Tag Archives: barley

280–287 P. Sooväli, M. Koppel and T. Kangor
Effectiveness of seed treatment against Fusarium spp. and Cochliobolus sativus of spring barley in different conditions
Abstract |
Full text PDF (271 kB)

Effectiveness of seed treatment against Fusarium spp. and Cochliobolus sativus of spring barley in different conditions

P. Sooväli*, M. Koppel and T. Kangor

Estonian Crop Research Institute, J. Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva, Estonia
*Correspondence: pille.soovali@etki.ee

Abstract:

Effect of fungicide seed treatments on initial growth of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was evaluated in greenhouse trials. The soil collected from minimum tillage fields where spring barley, spring wheat (Triticum L.) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) have been cultivated in previous growing season were used in trials. Eight fungicide seed treatments and untreated seed as the control were evaluated. Root rot severity and seedling emergence rate were assessed at growth stages 20–22. In addition the incidence of seed-borne Fusarium spp. and Cochliobolus sativus and germination were assessed in treated and untreated spring barley seeds in laboratory condition. Fungicides prothioconazole and tebuconazole significantly reduced incidence of seed-borne Fusarium spp. Seed treated with fludioxonil and tebuconazole more effectively decreased root rot infection in soil from minimum tilled barley field, fludioxonil + difenoconazole in soil from minimum tilled spring wheat field and prothioconazole mixes with tebuconazole or fluoxastrobin in soil from minimum tilled oilseed rape field. This study brings out the pre-crop and seed treatment interaction effect on control of root rot in spring barley.

Key words:

, , , ,




1249–1260 V. Alle, U. Kondratovics, A. Osvalde and M. Vikmane
Differences in cadmium accumulation and induced changes in root anatomical structures in plants used for food
Abstract |
Full text PDF (719 kB)

Differences in cadmium accumulation and induced changes in root anatomical structures in plants used for food

V. Alle¹*, U. Kondratovics¹, A. Osvalde² and M. Vikmane¹

¹University of Latvia, Faculty of Biology, Department of Plant Physiology, St. Jelgavas 1, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia
²University of Latvia, Institute of Biology, Laboratory of Plant Mineral Nutrition, St. Miera 3, LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia
*Correspondence: vita.alle@lu.lv

Abstract:

 A rapid urbanization passes all over the world thus the effect of chemicals, including heavy metals, increases on plants. Heavy metal pollution poses a serious hazard to humans’ health, and it uptake into plants is the primary way through which it can enter the food chain. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of cadmium (Cd) contamination on plant growth responces, Cd uptake, and changes in the root anatomical structures as species-specific reaction to Cd stress. The vegetation experiment was carried out with monocotyledon Hordeum vulgare L. and dicotyledonous Lactuca sativa L. The plants were grown in quartz sand under controlled optimal growth conditions. Changes in the root structure and Cd accumulation were studied at five levels of Cd added as Cd(NO3)2 4 H2O solution in substrate. The level of Cd in the air-dry plant material was estimated by an atomic absorption spectrometer. To identify structural changes in the plant roots which were caused by Cd accumulation cross sections were cut using microtome and stained with Astra Blue/Safranin for observations using a light microscope. Barley and lettuce growth and development were significantly influenced by increasing the amount of Cd in substrate. There were differences in the ability to accumulate Cd in above-ground plant parts depending on a model object. Substrate contamination with Cd caused significant changes in the root anatomical structures. The obtained results confirmed significance of anatomical and physiological studies to reveal species-specific plant response to Cd stress to avoid heavy metal entrance in the food.

Key words:

, , , ,




317–326 N. Borys and A. Küüt
The influence of basic soil tillage methods and weather conditions on the yield of spring barley in forest-steppe conditions
Abstract |
Full text PDF (201 kB)

The influence of basic soil tillage methods and weather conditions on the yield of spring barley in forest-steppe conditions

N. Borys¹* and A. Küüt²

¹National Science Center, Institute of Agriculture NAAS Ukraine,
Mashinostroiteley Str. 2b, UK 08162 habany, Ukraine
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56,
EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: agrokaktys@mail.ru

Abstract:

