Tag Archives: ash

357-364 D. Čepauskienė, N. Pedišius and D. Milčius
Chemical composition of agromass ash and its influence on ash melting characteristics
Abstract |
Full text PDF (570 kB)

Chemical composition of agromass ash and its influence on ash melting characteristics

D. Čepauskienė¹, N. Pedišius¹ and D. Milčius²

¹Lithuanian Energy Institute, Laboratory of Heat–Equipment Research and Testing, Breslaujos str. 3, LT–44403 Kaunas, Lithuania
²Lithuanian Energy Institute, Center for Hydrogen Energy Technologies, Breslaujos str. 3, LT–44403 Kaunas, Lithuania
*Correspondence: Deimante.Cepauskiene@lei.lt

Abstract:

The increasing demand for biofuels leads to a growing need for agromass, such as herbaceous plants and agricultural waste. However, agromass contains high quanitites of alkali metals, mainly potassium and sodium, which limits agromass usage in thermoconversion processes. Alkali metals react with other ash forming elements which leads to ash related problems such as agglomeration, fouling and slagging during agromass burning. In this study, chemical composition and melting behaviour of ashes formed at 550 °C are investigated. Three herbaceous plants (reed canary grass, hemp, orchard grass), four types of agricultural waste (straws of rye, wheat, buckwheat and canola) and two types of woody biomass (birch, spruce) are selected. Ash melting behaviour, composition and bulk structure are determined using a high temperature furnace with a video camera, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission–spectrometry and X–ray diffraction technique, respectively. Ash melting behaviour of selected agromass types shows that the hemp ash has the highest shrinkage starting temperature which reaches 1,079 °C. This is due to the high content of calcium and low content of potassium and sodium in hemp ash. Three main components calcium carbonate, potassium sulfate and potassium chloride have been identified in ashes after agromass and woody biomass are heat–treated at temperature of 550 °C.

Key words:

, , , ,




593-603 I. Vitázek, J. Tulík and J. Klúčik
Combustible in selected biofuels
Abstract |

Combustible in selected biofuels

I. Vitázek*, J. Tulík and J. Klúčik

Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Transport and Handling, Tr.A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
*Correspondence: ivan.vitazek@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The aim of the research was to determine the moisture, combustible and ash content in selected biofuels, in dependence on temperature by the means of gravimetric method. For this purpose, the furnace Nabertherm L9/11/SW/P330 was used. Analyzed samples consisted of crushed biomass which is used in small heat sources (e.g. spruce wood, cherry wood, apple wood, black locust wood) with bark and without additives. Biomass for larger heat sources (woodchips cuttings from coniferous trees), sawdust mix (plum, cherry, walnut, apricot, apple) and pellets (90% spruce and 10% fir) were also analyzed. The results are processed graphically and enable to characterize the tested fuels. The highest content of combustible was found in spruce wood sample without bark (99.889%), the lowest content of combustible indicated cuttings from coniferous trees (88.402%). Gravimetric experiments were supplemented by DSC measurement of selected samples on calorimeter Toledo DSC822e. The graphic courses of reactions are provided up to 500 °C.

Key words:

, , ,




1257-1265 J. Bradna, J. Malaťák and D. Hájek
The properties of wheat straw combustion and use of fly ash as a soil amendment
Abstract |
Full text PDF (255 kB)

The properties of wheat straw combustion and use of fly ash as a soil amendment

J. Bradna, J. Malaťák* and D. Hájek

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of
Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: malatak@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Agriculture is one of possible producers of by-products suitable for energy purposes,

such as rapeseed and wheat straw. But on the other hand, not only thanks to the support of energy
from biomass grown specifically for this purpose, arable land is exposed to intense cultivation of
wide-row crops indirectly supporting soil erosion and nutrient elution. The issue of recycling ash
from biomass combustion on agricultural and forest land is very important to resolve. Experience
with this problem is found in countries in Northern Europe such as Finland or Sweden, as well as
in North America. Due to ash characteristics, it is considered a valuable soil component and a
potential replacement for conventional fertilizers.
Elemental analyses of samples from wheat straw pellets were followed by combustion and
emission measurements. The effects of temperature and volume of air in the combustion of wheat
straw was analysed, focusing on emission concentrations and the ash content. Effect of excess air
coefficient on the composition of end products after combustion was assessed in three modes
(small, optimum and high coefficient of excess air). During the measurements, the excess air
coefficient ranged between the values from 3.95 to 14.89. The average net calorific value of the
wheat straw samples was 15.55 MJ kg-1 in the original state. Mineral composition analysis of
solid combustion products, necessary for using these residues as a fertilizer or soil component,
was performed as well.

Key words:

, , , ,




319-328 S. Kalinauskaitė,, A. Sakalauskas, E. Šarauskis, A. Jasinskasand M. Ahlhaus
Relation of energy content variations of straw to the fraction size, humidity, composition and environmental impact
Abstract |
Full text PDF (374 kB)

Relation of energy content variations of straw to the fraction size, humidity, composition and environmental impact

S. Kalinauskaitė¹,*, A. Sakalauskas¹, E. Šarauskis¹, A. Jasinskas¹and M. Ahlhaus²

¹Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentų g. 11, Akademija, Kauno r.LT-53361, Lithuania; *Correspondence: solveiga.kalinauskaite@gmail.com
²Fachhochschule Stralsund, Institut für Regenerative Energie Systeme (IRES),Zur Schwedenschanze 15, 18435 Stralsund, Germany

Abstract:

