Tag Archives: biodiversity

192-201 A.V. Shcherbakov, E.Yu. Kuzmina, E.D. Lapshina, E.N. Shcherbakova,,L.N. Gonchar and V.K. Chebotar
Taxonomic diversity of bacterial populations inhabiting gametophytes of Sphagnum mosses from different geographic regions of Russia
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Taxonomic diversity of bacterial populations inhabiting gametophytes of Sphagnum mosses from different geographic regions of Russia

A.V. Shcherbakov¹⋅²*, E.Yu. Kuzmina³, E.D. Lapshina⁴, E.N. Shcherbakova¹,⁵,L.N. Gonchar⁵ and V.K. Chebotar¹⋅²

¹All-Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology, Shosse Podbelskogo 3, 196608 Pushkin, St. Petersburg, Russia; *Correspondence: avsherbakov@bisolbi.ru
²ITMO University, Lomonosova Str. 9, St. Petersburg, 191002, Russia
³Komarov Botanical Institute, Professora Popova Str. 2, 197367 St. Petersburg, Russia
⁴Ugra State University, UNESCO chair, the Scientific and study centre ‘Environmental dynamics and global climate change’, Chehova Str. 16, 628012 Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia
⁵National University of Life and Environmental Science of Ukraine, Geroev oborony Str. 15, 03041 Kiev, Ukraine

Abstract:

In this study we have analyzed the diversity of the endophytic bacterial community associated with Sphagnum mosses from Nort-West Region and Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District of Russia during the years 2009–2012. We isolated a more then 400 strains which were identified by means of phenotypic tests and by 16S rRNA sequences. The ribosomal data showed that the isolates belonged to genera Pseudomonas (20–57%), Colimonas (7–10%), Flavobacterium (6–8%), Burkholderia (5–6%), Serratia (3%). The data reported in this work are consistent with the results of research performed by the Berg group with samples of mosses of the Austrian Alps. It was found that Sphagnum mosses are a promising source for the isolation of beneficial microorganisms.

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241-245 J. Korolova, D. Lapinsh and A. Berzinsh
Weed dynamics in differently managed fields
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Weed dynamics in differently managed fields

J. Korolova¹, D. Lapinsh² and A. Berzinsh²

¹Department of Control System, Latvia University of Agriculture, Liela iela 2, Jelgava, Latvia;e-mail: jelena.korolova@llu.lv
²Institute of Soil and Plant Sciences, Latvia University of Agriculture, Liela iela 2, Jelgava,Latvia; e-mail: dainis.lapins@llu.lv; andris.berzins@llu.lv

Abstract:

Latvia is characterized by variation among farms. Analysis of the dynamics of weed diversity is based on monitoring sowings during 1997–2004 in westerly and central regions of Latvia. The aim of this research was to compare the dynamics of weed on unchanging types of grain sown, fields with elevated grain density and un-utilised agricultural land. Two hypotheses were put forward: the dynamic of several species of weeds to impact the total number of weeds in land laying waste (un-utilised agricultural land), and the increase in the numbers of several specific weeds in fields with elevated grain density using annual herbicides.

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153–164 S. Plantureux, A. Peeters and D. McCracken
Biodiversity in intensive grasslands: Effect of management, improvement and challenges
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Biodiversity in intensive grasslands: Effect of management, improvement and challenges

S. Plantureux¹, A. Peeters² and D. McCracken³

¹UMR INPL(ENSAIA)-INRA Agronomie et Environnement Nancy-Colmar, 2 av. de la Foret de Haye, 54500 Vandoeuvre, France
²Laboratoire d'Ecologie des Prairies, Université Catholique de Louvain, Place Croix du Sud, 5 bte 1, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgique
³Land Economy Research Group, Scottish Agricultural College, Auchincruive, Ayr KA6 5HW, United Kingdom

Abstract:

Intensified grasslands are usually the dominant type of grassland in many countries in Europe but are generally of poor ecological value. Several management factors may affect biodiversity of these grasslands including fertilisation, grazing and cutting management. Their effects on grassland biodiversity are described in this paper. In most cases, intensive and profitable grass production from semi-natural grasslands appears to be incompatible with maintaining a high level of biodiversity. Two key questions then arise: how to restore biodiversity in intensive grasslands while limiting the technical and economical consequences? How to choose the target species on an objective basis? Some solutions are considered in the paper but it is suggested that 1) new tools (i.e. indicators) are required to evaluate the functions of biodiversity and to achieve biodiversity restoration goals and 2) in the short-term the research priority is to understand and predict biodiversity at the field and farm-scale.

