Tag Archives: agriculture.

621-633 R. Abrahám, R. Majdan and R. Drlička
Comparison of consumption of tractor at three different driving wheels on grass surface
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Comparison of consumption of tractor at three different driving wheels on grass surface

R. Abrahám¹*, R. Majdan¹ and R. Drlička²

¹University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Transport and Handling, Tr.A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
²Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Quality and Engineering Technologies, Tr.A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
*Correspondence: rudolf.abraham@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The paper deals with possibility of reduction of tractor fuel consumption when working on grass surface, and compares use of two versions of spike devices embedded to the original tyre body. The device was designed at Department Transport and Handling (Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra). Older as well as newer system proposed in 2017 comprises spikes and it is assembled to common tractor tyre tread pattern with auxiliary grooves cut in. Same device can be set to two positions, allowing to work as 8-spikes and 16-spikes system. The spikes are tilted in grooves when moving on paved road. The spikes are ejected out to reduce wheels slip when operated in field. Remaining eight spikes are tilted in case of 8-spikes system. Measurements were realised on grass surface. Tractor Mini 070 type was loaded with heavier tractor MT8-065 type in tests with 3 different driving wheels, balancing the actual weight in all cases. Drawbar pull and fuel consumption were measured in tests, allowing to compute specific drawbar consumption and fuel consumption per hour for three different loads. The results pointed out a fact the tyre slip loss and energy consumption of tractor movement increase at the soil humidity 19.45%. It follows from results achieved that use of both 8- and 16-spikes wheel device versions reduced fuel consumption when cultivating higher humidity soil, preferable for tillage. Eight spikes system with semi-tilted remaining spikes is the most efficient method.

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749-757 J. Kadeřábek, V. Shapoval and P. Matějka
Evaluation of the RTK receiver’s capability of determination the accurate position
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Evaluation of the RTK receiver’s capability of determination the accurate position

J. Kadeřábek¹*, V. Shapoval¹ and P. Matějka²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: jkaderabek@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The main aim of this experiment was to compare low-cost RTK receiver, that possible can be used for precise agricultural application, another that is currently used for these applications and the third one that suits for static measurement the most and gives the reference point for results comparison. The main idea of this research was to compare the measured positions during static measurement of RTK receivers. Were discovered that the receiver Trimble 750 was not able to work in fix mode (mode when the RTK receivers are capable to measure the most accurately) for the whole time. This fact affects the results from whole measurement and showed that errors were a little higher than producers specifies. The low-cost receiver u-Blox C94-M8P showed satisfying results when in most cases it was capable to solve the problem of ambiguity integer phases. The main parameters in this work that were counted and summarized were: accuracy, precision, RMS error, system status ratio and number of satellites.

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1142-1149 V. Obuka, M. Boroduskis, A. Ramata-Stunda, L. Klavins and M. Klavins
Sapropel processing approaches towards high added-value products
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Sapropel processing approaches towards high added-value products

V. Obuka¹, M. Boroduskis², A. Ramata-Stunda², L. Klavins¹ and M. Klavins¹*

¹University of Latvia, Department of Environmental Science, Raina Blvd. 19, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia
²University of Latvia,Faculty of Biology, Raina Blvd. 19, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: maris.klavins@lu.lv

Abstract:

Sapropel is an organic sediment from fresh water bodies that is widely distributed in the northern regions of the world. The distribution and unique properties of sapropel make it an important natural resource that can be used in agriculture, horticulture, forestry and farming directly as obtained. The aim of this study was to investigate the extraction possibilities of sapropel and potential applications of its extracts. Humic substances constitute an important ingredient of sapropel, and they can be extracted by mild alkaline extraction. Humic substances from peaty sapropel have significant differences in composition and properties, thus demonstrating the impact of precursor biological materials on the properties of humic substances formed in the humification process.

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1700–1707 M. Mimra and M. Kavka
Risk analysis regarding a minimum annual utilization of combine harvesters in agricultural companies
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Risk analysis regarding a minimum annual utilization of combine harvesters in agricultural companies

M. Mimra* and M. Kavka

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilisation, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6–Suchdol, Czech Republic *Correspondence: mimra@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This article presents the results of entrepreneurial risk analysis concerning a minimum annual utilization of harvesters in a company providing agricultural services where a group of combine harvesters is used. Furthermore, this article presents the following analysed key operating parameters with the greatest influence on reaching the minimum annual utilization and performance: the changing market price of mechanized work, the volatile purchase price of the machines, average maintenance costs).
Partial profit which an enterprise can reach through operating combine harvesters is directly affected by the level of their annual utilization. Not reaching the minimum annual utilization of combine harvesters would create losses that could result in termination of business activity in the specific field or even insolvency of the company. It is therefore necessary to monitor the key factors which influence the minimum annual usage and in case of negative developments to take timely corrective actions.