The research on the effect the main methods of soil treatment have on its hydrophysical properties was carried out as a stationary experiment at the National Scientific Centre, Institute of Agriculture NAAS. It included a grain crop rotation with the subsequent crop sequencing: winter wheat/grain maize/barley. In 2013–2015, the spring barley variety ‘Solntsedar’ was sown. Throughout the three years of research, the consistency of the effect of the main soil treatment methods on the overall yield stayed more or less the same. Reduction in barley grain yield against the backdrop of long-term disking at the depth of 10–12 cm is explained by the thickening of the 10–30 cm layer of soil to the critical level of 1.57 g cm-3, moisture deficiency, as a result of the over-compaction of the root layer, and an increase in the amount of sterile spikelets. As the result of our research, we have come to a conclusion that for barley, soil disking at the depth of 10–12 cm is as good as ploughing if it is used as a part of differential treatment system, which includes ploughing at the depth of 28–30 cm or chisel tilling at 43–45 cm for its preceding crops. If disking was used for all crops of the grain crop rotation, a deterioration of hydrophysical properties was observed in the barley field, which can lead to a considerable reduction in the barley yield, especially in a dry cultivation year. 

Key words:

, , , , , , ,




433-438 A. M. Méndez, D. Castillo , A. del Pozo, I. Matus, R. Morcuende
Differences in Stem Soluble Carbohydrate Contents among Recombinant Chromosome Substitution Lines (RCSLs) of Barley under Drought in a Mediterranean–type Environment
Abstract |
Full text PDF (140 kB)

Differences in Stem Soluble Carbohydrate Contents among Recombinant Chromosome Substitution Lines (RCSLs) of Barley under Drought in a Mediterranean–type Environment

A. M. Méndez¹, D. Castillo² ³, A. del Pozo², I. Matus³, R. Morcuende¹

¹Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology of Salamanca, IRNASA–CSIC, Apartado 257, 37071 Salamanca, Spain; e–mail: rosa.morcuende@irnasa.csic.es
²Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Talca, Casilla 747, Talca, Chile
³Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias CRI-Quilamapu, Casilla 426, Chillán, Chile

Abstract:

Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses that dramatically threaten the global food supply and it is becoming an increasingly severe problem in many regions of the world, mainly in Mediterranean areas and/or climates. This study investigates the effect of drought on the stem soluble carbohydrate content and its role in grain filling in different barley genotypes –four recombinant chromosome substitution lines (RCSLs) and the recurrent parent cv. Harrington, which had been growing in two contrasting Mediterranean environments in central Chile. At anthesis, drought stress increased the stem glucose and fructose contents in lines 76 and 78 and fructans in all the genotypes. At maturity, in non-stressed plants the soluble carbohydrate content in the stem decreased, suggesting a mobilization of carbohydrates from the stem into the grain. Drought increased the stem content of fructose, sucrose and fructans in all genotypes. The accumulation of fructans was higher in RCSLs as compared to Harrington, providing evidence that the introgression of the wild ancestor (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) into cv. Harrington increases the terminal drought tolerance of barley. Line 89 showed the maximal content of fructans and it could be considered as the most tolerant to terminal drought of all RCSLs. However, this genotype showed the lowest grain weight and yield, indicating that is the most susceptible line of those referred to as grain yield.

Key words:

, , , , ,




343-356 J. Pozdíšek, B. Henriksen, A. Ponížil and A.-K. Løes
Utilizing legume-cereal intercropping for increasing self- sufficiency on organic farms in feed for monogastric animals
Abstract |
Full text PDF (132 kB)

Utilizing legume-cereal intercropping for increasing self- sufficiency on organic farms in feed for monogastric animals

J. Pozdíšek¹, B. Henriksen², A. Ponížil³ and A.-K. Løes²

¹Research Institute of Cattle Breeding, Rapotín s.r.o, Výzkumníků 267, 788 13 Vikýřovice, Czech Republic; e-mail:jan.pozdisek@vuchs.cz
²Bioforsk - Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Organic Food and Farming Division, Gunnars veg 6, NO-6630 Tingvoll, Norway; e-mail: britt.henriksen@bioforsk.no and anne-kristin.loes@bioforsk.no
³Agritec, research, breeding and services Ltd., Zemědělská 16, 787 01 Šumperk, Czech Republic; e-mail: ponizil@agritec.cz

Abstract:

