the fuel system. It can also be installed to almost any tractor or other self propelled farm machine. Results showed that this is a useful measuring method with certain restrictions. The measuring period has to be relatively long to obtain reliable results, and therefore the continuous working periods for each working phase has to be long enough. The conclusion was that this kind of measuring system can be used to provide average values for energy analysis and also to detect the critical points in the production system.

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165-176 H. Mikkola and J. Ahokas
Energy Management of Future Farms
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Energy Management of Future Farms

H. Mikkola and J. Ahokas

University of Helsinki, Department of Agrotechnology
POB 28, 00014 University of Helsinki; e-mail: Jukka.Ahokas@helsinki.fi

Abstract:

Energy management in agriculture will be of current interest in the near future. Modern agriculture is run by fossil energy and it is unclear how this energy input will be replaced with renewable energy. The year 2008 gave some foretaste how rapidly and how much energy price can rise. Energy saving and exploiting farm’s own energy resources are ways to reduce dependency on oil. Nitrogen fertilizer is the most significant energy input in plant production because ammonia manufacturing is very energy intensive. Crop rotations including legumes, green fertilization, and better manure management are measures to replace synthetic nitrogen. Traditional work chains can be replaced with more energy efficient operations. Direct drilling and grain preservation methods other than drying are good examples. Animal housing requirements for inside temperature and air quality define the demand for heating and ventilation. Along with milking and milk cooling, they are the most significant energy inputs in animal production. Animal welfare has to be respected always; however, by means of heat recovery and biogas production it is possible to save energy and exploit energy from manure. Energy should not be considered as a separate question; on the contrary, a farm has to be considered as a whole and as a part of the rest of the society. Better energy management and plant nutrient recycling are combined issues and require more comprehensive approach than it has been the case.

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