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490–500 J. Nagy and A. Zseni
Human urine as an efficient fertilizer product in agriculture
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Human urine as an efficient fertilizer product in agriculture

J. Nagy¹* and A. Zseni²

¹Széchenyi István University, Faculty of Mechanical, Informatics and Electrical Engineering, Department of Applied Mechanics, Egyetem tér 1. HU9026 Győr, Hungary
²Széchenyi István University, Audi Hungaria Faculty of Automotive Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Egyetem tér 1. HU9026 Győr, Hungary
*Correspondence: nagyju@sze.hu

Abstract:

Flush toilet based water infrastructure, which handles blackwater and greywater together, causes a lot of environmental problems. Among these, the loss of valuable organic material and nutrient content of human excreta (faeces and urine) is not sufficiently emphasized yet. Utilization of human excreta for agricultural purposes is based on the separate collection of greywater and human excreta. As urine contains most of the nutrients of human excreta, researches focus mainly on urine’s treatment and utilization for agricultural purposes. We reviewed the data in literature about the nutrient content of human excreta. In this paper we present the content of macro and microelements of human urine to show its potential value as a fertilizer. To confirm the necessity of urine’s utilization in agriculture instead of treated it by traditional waste water treatment methods, we have collected and compared the most important advantages and disadvantages of traditional wastewater treatment, separated handling of greywater and excreta as well as human urine’s agricultural utilization.

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1069–1077 Č. Mizera,, D. Herák and P. Hrabě
Relaxation and creep behaviour of false banana’s fibre (Ensete ventricosum)
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Relaxation and creep behaviour of false banana’s fibre (Ensete ventricosum)

Č. Mizera¹,*, D. Herák² and P. Hrabě³

¹,²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ 165 21 Praha 6 Suchdol, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Kamýcká 129, CZ 165 21 Praha 6 Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: mizera@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This study was focused on the analysis of viscoelastic behaviour of fibres of false banana (Ensete ventricosum). The aim of the experiment was to describe the short term creep and relaxation behaviour under tension loading. The fibers of Ensete ventricosum, originally from Ethiopian region Hawasa, were used in this experiment. Moisture content Mc = 8.40 ± 0.67% (d. b.) and true density ρt = 668 ± 44 kg m-3 of the samples were determined. The specimens had initial gauge length of L0 = 100 ± 1 mm and the average yarn breaking load (YBL) after 20 tests was σr = 14.3 ± 1.7 N. To determine the relationship between tension force and deformation, tension device (Labortech, MPTest 5.050, Czech Republic) was used to record the course of deformation function. All tests were performed using a constant rate α = 3.1 N s-1. The short term creep tests were performed using constant loads of 30%, 60% and 90% of the average YBL. The short term relaxation tests were performed using constant strain of 30%, 60% and 90% of maximal strain. Measured data were analysed by computer software Mathcad 14. Experimental reep and stress relaxation curves at different load levels were determined. Experimental creep lifetimes tr for different load levels: 24,311 ± 7,489 s (30% YBL), 1,831 ± 462 s (60% YBL) and 17.6 ± 5.5 s (90% YBL) were determined. Initial modulus of elasticity, finite modulus of elasticity and initial energy of stress relaxation and creep of Ensete fibres were determined.

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680-689 Č. Mizera, D. Herák, M. Müller and P. Hrabě
Mechanical behaviour of polymeric composite with fibres of false banana (Ensete ventricosum)
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Mechanical behaviour of polymeric composite with fibres of false banana (Ensete ventricosum)

Č. Mizera¹*, D. Herák², M. Müller³ and P. Hrabě⁴

¹ ²Czech University of Life Science Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ-16521 Praha 6 Suchdol, Czech Republic
³ ⁴Czech University of Life Science Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Kamýcká 129, CZ-16521 Praha 6 Suchdol, Czech Republic *Correspondence: mizera@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This study was focused on the analysis of the deformation characteristics of the polymer composite with continuous phase in the form of two-part epoxies and discontinuous phase (reinforcing particles) in the form of fibres of false banana (Ensete ventricosum). The aim of the experiment was to describe the mechanical behaviour of polymeric composite reinforced by fibres of false banana under tensile loading and to determine the modulus of elasticity and deformation energy. The fibres of Ensete ventricosum, originally from Ethiopian region Hawasa, were used in this experiment. Reinforcing fibres were prepared in sizes of lengths 1–2, 2–3, 3–5, 5–6, 7–8, 9–10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 mm with randomly fibres arrangement in matrix. The fibres with length of 1–2, 2–3, 3–5, 5–6, 7–8 and 9–10 mm were used in short fibres composites and fibres with length of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 mm in long fibres composites. The composite material was created with 2 wt.% of the filler. The modulus of elasticity of the short-fibre composite material was increased of 28 ± 12% by adding Enset fibres as the filler. The modulus of elasticity of the long-fibre composite material was increased of 46 ± 14%. The influence of the fibre length on the value of the volume deformation energy was not proved.

