Tag Archives: amino acids

565-571 P. Aleknaviciene, H. Danilcenko, E. Jariene, I. Kraujutiene, J. Kulaitiene,A. Paulauskiene and Z. Taraseviciene
Amino acid profile of organically grown alternative agricultural products
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Amino acid profile of organically grown alternative agricultural products

P. Aleknaviciene, H. Danilcenko, E. Jariene, I. Kraujutiene, J. Kulaitiene,A. Paulauskiene and Z. Taraseviciene

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Kaunas, Studentu g. 11, Kaunas, Lithuania;e-mail: Paulina.Aleknaviciene@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

Human nutrition recently has mainly focused on animal products; particularly processed products with large amounts of various synthetic additives. The benefit of fruits and vegetables for human health has been already shown and consumer interest in organic food products has increased. Therefore the main aim of this research work was to determine the amino acid content of the following organically grown raw alternative products: the pumpkins Cucurbita maxima Duchesne – ‘Stofuntovaja’, ‘Bambino’, ‘Kroška’; Cucurbita moschata (Duchesne) Duchesne ex Poir. – ‘Žemčiužina’; Cucurbita pepo L. – ‘Miranda’, ‘Golosemiannaja’, ‘Herakles’ and Jerusalem artichokes (Helianthus tuberosus L.) – ‘Swojecki’, ‘Rubik’, ‘Albik’.After harvest they were analyzed in order to estimate their amino acid composition. Amino acids were separated by the method of ion-exchange chromatography and detected photometrically with an automatic analyzer of amino acids Mikrotechna AAA 339. The amount of essential amino acids was highest in Jerusalem artichokes. The largest concentration of individual essential amino acids, depended on cultivar, was arginine 8.41 to 9.57 g kg -1 in Jerusalem artichokes; while in pumpkins this was leucine, which ranged from – 3.61.09 g kg -1. The pumpkin ‘Bambino’ cv. had the highest content of all essential amino acids compared with other pumpkins. Jerusalem artichokes of the ‘Albik’ cv. were exceptionally high in amounts of nonessential glutamate and pumpkins of ‘Golosemiannaja’ cv. in aspartate amino acid, respectively 11.09 and 12.99 g kg -1. The essential to total amino acids ratio is higher in Jerusalem artichoke tubers compared with pumpkin pulp.

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459-469 M. Järvan, L. Edesi, A. Adamson, L. Lukme and A. Akk
The effect of sulphur fertilization on yield, quality of protein and baking properties of winter wheat
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The effect of sulphur fertilization on yield, quality of protein and baking properties of winter wheat

M. Järvan¹, L. Edesi¹, A. Adamson¹, L. Lukme² and A. Akk²

¹Department of Plant Sciences, Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse St. 13,EE75501 Saku, Estonia; e-mail: malle.jarvan@eria.ee
²Agricultural Research Centre, Teaduse St. 4/6, EE75501 Saku, Estonia

Abstract:

The present paper is based on the data of field and production trials conducted in the years 2004–2007. The trials were carried out in North-Estonia (59° 18’ N, 24° 39’ E) on break-stony soil and in South-Estonia (58° 27’ N, 25° 36’ E) on pseudopodzolic soil. The aim was to identify the effect of sulphur fertilization on the yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on some of the quality indices of yield and protein quality, including the content of non-replaceable amino acids, and on the baking properties of flour. In the field trials the effect of N and NS fertilization was compared on the nitrogen background of N60 + N40 kg ha-1. Due tosulphur (in two top dressings in total S10 kg ha-1) the yield of winter wheat ‘Lars’ increased,depending on the weather and soil conditions, in field trials 0.47–1.48 t ha-1, i.e. 7.7–43.0% and in production trials 1.35–2.44 t ha-1, i.e. 39.8–45.5%. The effect of sulphur on the protein and wet gluten contents of wheat grain was not always one-directional, but in all trials the gluten index increased and the quality of protein improved under the influence of sulphur. Sulphur fertilization increased the content of amino acids in the protein of winter wheat in field trials on the average as following: cysteine – 24.5%, methionine – 35.3%, threonine – 14.4% and lysine – 7.7%. In production conditions the fertilization with sulphur increased both the contents of protein and wet gluten and that of major amino acids. Due to sulphur fertilization all major parameters of winter wheat’s baking quality improved: stability and quality number of dough, loaf volume and specific volume and round loaf’s height to diameter ratio.

