Tag Archives: apple

069–078 V. Dubrovskis and I. Plume
Biogas from wastes of pumpkin, marrow and apple
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Biogas from wastes of pumpkin, marrow and apple

V. Dubrovskis* and I. Plume

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Energetics, Cakstes blvd 5, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: vilisd@inbox.lv

Abstract:

A lot of vegetables and fruits, which have been grown in Latvia or were imported from foreign countries, become waste, often due to unconformity to the marketing standards or biodegradation process fouling during storage. Waste biomass piles emissions during storage that contributes to global warming. It is appropriate to use such biomass as raw material for anaerobic digestion. This article shows the results of studies on evaluation of suitability of vegetable and fruit waste biomass for the production of biogas. Anaerobic digestion was investigated in 0.75 L digesters, operated in batch mode at a temperature of 38 ± 1.0 °C. The average biogas yield per mass unit of dry organic matter added (DOM) from digestion of pumpkin biomass was 1.095 L g-1DOM and the specific methane yield was 0.422 L g-1DOM. Average biogas yield from digestion of marrow biomass was 0.768 L g-1ODM and the methane yield was 0.274 L g-1DOM. Average biogas yield from digestion of apple biomass was 1.020 L g-1DOM and the methane yield was 0.451 L g-1DOM. All investigated wastes can be a very good source for biogas production. Anaerobic digestion may be a solution to treat waste biomass from food production facilities or supermarkets.

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603-614 K. Kask, H. Jänes, A. Libek, L. Arus, A. Kikas, H. Kaldmäe, N. Univer andT. Univer
New cultivars and future perspectives in professional fruit breeding in Estonia
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New cultivars and future perspectives in professional fruit breeding in Estonia

K. Kask, H. Jänes, A. Libek, L. Arus, A. Kikas, H. Kaldmäe, N. Univer andT. Univer

Polli Horticultural Research Centre, Institute of Agricultural and EnvironmentalSciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Karksi-Nuia 69108, Estonia;e-mail: polli@emu.ee

Abstract:

During 2001–2010, the following cultivars from the breeding programme of the Polli Horticultural Research Centre of the Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences were registered: the apples ‘Kaari’, ‘Kaimo’, ‘Karamba’, ‘Katre’, ‘Kikitriinu’, ‘Krista’, and ‘Liivika’, the crab apples ‘Kuku’, ‘Ritika’, and ‘Ruti’, the sweet cherries ‘Elle’, ‘Karmel’, ‘Piret’ and ‘Tontu’, the raspberries ‘Aita’ and ‘Alvi’, and the black currants ‘Almo’, ‘Ats’, ‘Elo’ and ‘Karri’. Since 2004, applications for registration and DUS testing have been submitted for the new apple cultivar ‘Els’, pear cultivars ‘Kadi’ and ‘Polli Punane’, sweet cherry cultivars ‘Anu’, ‘Ene’, ‘Irma’, ‘Kaspar’, ‘Mupi’, ‘Polli Murel’ and ‘Tõmmu’. Apple, plum, sweet cherry, black currant and raspberry breeding programmes are going on as part of the public breeding program. Winter hardiness is the first-rate goal in all crops. In apple, breeding for scab resistance is now the main task. In the nearest future, some new plum, apple and black currant cultivars will supplement the breeding results of the institution at Polli.

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349-352 A. Sasnauskas, D. Gelvonauskienė, B. Gelvonauskis,V. Bendokas and D. Baniulis
Resistance to fungal diseases of apple cultivars and hybrids in Lithuania
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Resistance to fungal diseases of apple cultivars and hybrids in Lithuania

A. Sasnauskas*, D. Gelvonauskienė, B. Gelvonauskis,V. Bendokas and D. Baniulis

Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, LT-54334, Babtai, Kaunas district, Lithuania
* Corresponding author; e-mail: A.Sasnauskas@lsdi.lt

Abstract:

Thirty apple (Malus domestica Mill.) cultivars and hybrids were evaluated for resistance to scab (Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint.), apple blotch (Phyllosticta mali Pr.at Del.) and canker (Nectria galligena Bres.). Resistance to scab and apple blotch were studied in 2003–2005 and to canker in 2005. Injuries caused by fungal diseases were evaluated according to a 6 point scale: 0 – no disease symptoms detected on leaves or branches, 5 – injured more than 75% of leaf area or, in the case of canker, the branch is girdled by distorted area. Meteorological conditions were favourable or moderately favourable for the development of pathogens. It was ascertained that apple hybrids No 20429 and No 20016 are characterized as complex-resistant to scab, apple blotch and canker. Cultivar ‘Kurnakovskoe’ and hybrids No 19399, No 19707, No 19646, No 19942, No 20235, No 20239, No 20978 and No 24-40-52 are characterized as complex-resistant to scab and apple blotch. Cultivars ‘Delikates’, ‘Anteĭ’, hybrids No 25-50-126 and No 25-50-132 were the most sensitive to scab; ‘Pamyať Syubarovoĭ’ and No 25-51-122, to apple blotch, and ‘Katja’, ‘Yubilyar’, ‘Pamyať Syubarovoĭ’, ‘Bolotovskoe’ and No 19942, to canker.

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55–62 R. Sestras, E. Tamas and A. Sestras
Morphological and genetic peculiarities of fruits in several winter apple varieties which confer resistance to damage
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Morphological and genetic peculiarities of fruits in several winter apple varieties which confer resistance to damage

R. Sestras¹, E. Tamas¹ and A. Sestras²

¹University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, No. 3-5 Manastur St., 3400 Cluj-Napoca, Romania; e-mail: rsestras@email.ro
²Horticultural Research Station, 3-5 Horticultorilor St., Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Abstract:

Among 15 winter apple varieties studied for their resistance to the damage of fruits, Golden Delicious was susceptible to fruit injury, while the Florina, Idared and Granny Smith can be considered resistant to pricking, cutting and hitting of the fruits. The variability of the morphological characteristics of the fruits was relatively low, the fruit volume being averagely variable and the fruit resistance to injury being the character with the highest variability (s% = 26.4). The resistance of the fruits to injury was not correlated with their height, diameter, weight, shape and volume. The characteristics of the fruits have a strong genetic determinism, but the additive effects of the genes do not play the most important role in all cases. For the fruit resistance to injury the big differences between heritability coefficients values in a broad and narrow sense signify the fact that the resistance to injury of apples is influenced not only by additive effects but also by the dominance and epistasis effects of the genes.

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