In 2009, controlled field trials were conducted on three certified organic farms with field pea (leaf type), spring barley and spring wheat in monocultures and mixtures (pea:cereal ratio 60:40) to study the possibility of producing fodder for monogastric animals under Czech conditions. By grain harvest time, seed samples were collected and analysed for dry matter, ash, crude protein, fat and crude fiber, and content of organic matter and nitrogen-free extracts (NFE) were determined. Weed harrowing at various pea heights were included at one farm. Samples for analysis of tannins and trypsin-inhibitor activity (TIA) were taken from treatments with no weed harrowing (H0) and harrowings at 5 and 10 cm pea height (H2). Analyses of amino acids were conducted from H0-samples. To complement the data from the farm trials, samples of grains from treatments with the same pea and cereal varieties in plot trials conducted in 2008 and 2009 studying the effect of pea:cereal seed ratio and weed harrowing at various pea heights, were analysed. In cereals, the crude protein content increased by intercropping with pea. This increase was compensated for by a decrease in NFE. Wheat and barley grown in mixtures with peas seemed to contain more methionine than cereals in monoculture, and there tends to be higher threonine content in intercropped barley compared with barley monoculture. This is positive for the nutrition of monogastric animals.  There were no pronounced effects of intercropping on tannins or TIA or on the content of other analysed nutrients in the cereals. The chemical composition of peas was not significantly impacted by intercropping.

Key words:

, , , , ,




553-562 A. Ingver, I. Tamm, Ü. Tamm, T. Kangor and R. Koppel
The characteristics of spring cereals in changing weather in Estonia
Abstract |

The characteristics of spring cereals in changing weather in Estonia

A. Ingver, I. Tamm, Ü. Tamm, T. Kangor and R. Koppel

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 48 309 Jõgeva, Estonia;e-mail: Anne.Ingver@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

The objective of this investigation was finding out the impact of weather on yield, length of growing period, plant height, lodging resistance and protein content of spring cereals over 19 years (1991–2009). Two varieties per each crop were selected for testing. Historical weather and crop yield data from the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute were analyzed by the linear correlation analysis. To estimate the variation of grain yield, the minimum and maximum values, averages and coefficients of variation were calculated.It can be stated that the both stress conditions – drought and excess precipitation causeddecrease of yield and quality of all the crops. The highest yields developed in 180–250 mm precipitation range from sowing to maturity. Oat requires more moisture than wheat and barley. Significant positive correlation between the amount of precipitation and oat yield was found when three years of severe lodging were eliminated. Positive correlation between yield and plant height was found. In the years of severe lodging there was remarkable yield decrease of oat. Yield of oat and barley had negative correlation with sunshine hours in June. The same correlation for wheat was not significant. Extra-low protein content for all the cereals, especially for wheat, formed in a cool year with the lowest sum of sunshine hours during the whole growing period (2009). For oat and barley positive correlation between sunshine hours in June and protein content was found. For formation of higher protein content, warm and dry weather conditions are required. Protein content was inversely associated with yield.

Key words:

, , , , , ,




361-366 E. Nugis, T. Võsa, K.Vennik, H. Meripõld, J. Kuht, M. Müüripeal
Results of observations of damages to field and landscape
Abstract |
Full text PDF (712 kB)

Results of observations of damages to field and landscape

E. Nugis¹, T. Võsa¹, K.Vennik², H. Meripõld¹, J. Kuht³, M. Müüripeal¹

¹Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, Saku 75501, Estonia; e-mail:edvin.nugis@eria.ee, taavi.vosa@eria.ee.
²Tartu University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Vanemuise 46, Tartu 50090; e-mail: kersti.vennik@ksk.edu.ee
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, Tartu 51014; e-mail:jaan.kuht@emu.ee

Abstract:

It is a fact that crop growth conditions vary greatly within the same field. Provisionally actual growth conditions are made up of many components, i.e. variation of natural conditions (climate & soil), results of effects of machinery on soil (soil compaction) and unfavourable conditions for plant growing. In Estonia rather widely used ATV’s are causing remarkable damage to landscapes.All collected data were geo-referenced by means of a GPS-receiver and post-processed forposition correction. For All Terrain Vehicle (ATV) damage assessment the trajectory was recorded. Both the area and forms of damages were assessed for damaged sites, (e.g.) damage to potato by Colorado beetles. The collected data were compared to the digital soil map.Economic loss on the average, due to unfavourable conditions for plant growth, in thecase of winter rye "Portal" was 131 euros per ha, for medicago 18.5 euros per ha, for spring barley "Anni" 1000 euros per ha and for potato “Ando” 27.1 euros per ha.

