Tag Archives: biodiesel

406–416 V. Hönig,, Z. Linhart, P. Procházka and K. Pernica
Regulatives for biorefineries
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Regulatives for biorefineries

V. Hönig¹,*, Z. Linhart², P. Procházka³ and K. Pernica¹

¹ University of Economics, Faculty of Business Administration, Department of Strategy, W. Churchill Sq., CZ130 67 Prague 3, Czech Republic
² University of Economics and Management, Department of Marketing, Nárožní 2600/9A, Prague 5, Czech Republic
³ Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, Kamýcka 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: vladimir.honig@vse.cz

Abstract:

The relationship between uncertainty and risk–taking behaviour towards innovations and Common Market protection are investigated in this article. Therefore, the aim of this article is to assess points of control over market regulation protecting innovative products. It was found that risk of creative destruction due to implementation of innovations is increased by regulators due to antimonopoly metric they use. EU fiscal policy implementation in renewable fuels in Czech Republic of both EU and CZ calculations is compared. Historical data has shown that regulators have collapsed market of high condensed biofuels. Pattern of fine calculation has explained a market collapse. Comparison of excise duty of favoured biofuels was compared with subsidies for photovoltaics. Substitution of former fossil fuels taking into account excise duty and subsidies of alternative or renewable energies is less market distorting than recent tariffs of excise duty and fines to first generation biofuels.

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318-327 H. Kahr, M. Pointner, K. Krennhuber, B. Wallner and A. Jäger
Lipid production from diverse oleaginous yeasts from steam exploded corn cobs
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Lipid production from diverse oleaginous yeasts from steam exploded corn cobs

H. Kahr, M. Pointner, K. Krennhuber, B. Wallner and A. Jäger*

University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, School of Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Stelzhamerstraße 23, 4600 Wels, Austria *Correspondence: Heike.Kahr@fh-wels.at

Abstract:

Corn cob hydrolysate was used as substrate for growth and lipid accumulation via oleaginous yeast species. A mass based suspension of 10 g 100 g-1 corn cob hydrolysate contained 26.0 g L-1 glucose, 8.5 g L-1 xylose. The inhibitor concentrations were 0.16 g L-1 acetic acid, 1.50 g L-1 formic acid, 0.48 g L-1 HMF and 0.06 g L-1 furfural. These conditions reduced the cell growth of non-adapted yeast. Successful adaptation of the tested yeasts over several generations in corn cob hydrolysate was performed. The adapted yeast Candida lipolytica produced 19.4 g 100 g -1 lipids in relation to the dry weight in 7.5 g 100 g-1 dry matter corn cob hydrolysate in fed batch mode. The scale up was done up to a volume of 2.5 litres – here lipid accumulation up to 17.5 g 100 g-1 was demonstrated with the quantitative GC/FID analyses. Predominantly oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic and palmitoleic acid were produced. This lipid spectrum is suitable for biodiesel production.

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407-416 K. Sirviö,, S. Niemi, V. Vauhkonen and E. Hiltunen
Antioxidant studies for animal-based fat methyl ester
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Antioxidant studies for animal-based fat methyl ester

K. Sirviö¹,*, S. Niemi¹, V. Vauhkonen² and E. Hiltunen¹

¹University of Vaasa, Faculty of Technology, PL 700, FIN-65101 Vaasa, Finland; *Correspondence: Katriina.Sirvio@uwasa.fi 2UPM Research Center, FI-53200 Lappeenranta, Finland

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to test an antioxidant, BioSineox, for animal-based fat methyl ester, AFME, in order to determine the optimal concentration of this antioxidant for meeting the six-hour oxidation stability requirement as set in the EN 14214:2010 standard. Oxidation stability was measured using a Biodiesel Rancimat 873, which meets the requirements of the EN 14112 standard. The variety of raw materials used in the production of methyl esters, i.e. biodiesels, renders a variety of fatty acid profiles. Consequently, the reaction of biodiesels with various antioxidants must be individually tested for each combination. Before the antioxidant is added during the manufacturing process, it must be tested in laboratory conditions. As the main result of this study it can be stated that the process requires a relatively high (2,000 ppm) BioSineox concentration in order for the biodiesel to meet the six-hour oxidation stability requirement. In March 2013, the standard EN 14214:2010 was replaced by the EN 14214:2012. One of the changes was an increase in the oxidation stability requirement from 6 hours minimum to 8 hours minimum. To reach this target, the concentration of the antioxidant must be further increased.

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