Tag Archives: air temperature

426–434 P. Kic
Effect of construction shape and materials on indoor microclimatic conditions inside the cowsheds in dairy farms
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Effect of construction shape and materials on indoor microclimatic conditions inside the cowsheds in dairy farms

P. Kic

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
E-mail: kic@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present the results of microclimatic research focused on the indoor conditions in cowsheds and milking parlours in two dairy farms. The attention is paid mainly to the construction and materials used for buildings, which can influence together with technological equipment and system of ventilation the microclimatic conditions inside the cowsheds. In the frame of this research main parameters of internal and external properties of climate (air temperature, humidity, globe temperature, THI, BGHI and concentration of CO2) during the hot summer were measured and evaluated. Results of long time and short time measurements show very important role of used materials and shape of buildings. The research results show that the use of principles of passive air conditioning can contribute significantly to the improvement of internal microclimate. Reduced amplitude of temperature oscillation was 42.4% of amplitude of outside air temperature in cowshed with massive construction and 91.7% in modern light building. The average phase shift of temperature oscillations, expressed as a time delay of internal temperature rise behind the external temperature rise was about 2.8 hours and time delay of drop of internal temperature behind external temperatures drop was 3.3 hours in massive cowshed. The same parameters in modern light cowshed were only 1.1 hours and 0.5 hours.

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82–90 P. Kic
Microclimatic conditions in the poultry houses
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Microclimatic conditions in the poultry houses

P. Kic

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of
Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ 165CZ 21 Prague,
Czech Republic; Correspondence: kic@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present the results of microclimatic research focused on the indoor conditions in several agricultural buildings used for fattening of chicken broilers. The attention is paid mainly to the construction of the building and its position in the farm area, which together with technological equipment of the building, floor covering, and system of ventilation, can influence the microclimatic conditions inside the halls. In the frame of this research main parameters of internal and external properties of climate were measured and evaluated. Themeasurement results of the air temperature, humidity, globe temperature, concentration of CO2, dust pollution and surface temperatures show rather important role of the overall layout of buildings, influence of the wind and solar radiation together with surroundings. The research results show that to the improvement of internal microclimate can contribute significantly the use of principles of passive air conditioning. The acquired new knowledge can be useful not only to improve the current situation on the farm, but mainly for the improvement of the building
constructions in similar new farms.

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211-218 O. Sada, E. Mikson and B. Reppo
Ammonia emission in cowsheds and pigsties during the summer periood
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Ammonia emission in cowsheds and pigsties during the summer periood

O. Sada, E. Mikson and B. Reppo

Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56,
EE51014 Tartu, Estonia

Abstract:

As is known, cows in uninsulated cowsheds can tolerate lower temperatures much better than higher temperatures, so we can say that these buildings are well suited for animals, although there are problems with workers and the working environment in uninsulated cowsheds in extreme cases, during very low and high outside temperatures. The goal of this study was to identify the outdoor climate impact on the indoor climate in cowsheds with 420, 500 and 500 cow places during winter and summertime. For that, indoor and outdoor temperature, relative humidity and indoor ammonia content were measured simultaneously. The processed results are well applicable when designing new cattle housing or improving the indoor climate of already existing uninsulated cowsheds. Building of large pigsties with deep litter and without litter which use liquid manure removal systems has become a wide practice nowadays. Indoor climate parameters of the working environment have an impact on the human capacity for work and the productivity of animals. Enlargement of pigsties is accompanied with problems regarding the achievement of the required indoor climate for the working environment. For the purpose of studying the pigsties with different animal-keeping technologies and the simultaneous effect of temperature and relative humidity on the emission ammonia content in the air of a pigsty were measured in summer above a pig-pen at the height of 1.5 meters from the floor and were measured daily. Data logger equipment, relevant sensors and content of ammonia in the air was measured for the study by using Gas Monitor Pac III equipment. Measurement results were statistically processed by using the computer programmes AMR Win Control, Pac III Software3.nn, SAS and MS Excel.