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81-94 T. Jokiniemi, S. Jaakkola, M. Turunen and J. Ahokas
Energy consumption in different grain preservation methods
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Energy consumption in different grain preservation methods

T. Jokiniemi*, S. Jaakkola, M. Turunen and J. Ahokas

University of Helsinki, Department of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 28, 00014, University of Helsinki, Finland;
*Correspondence: tapani.jokiniemi@helsinki.fi

Abstract:

The energy consumption of hot air drying and alternative feed grain preservation methods was examined. Alternative methods were airtight preservation, acid preservation and grain crimping. The results indicate that significant energy savings can be achieved by using any of these methods instead of hot air dying for preservation of home-grown grain used for animal feeding. Remarkable differences in the energy consumption between the alternative methods were also found. Grain crimping showed the lowest energy consumption, but the effect of the used additive and especially the storage system was large. A suitable option for different farm animal species can be found among these methods, and the limitations, when they exist, are set rather by the feeding technology than the nutritive value of the preserved grain.

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291-298 P. Valášek and M. Müller
EPDM rubber material utilization in epoxy composite systems
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EPDM rubber material utilization in epoxy composite systems

P. Valášek* and M. Müller

¹Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, Prague; *Correspondence: valasekp@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Observing of possibilities for secondary raw materials utilization should rank among the key interests of the society. Nowadays, there are a lot of modern workplaces which are devoted to the possibilities of collecting, processing and using rubber materials. EPDM waste rubber in the form of particles is one of the many products of these workplaces. One of the possibilities for recycling this waste particles material is their interaction with another polymeric material. A reactoplastic which is filled with these particles comes into consideration. This way of utilization of the material is inexpensive and simple. The paper focuses on chosen mechanical qualities of the Epoxy/EPDM waste rubber composite. The waste rubber was gained as one of the outputs of a recycling line of the firm Gumoeko, Ltd., the reactoplastic was represented by a two-component epoxy resin. Distraction of rubber particles in the epoxy matrix was achieved by mechanical mixing without using the technology of vacuum. In the paper, the porosity, tensile strength and shear strength of the composites with various concentrations of EPDM are described. The resulting composite systems may find their application in the field of agriculture – especially during joining and sealing materials of larger units where high quality connections are not required.

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523-527 J. Ahokas,, H. Mikkola, T. Jokiniemi, M. Rajaniemi, W. SchäferH. Rossner, V. Poikalainen, J. Praks, I. Veermäe, J. Frorip and E. Kokin
ENPOS – Energy positive farm
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ENPOS – Energy positive farm

J. Ahokas¹,*, H. Mikkola¹, T. Jokiniemi¹, M. Rajaniemi¹, W. Schäfer²H. Rossner³, V. Poikalainen⁴, J. Praks⁴, I. Veermäe⁴, J. Frorip⁵ and E. Kokin⁵

¹University of Helsinki Department of Agricultural Sciences, PL 28(Koetilantie 5), 00014 Helsingin Yliopisto, Finland;
*Correspondence: jukka.ahokas@helsinki.fi
²Agrifood Research Finland MTT, MTT, Kotieläintuotannon tutkimus,Jokioinen Vakolantie 55, 03400 Vihti, Finland
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural andEnvironmental Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, Tartu EE51014, Estonia
⁴Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine andAnimal Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 62, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
⁵Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56,EE51014 Tartu, Estonia

Abstract:

In ENPOS (Energy Positive Farm) project possibilities to save energy on Estoni anand Finnish farms was studied. Energy can be saved easily and without large financial costs10 –30%. The most important thing is to increase the energy knowledge of the farmers. Thismeans advisory work and energy education.Energy bookkeeping and energy analysis are important things in energy consumption follow-up. The farm energy consumption should be followed and with this acquired knowledge farmerscan notice where they consume more energy than on average and also where they are betterthan others.Energy consumption is not easy to follow because this would mean in most cases energy meterassemblies and this is costly. New agricultural machinery could be designed so that they includeenergy consumptions meters.

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