Biomass is the major source of renewable energy, the use of which is very importantin energy, environment and economical aspects. Biomass enables the replacement of fossilfuels, the importance of biomass usage is related to global warming questions. Biomassmoisture content is one of the main factors affecting straw preparation for the usage cost.In this research the main focus is on straw and different biomass composition and how itinfluences the solid biofuels preparation for usage, paying attention to straw fraction, humidity,composition and finally how it influences the energy and environmental aspects. Testedsamples consist of different composition- raw straw, 100% yellow straw pellets, 100% greystraw pellets, 98% straw pellets with 2% additives, 50% straw and 50% hay pellets, 49% strawand 49% hay pellets with 2% additives, 100% hay pellets, 98% hay pellets with 2% additivesand additionally two samples of straw briquettes with different chop size – (20 mm) and(30 mm and 10 mm). This research pays attention to the main material characteristics –moisture value, ash content, HHV (higher heating value), pyrolysis coke. Research results willhelp to find the best biomass pellet and briquette composition for solid biofuel usage. Duringthe research it was found that the lowest moisture value was 98% hay pellets with 2% CaOadditive – 5.79%. Highest amount of ash value was found in 50% straw and 50% haycomposition pellets – 0.021 g. Highest amount of HHV were tested pellets which consisted of98% hay with 2% CaO additives. Highest amount of pyrolysis coke in organic and dry matterwere in 100% yellow straw tested samples.Achieved results will help to estimate material fraction, humidity and composition on biomasspreparation for conversion steps, following biomass usage energy and environmentrequirements. These research results will help to realise further tasks of agricultural biomassusage in practice.

Key words:

, , , , , , ,




115-122 S. Kalinauskaite, A. Sakalauskas, E. Šarauskis, A. Jasinskas, M. Ahlhaus and H. Gerath
Biomass preparation for conversion humidity and value assessment
Abstract |
Full text PDF (265 kB)

Biomass preparation for conversion humidity and value assessment

S. Kalinauskaite, A. Sakalauskas, E. Šarauskis, A. Jasinskas¹, M. Ahlhaus² and H. Gerath³

¹Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentų g. 11, Akademija, Kauno r. LT-53361,
Lithuania; e-mail: solveiga.kalinauskaite@gmail.com
²Fachhochschule Stralsund, Institut für Regenerative EnergieSysteme (IRES), Zur
Schwedenschanze 15, 18435 Stralsund, Germany;
e-mail: Matthias.Ahlhaus@fh-stralsund.de
³Hochschule Wismar, Philipp-Müller-Straße PF 1210 Wismar 23952, Germany;
e-mail: horst.gerath@hs-wismar.de

Abstract:

Biomass usage for heat and energy purposes is one of the questions which still required more detailed analysis and scientific research. In this research we have focused on an analysis of humidity correlation on biomass preparation to conversion steps and calorific value assessment. The concept of biomass is widely understood, and in this research the chosen research object is agricultural, biomass with a main focus on straw, and additionally for results comparison are analyzed samples, composition are a mixture of straw and hay, with an additional 2% lime additive. For this research analyzed samples and their humidity for production steps is: one chop size reduction (20 mm) straw briquettes, two chops size reduction (30 mm and 10 mm) straw briquettes, pallets composition of 100% straw, 98% straw incl. 2% lime additive, 50% straw and 50% hay, 49% straw and 49% hay incl. 2% lime additive, 100% hay, 98% hay incl. 2% lime additive. Samples of straw and hay mixture, also with a lime additive is choosen because it is discussed widely that not only is it possible to use surplus straw from agricultural biomass as renewable energy and heat source, as a lime additive helps to keep a higher temperature on the combustion process and to generate more energy, but it is not healthy for the plant and not recommended under environmental aspects. The results received will help to estimate and determine the material humidity impact on biomass preparation for conversion steps, following an energy requirement for the production of briquettes and pallets, combustion factor and efficiency. It is defined as material calorific, HHV (higher heating value) and ash content which is one of the main factors and the criteria for fuel valuation will allow to determine tested samples further usage for heat and energy purposes. The research results will help further research tasks on bio energy as an agricultural biomass usage.

Key words:

, , , ,




305-314 D. Lazdina, A. Bardule, A. Lazdins and J. Stola
Use of waste water sludge and wood ash as fertiliser for Salix cultivation in acid peat soils
Abstract |

Use of waste water sludge and wood ash as fertiliser for Salix cultivation in acid peat soils

D. Lazdina, A. Bardule, A. Lazdins and J. Stola

‘Silava’ Latvian State Forest Research Institute, Riga iela 111, Salaspils, LV–2169, Latvia; e-mail: dagnija.lazdina@silava.lv

Abstract:

Two problems have become more topical in recent years – production of solid biofuel from wood and the utilisation of ash and organic waste, including waste water sludge. The purpose of this research is to model simultaneous solutions for both of these problems through their use as fertilizer and to identify useful indications for the use of waste water sludge and wood ash as fertilisers. Opportunities to boost the efficiency of the applications of waste water sludge by combined spreading with wood ash are addressed in this study. An experiment is carried out in vegetation pots with different proportions of peat, sludge and ash to determine the impact of stem and root system development related to chemical and nutrient availability. Due to these studies, it is determined that waste water sludge has a comparably small liming effect. The fertilising effect of sludge can be increased by the admixture of wood ash and dolomite. These materials reduce the acidity of the soil and provide additional nutrients. Using dolomite as a liming material in the amount of 10 t ha-1 secures a change in pH of 0.6–1.2 units in peat soil. Significant changes in pH were found just a few centimetres into the upper layer of the soil. The application of an equal amount of wood ash produces a faster effect in terms of neutralisation. The limiting element is phosphorus. However, the mineralisation of peat increases the percentile proportion of all mineral elements in substrates as well as heavy metals.

Key words:

, , , , ,