Tag Archives: bioenergy

xxx A. Annuk, A. Allik and K. Annuk
Reed canary grass cultivation’s energy efficiency and fuel quality
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Reed canary grass cultivation’s energy efficiency and fuel quality

A. Annuk¹*, A. Allik¹ and K. Annuk²

¹University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Department of Energy Engineering, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 5, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: andres.annuk@emu.ee

Abstract:

The article discusses the energy yield and yield capacity of reed canary grass stands in semi-natural and cultivated meadows with edaphic conditions most favourable for species growing on fertile soil. Energy grass production yields have been assessed with respect to the issues of precipitation, sunshine, and frozen ground. In Estonia, a dried matter level of 4.2–8.5 t ha-1 of reed canary grass may produce 72.91–147.56 GJ ha-1 gross energy by using 1.48–3.06 GJ ha-1 input energy, which consequently nets 71.44–1,445.00 GJ ha-1. The above finding indicates that 1 MJ input energy enables the production of 2.8 kg dry matter. The efficiency of energy production (ratio of energy returned on energy invested) depends on the amount of input energy used to grow and harvest reed canary grass. The input energy payback ratio for the given case was 48.2–49.4, which was higher than cases with lower and higher dry matter yield levels. Precipitation during the second part of the Estonian summer, heavy winter snow cover and a simultaneous frequent lack of frozen ground reduce the productivity of reed canary grass as energy hay because the winter or early spring harvest cannot be used.

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883–895 R. Pecenka, H.-J. Gusovius, J. Budde and T. Hoffmann
Efficient use of arable land for energy: Comparison of cropping natural fibre plants and energy plants
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Efficient use of arable land for energy: Comparison of cropping natural fibre plants and energy plants

R. Pecenka*, H.-J. Gusovius, J. Budde and T. Hoffmann

Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim (ATB), Max-Eyth-Allee 100, DE 14469 Potsdam, Germany
*Correspondence: rpecenka@atb-potsdam.de

Abstract:

 With focus on renewable energy from agriculture governments can either support the growing production of energy crops or it can invest in technology or measures to reduce the energy consumption. But what is more efficient with regard to the use of the limited resource arable land: to insulate a building with fibre material grown on arable land to reduce the heating demand or to use such land for growing energy plants for the sustainable energy supply of a building? To answer this question, a long term balance calculation under consideration of numerous framework parameters is necessary.
Based on traditional fibre plants like hemp, flax, and woody fibre crops (e.g. poplar), these agricultural plants and their processing to insulation material were examined. Based on available data for the typical building structure of detached and semi-detached houses in Germany, models of buildings were developed and the accessible potentials for heating energy savings by using suitable insulation measures with natural fibre materials were determined. As a comparable system for the supply of renewable energy, bio-methane from silage maize was chosen, since it can be used efficiently in conventional gas boilers for heat generation. The different levels of consideration allow the following interpretations of results: in a balance calculation period of 30 years, the required acreage for heating supply with methane can be reduced by approx. 20%, when at the beginning of the use period fibre plants for the insulation of the houses are grown on the arable acreage. Contrariwise, to compensate only the existing loss in heating energy due to inadequate insulation of older detached and semi-detached houses (build prior to 1979) an annual acreage of approx. 3 million ha silage maize for bio-methane would be required in Germany. Therefore, from the land use perspective the production of biogas plants in agriculture for heating should be accompanied by the production of fibre plants for a reasonable improvement of the heat insulation of houses.

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348-353 R. Lauhanen,, J. Ahokas and J. Esala
Direct and indirect energy input in the harvesting of Scots pine and Norway spruce stump-root systems from areas cleared for farmland
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Direct and indirect energy input in the harvesting of Scots pine and Norway spruce stump-root systems from areas cleared for farmland

R. Lauhanen¹,*, J. Ahokas² and J. Esala¹

¹Seinäjoki University of Applied Sciences, School of Food and Agriculture, Ilmajoentie 525, FI60800 Ilmajoki, Finland
²University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Koetilantie 5, Helsinki, Finland *Correspondence: risto.lauhanen@seamk.fi

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to find the net energy and energy ratios for the recovery of Scots pine and Norway spruce stump-root systems when clearing land for cultivations. The energy analyses were carried out for direct and indirect energy under Finnish conditions. In the base study case for direct energy input; the net energy yields for stump-root system harvesting were 446–698 GJ ha-1, and the energy ratios were 22–33. In the case of indirect energy input the net energy yields were 440–692 GJ ha-1, and the energy ratios were 17–26. The proportion of indirect energy was low, because the amount of operating hours annually was high. When calculating indirect energy, only the energy input of machine manufacturing was used, since there was no data on the indirect energy used for repair and maintenance of the machines. The energy assessment for repairing and maintenance operations for heavy forest machines and vehicles in bioenergy procurement will need to be assessed.