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255-262 A. Ruus, V. Poikalainen, J. Praks, I. Veermäe, F. Teye, M. Hautala and J. Ahokas
Indoor Air Temperature and Ventilation in Uninsulated Loose Housing Cowsheds with Different Types of Non-transparent Roofing in Hot Summer
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Indoor Air Temperature and Ventilation in Uninsulated Loose Housing Cowsheds with Different Types of Non-transparent Roofing in Hot Summer

A. Ruus¹, V. Poikalainen², J. Praks², I. Veermäe², F. Teye³, M. Hautala⁴ and J. Ahokas⁴

¹ Tartu College, Tallinn University of Technology,
78 Puiestee Srt., EE51008 Tartu, Estonia, e-mail: aime.ruus@ttu.ee
² Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Estonian University of Life
Sciences, 62 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: vaino.poikalainen@emu.ee
³ Plant Production Research, MTT Agrifood Research Finland
MTT, Vakolantie 55, FIN03400, Vihti, Finland; e-mail: kwame@mappi.helsinki.fi
⁴ Department of Agrotechnology, University of Helsinki,
Koetilantie 3, FIN00014 Helsinki, Finland; e-mail: Jukka.Ahokas@helsinki.fi

Abstract:

As the indoor temperature of uninsulated cowsheds is in correlation with outdoor temperature, it may happen that indoor temperatures in cowsheds soar in hot summer. Roof temperature and spatial distribution of indoor air temperature at 1m (cow level) was studied in 8 uninsulated cowsheds with three different types of roof – non-asbestos cement sheets (4 cowsheds), metal (2 cowsheds) and insulated with 25 mm mineral wool plate (2 cowsheds) at outdoor air temperatures 26.8…32.0°C in at least 25 points of the cowshed. All openings were open in the cowsheds.
Roof (indoor surface) temperature values of 47.1°C were recorded as highest at non-asbestos cement roof in outdoor air temperature of 30°C. The average indoor surface temperature of the insulated roof (28°C) was about as high as outdoor air temperature (29°C).
Average indoor temperature in cowsheds varied 27.6-29.7°C. Smallest indoor-outdoor air temperature difference (t) was 0.8°C and occurred at lowest outdoor temperature (26.8°C). The biggest t of -2.3°C occurred at highest outdoor temperature (32°C). If the roof was insulated, t varied -0.5-1.1°C. In four cowsheds with non-asbestos cement sheet roof, t of 0.8…-1.9°C was recorded. In cowsheds with metal sheet roof, t of – 1.2… -2.3°C was recorded.
Standard deviation of indoor temperatures at the measurement points s (describes the ventilation efficiency) was s=0.59…0.84 in the cowsheds with insulated roof and s=0.46…0.66 in the uninsulated ones. The ventilation in cowsheds was good and air moving schemes uniform.
As a result of the investigation, the following conclusion can be made: indoor air temperature and ventilation efficiency in hot summer days are not influenced by roof material (non-transparent) or the presence of insulation.

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87-96 D. Romanovskaja and E. Bakšiene
Influence of climate warming on beginning of flowering of apple tree (Malus domestica Borkh.) in Lithuania
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Influence of climate warming on beginning of flowering of apple tree (Malus domestica Borkh.) in Lithuania

D. Romanovskaja and E. Bakšiene

Vok� Branch of Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Žalioji a. 2, LT – 02232 Vilnius; e-mail:
danuta.romanovskaja@voke.lzi.lt

Abstract:

The paper presents summarized data of longtime (the period of 1961–2006) phenological observations of apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) in Lithuania. It has been determined that in different localities of the country apple trees start flowering on May 11–17 (± 3–5 days); the average in Lithuania is May 16. Evaluation of the changes in the dates of the beginning of apple tree flowering revealed that, due to climate warming during the last decade, apple trees start flowering 4–5 days earlier than the longtime average. The thermal regime of April strongly influences the annual changes in the dates of the beginning of apple tree flowering: the correlation coefficient between the mean monthly air temperature and dates of the beginning of apple tree flowering is -0.48 – (-0.80). The possibility to forecast the dates of the beginning of apple tree flowering based on the dates of the beginning of the flowering of European hazel (Corylus avellana L.) and European bird cherry (Padus avium Mill.) was investigated. It has been ascertained that the date of the beginning of the European bird cherry flowering is suitable for forecasting the date of the beginning of the apple tree flowering because that date significantly correlates with the beginning of the European bird cherry flowering, which is an indicator of true spring.

