The possibility of using powdered sea-buckthorn in the development of bakery products with antioxidant properties
Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Institute of Industrial Management, Economics, and Trade, Graduate School of Commodity and Service, Novorossiyskaya street 50, U194021 St. Petersburg, Russia
The article examines ways of increasing the antioxidant capacity of bakery products (referred to here as BP) by adding powdered peel, powdered seeds, and powdered marc produced from sea-buckthorn berries. Three different versions of BP were developed with the maximum addition of the following powders: from the peel (3%), from the marc (5%) with a sugar content of 14.5%; and from seeds (5%) with a sugar content of 5%, and with a potato flake content of 5%. BPs with the addition of sea-buckthorn powders were baked at two temperature regimes: 200°C and 220 °C. The content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and ascorbic acid were determined for the sea-buckthorn powder, for the crust of BP, and in BP crumbs. The antioxidant activity of BP was determined by the use of two methods: by chemiluminescence, and by their reaction to the DPPH-radical. Cyclic amides (lactams) were determined in BP crusts and crumbs with the use of the IR spectroscopy method. The AOA of powdered sea buckthorn depended upon the volume of phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid in them: peel > marc > seeds. The antioxidant properties of BPs decreased in the following order and were aligned the following way: BP with marc > BP with peel > BP with seeds. They displayed higher AOA levels than was calculated in theoretical tests, depending upon the volume of powders in the recipe. An increase of the baking temperature led to a loss of phenolic compounds and vitamin C, as well as to the formation of poly lactams. BP baked at the temperature regime of 200 °C displayed the greatest AOA levels.