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275-282 A. Barisa, G. Cimdina, F. Romagnoli and D. Blumberga
Potential for bioenergy development in Latvia: future trend analysis
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Potential for bioenergy development in Latvia: future trend analysis

A. Barisa*, G. Cimdina, F. Romagnoli and D. Blumberga

Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University,Kronvalda Boulevard 1, LV – 1010, Riga, Latvia;
*Correspondence: Aiga.Barisa@rtu.lv

Abstract:

The paper discusses development trends of bioenergy production and use in Latvia.A methodology for the assessment of biomass potential was developed and applied to a Latviancase  study.  Four  scenarios  were  built  to  analyse  the  potential  of  biomass  supply  for  energyneeds  and  energy  costs.  The  biomass  resources  considered  are  forestry  residues  and  by-products, energy crops, and agricultural residues.The  evaluation  is  performed  on  the  basis  of  historical  data  analysis  and  literature  reviewapplying  indicators  with  sufficient  levels  of  information  aggregation  and  adequacy.  Futurebioenergy development patterns are assessed from technological, ecological and environmentalpoints of view. The analysis focuses on currently initiated cogeneration plant and boiler houseprojects  (planned  to  be  finished  in  two  years’  time)  and  maximum  available  bioenergyresources in country.The  analysis  indicates  the  biomass  potential  available  for  energy  needs  in  the  range  of  25–30 TWh per year in 2020, of which circa 15 TWh were used in 2011.  Key words: bioenergy, biomass potential, wood fuel.

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205-209 M. D. Rasmussen
Educational requirements to support research and innovation in Bioenergy
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Educational requirements to support research and innovation in Bioenergy

M. D. Rasmussen

Department of Engineering, Aarhus University. Blichers Allé 20, DK-8830 Tjele,
Denmark;
e-mail: mdr@ase.au.dk

Abstract:

Conversion of biomasses to energy, food, feed and chemical building blocks for
further usage become increasingly important. Educations and research within biorefinery and
especially bioenergy have become popular and are offered at most universities in Europe.
Bioenergy is a very wide scientific area however, and we must educate students that possess the
qualifications to bring the industry and research forward. We must not just educate students that
know some general elements but students that really can go into the depth. Universities should
specialise and seek partners to complement educations and research areas.

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415-421 T. Võsa and H. Meripõld
Growing technology and production costs for dry mass for direct burning and green mass for biogas of Galega Orientalis
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Growing technology and production costs for dry mass for direct burning and green mass for biogas of Galega Orientalis

T. Võsa and H. Meripõld

Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture (ERIA),Teaduse 13, Saku, Harjumaa 75501 Estonia;e-mail: taavi.vosa@eria.ee, heli.meripold@eria.ee

Abstract:

Demand for local and renewable energy source materials is accelerating the search for new crops for energy production. Goat’s rue or galega (Galega Orientalis Lam.) is known as a long-living and well-adapted rhizomatious legume used mainly for production of high quality forage. Thanks to its strong stem and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, an economically produced and harvested yield is feasible. As an energy source, its yield can be used in an alternative manner. In this paper estimated usage is based on a combination: direct burning of dry material (spring harvest) and ensilaging of summer harvest. Therefore the crop produces 2 yields and gives the best estimated yield. Calculations for production costs are made for pure crop and mixed grasses, since these mixes are most productive. Hauling to the usage site and costs related to material processing are not considered. Results show that establishing of the crop for pure stand and mix with grasses will cost 467.88 and 487.06 € ha-1, yearly costs are 378.56 and 421.81 € ha-1 respectively, crop finishing adds extra 111.38 € ha-1 in both cases.

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