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67-78 O. Sada and B. Reppo
Indoor climate of pigsty with deep litter and liquid manure system in summer
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Indoor climate of pigsty with deep litter and liquid manure system in summer

O. Sada and B. Reppo

Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences,Kreutzwaldi St. 56, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: boris.reppo@emu.ee

Abstract:

Construction of big deep-litter pigsties and pigsties without litter (using liquid manure systems) is becoming more extensive. Due to lack of knowledge concerning animal-keeping in big pigsties, it has become necessary to study the work environment in pigsties and, in particular, their indoor climate. In order to determine the impact of the outdoor climate, different methods for animal-keeping and tending activities on indoor climate during summertime, the air temperature, relative humidity, air velocity and contents of oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia were measured on a daily basis at the height of 1.5 m from the floor above the pigsty in the centre of deep-litter (800 fattening pigs) and liquid manure system (600 young pigs) pigsties. Simultaneously outdoor air temperature and relative humidity were measured. Data Logger equipment with relevant sensors and Gas Monitor Pac III were used for studying the indoor climate. Hydrolog equipment was used for measuring the parameters of outdoor climate. Measurement results were processed by using computer programmes AMR Win Control, HW3 and MS Excel.It turned out that during summertime the indoor climate of pigsties was most affected byoutdoor climate and tending works. The daily average indoor temperature (17.04 and 17.60°C respectively; outdoor temperature, 18.15 and 8.75°C) and relative humidity (68.11 and 78.59% respectively; outdoor relative humidity, 71.88 and 84.19%) remained within recommended limits for animals in the deep-litter pigsty and in the pigsty without litter. However, partial floor heating had to be used in the morning in order to ensure optimum indoor temperature and relative humidity in the pigsty for young pigs. Due to good ventilation in the pigsties the daily average contents of carbon dioxide (0.06 and 0.07%) and ammonia (20.9 and 8.7 ppm) remained within standard limits. Ammonia content in pigsties was higher during tending works, reaching 43 and 27 ppm. As a result of the study, the graphical and empirical relationship was determined between ammonia concentration and indoor air both in terms of air temperature and combined effect of temperature and relative humidity.

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45–54 O. Sada and B. Reppo
Impact of tending work on pigsty inner climate in winter
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Impact of tending work on pigsty inner climate in winter

O. Sada and B. Reppo

Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi St. 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: boris.reppo@emu.ee

Abstract:

Inner climate at pigsty is in strong correlation with outdoor climate and tending work. Up to now, main research has been conducted to investigate air temperature and relative humidity, in order to be able to offer solutions to pigsty ventilation. At the same time, little data can be found about pigsty air gas content depending on pigs’ function work. With the aim of investigating the impact of outdoor climate and tending work on the inner climate at a pigsty of fatlings and youngs, the research was conducted to measure the air temperature, relative humidity and the content of oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia at these pigsties in winter time diurnally at the height of 1.5 meters. To measure the inner climate, Data Logger, appropriate sensors and the computer program PC AMR Win Control were used. At the same time, the winter outdoor air temperature and relative humidity were measured using Rotronic logger. The results of the research presented in the article concern the air temperature and velocity, relative humidity and the content of oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia of the working environment, measured in different places and heights of the room during daytime and diurnally above the pigpen. It became evident that the pigsty’s inner air temperature was within the extent recommended, but the air relative humidity increased partly very high. The carbon dioxide content partly exceeded the established limits. The average measured ammonia also exceeded the limits in some cases but always increased during the tending work.

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