Incidence of Fusarium spp. on several field crops in Estonia and their toxicity towards Bacillus stearothermophilus
Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, EE75501 Saku, Harjumaa, Estonia;e-mail: email@example.com
The article provides an overview of the occurrence of Fusarium spp. on grain produced in Estonia from 1973–2004, the occurrence of Fusarium spp. in the common root rot complex of cereals in 1977–1985 and potato tubers with dry rot symptoms in the yield of 1996–2000. The dominating species on grain were (contaminated samples, %) F. avenaceum (Fr.) Sacc. – 28.0–30.3; F. poae (Pk.) Wr. – 7.4–9.5 F. semitectum Berk. et Rav. – 7.0–9.0; F. oxysporum (Schlecht) Snyd. et Hans. – 7.4-8.0; accompanied by F. ventricosum App. et Wr., F. sporotrichioides Sherb. var. minus Wr., F. verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg, F. culmorum (W. G. Sm.) Sacc. and F. sambucinum Fuck. In the common root rot complex of barley, F. culmorum – 16.8; F. sambucinum – 2.5; F. avenaceum – 2.2; F. oxysporum – 1.7; and F. poae – 1.3 (contaminated samples, %) dominated. In potato with dry rot, F. culmorum – 26.7; F. solani (Mart.) Sacc. – 20.0; F. poae – 15.0; F. oxysporum – 13.3 and F. sulphureum Schlecht – 8.3 (contaminated tubers, %) dominated. The occurrence of toxic isolates both on grain and potato was established. Of Fusarium isolates recovered from grain (total 287) 5.6% were highly toxic, and 88.1% mildly or medium toxic to Bacillus stearothermophilus. Of 15 isolates found on potato, 1 was highly toxic and 9 were mildly to medium toxic. Fusarium spp. has been presented according to Gerlach & Nirenberg (1982).