Key words:

, , , , , , , ,




198-203 B. Bankina and Z. Gaile
Evaluation of barley disease development depending on varieties
Abstract |
Full text PDF (215 kB)

Evaluation of barley disease development depending on varieties

B. Bankina¹ and Z. Gaile²

¹Institute of Soil and Plant Science, Latvia University of Agriculture, Liela 2, Jelgava, Latvia;e-mail: Biruta.Bankina@llu.lv
²Institute of Agrobiotechnology, Latvia University of Agriculture, Liela 2, Jelgava, Latvia;e-mail: Zinta.Gaile@llu.lv

Abstract:

Resistance against diseases is one of the key factors for plant varieties used in organic farming systems. Official variety trials in a certified organic field were inspected during 2004–2008 in the Research and Study farm “Vecauce”of LLU.Net blotch (caused by Pyrenophora teres) and mildew (caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei) were the most significant diseases in spring barley. Rust (caused by Puccinia hordei (syn. P. anomala) was observed very seldom and leaf scald (caused by Rhynchosporium secalis) was noted only in 2008 for a new breeding line, G 131.The incidence of net blotch fluctuated from 0–100% depending on year and variety, butthe incidence of mildew was 3–100%. The incidence of barley rust did not exceed 29% (severity only 0.7%).The obtained data gave general information about the spectrum of diseases, but they areinconsistent and are seriously influenced by meteorological conditions: artificial inoculation is necessary for better variety selection, especially for organic farming.

Key words:

, , ,




355-362 R. Kosteckas and A. Marcinkevičienė
The integrated evaluation of the influence of catch crops and manure on spring barley agrocenosis in organic farming
Abstract |
Full text PDF (112 kB)

The integrated evaluation of the influence of catch crops and manure on spring barley agrocenosis in organic farming

R. Kosteckas and A. Marcinkevičienė

Department of Soil Management, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentu 11,Akademija, Kaunas district, LT–53361, Lithuania, tel. +370 37 752211;e-mail: lzuustotis@hotmail.com

Abstract:

Details of the field experiments which were carried out in the Kazliskiai organic farm from 1999–2001 were needed for our investigations. The integrated evaluation method enabled us to make complex evaluation of the influence of catch crops (red clover, common ryegrass, white mustard and winter rape) for green manure and animal manure on spring barley agrocenosis in organic farming. The variances of the 11 indicators were subdivided into scales of 9 points. The resulting evaluation points were marked in a network diagram. The evaluation threshold, which is equal to 5 points, was also marked. The integrated evaluation index, consisting of the average of evaluation points, its standard deviation and standard deviation of the average of evaluation points which are below the evaluation threshold, was calculated. The influence of red clover for green manure on barley agrocenosis, according to the calculated integrated evaluation indices, is stronger than that of other catch crops and manure.

Key words:

, , ,




374-380 A. Leistrumaitė, Ž. Liatukas and K. Razbadauskienė
The spring cereals traits of soil cover, disease resistance and yielding essential for organic growing
Abstract |
Full text PDF (176 kB)

The spring cereals traits of soil cover, disease resistance and yielding essential for organic growing

A. Leistrumaitė, Ž. Liatukas and K. Razbadauskienė

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto al. 1, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr., LT-58344,Lithuania; e-mail: alge@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Investigation on 12 spring barley and 7 oat genotypes under organic growing system during 2007–2008 revealed that mean yield of oats was 3.3 t ha-1, whereas barley yielded on average 2.3 t ha-1. Also, oats were found to be more resistant to leaf diseases. Oats were severely infected by leaf rust in 2007, but the disease did not correlate (r = –0.17) with yield. The majority of barley genotypes were infected with powdery mildew in both years and with leaf spotting diseases in 2007. Leaf spotting diseases negatively influenced (r = –0.53*) yield. Oats possessing higher vegetative growth rate, higher plant height, large and prostrate leaves, and larger stems were superior to barley by canopy traits during the growing season.

Key words:

, , , ,