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139–151 J. Isselstein, B. Jeangros and V. Pavlu
Agronomic aspects of biodiversity targeted management of temperate grasslands in Europe – A review
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Agronomic aspects of biodiversity targeted management of temperate grasslands in Europe – A review

J. Isselstein¹, B. Jeangros² and V. Pavlu³

¹Institute of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, University of Goettingen, Von-Siebold-Str. 8, 37075 Goettingen, Germany
²Agroscope RAC Changins, Swiss Federal Agricultural Research Station,CH-1260 Nyon, Switzerland
³Research Institute of Crop Production, Prague, Grassland Research Station, Rolnicka 6, CZ-46011 Liberec, The Czech Republic

Abstract:

Maintaining and enhancing the biodiversity of the agriculturally utilised area has a high priority in environmental policy worldwide. Temperate grasslands in Europe make an important contribution to the biodiversity of agricultural landscapes. The species and community diversity of grasslands is a result of a traditional extensive grassland management interacting with a broad range of site conditions. Until the early decades of the last century, grassland sites were hardly ameliorated and the agronomic potential was generally low, depending on the fertility of the soils. Later on the production from grassland was markedly improved by regular fertilisation, by liming and by artificial drainage of wet sites. Correspondingly, the stocking rates and the cutting frequency increased. Thus, biodiversity strongly decreased, and unimproved species-rich swards only persisted on a low percentage of the total grassland area. The preservation of the remaining species-rich grassland is a primary goal of nature conservation. The continuation of traditional ways of grassland management that would best preserve biodiversity is often not compatible with the requirements of intensive livestock production. Therefore, this grassland is at risk of being abandoned from agricultural use. There is a need to identify and develop improved management measures that better integrate biodiversity and agronomy targets of species-rich grassland farming. In addition, compensation payments for farmers are required to support grass production on species-rich swards. Apart from the unimproved species-rich grassland, there is an increasing area of now de-intensified species-poor grassland which can be managed to increase biodiversity. Grazing at a low stocking rate seems to have the potential to facilitate the restoration of diverse swards and to support reasonable individual performances of the grazing animals.

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125–138 M. Duru, J. Tallowin and P. Cruz
Functional diversity in low-input grassland farming systems: characterisation, effect and management
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Functional diversity in low-input grassland farming systems: characterisation, effect and management

M. Duru¹, J. Tallowin² and P. Cruz¹

¹UMR ARCHE, Chemin de Borde Rouge, BP52627, 31326 Castanet Tolosan, France
²Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB, UK

Abstract:

High biodiversity in grasslands is widely perceived to have a major role in maintaining or enhancing the amenity and cultural value of landscapes in Europe. In this paper, we focus mainly at community level, evaluating factors that appear to influence biodiversity at farm and landscape levels. In order to establish generic principles we examine the maintenance of biodiversity in terms of maintaining or enhancing functional diversity (FD). We define plant functional types (PFTs), groups of species having the same function and/or the same effect in the grassland ecosystem, species identified on the basis of plant traits. These traits reflect ecological responses to nutrient input and/or defoliation frequency, and they can also have an effect on ecosystem properties. We reviewed the literature, examining the relationship between several leaf and plant traits and principal ecological factors and, in turn, how these traits could influence the feed value of the grassland vegetation for herbivores. FD was determining as the range of relevant PFTs at community, farm and landscape levels. We propose a practical method of assessing agronomic value of semi-natural grasslands based on the determination of dominant PFTs by measuring traits in situ, or through using a trait database coupled to species abundance records. We then assess the relevance of the method for semi-natural grasslands subjected to several management practices.

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