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149-160 G. Sokolov L. Szajdak and I. Simakina
Changes in the structure of nitrogen-containing compounds of peat-, sapropel-, and brown coal-based organic fertilizers
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Changes in the structure of nitrogen-containing compounds of peat-, sapropel-, and brown coal-based organic fertilizers

G. Sokolov¹ L. Szajdak² and I. Simakina¹

¹Institute for Problems of Natural Resources Use and Ecology, National Academy of Sciencesof Belarus, Skarina str. 10, 220114 Minsk, Belarus; email: agrico@ns.ecology.ac.by
²Research Centre for Agricultural and Forest Environment of the Polish Academy of Sciences,ul. Bukowska 19, 60-809 Poznań; email: szajlech@man.poznan.pl.

Abstract:

The three-stage acidic hydrolysis method was used for the degradation of three organic fertilizers prepared on the basis of peat, sapropel and brown coal. This method of hydrolysis may simulate the processes that occur in the natural environment, influenced by chemical and biological factors with a high degree of reliability, by taking substances from fractions depending on stability of compounds in the investigated organic materials. The investigation of changes in the content of nitrogen in the studied fractions allows judging the character and the degree of transformation of nitrogen-containing compounds in kaustobioliths organic substances and prepared fertilizers. In these three organic fertilizers the content of readily (“easy”) hydrolysable nitrogen ranged from 49.1 to 58.4%, the content of hard-to- hydrolyse nitrogen ranged from 4.6 to 19.5%, in unhydrolysable rest, content ranged from 31.6 to 37%. The results showed a significant supply of nitrogen included in amino acid structures in soils. Amino acids represent a form of organic nitrogen, readily hydrolysable by chemicals and enzymes, available for plants and soil microorganisms. The highest supply was observed for the fertilizer prepared on the basis of brown coal. This fertilizer supplied 93.7 % more nitrogen than the reference soil. Two other fertilizers prepared on the basis of peat and sapropel supplied 64.1 % and 56.3 %, respectively more than reference soil. A relationship and good correlation were found between the contents of readily (“easy”) hydrolysable forms of nitrogen and the total amount of amino acids, and also between the contents of readily hydrolysable forms of nitrogen and concentrations of nitrogen in amino acid structures.

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531-542 T. Meysner, L. Szajdak and J. Kuś
Impact of the farming systems on the content of biologically active substances and the forms of nitrogen in the soils
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Impact of the farming systems on the content of biologically active substances and the forms of nitrogen in the soils

T. Meysner¹, L. Szajdak¹ and J. Kuś²

¹Research Center for Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences,Bukowska 19, 60-809 Poznań, Poland; e-mail: szajlech@man.poznan.pl
²Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation, Czartoryskich 8, 24-100 Puławy, Poland;e-mail: jankus@iung.pulawy.pl

Abstract:

Investigations were carried out in 2000 and 2001 to assess the impact of four farming systems on the content of biologically active substances and different forms of nitrogen in the soils. The transformation of bound amino acids and the total amount of free phenolic acids, urease activity as well as the total nitrogen, concentration of ammonium, nitrate, organic carbon, and humus in the soils were related to the choice of the farming systems. The highest concentration of bound amino acids, lysine and β–alanine, the total nitrogen, organic carbon, and humus in soils was found in ecological and conventional systems. It was confirmed that the increase of free phenolic acids in the soils of continuous cropping of winter wheat was followed by the decrease of the yearly mean concentrations of urease activity, the total amount of bound amino acids, the total nitrogen and grain yields, weight of 1000 grains, and number of ears m-2. The conventional system affects the increase of the yearly mean concentrations of the total amount of bound amino acids, the ammonium ions, and the grain yield, weight of 1000 grains, number of ears m-2 and the decrease of the total amount of free phenolic acids in the soils.

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