Tag Archives: biofuel

1190-1199 M. Pexa, J. Čedík, B. Peterka and M. Holůbek
The operational parameters and emissions of portable generator after long-term operation on n-butanol
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The operational parameters and emissions of portable generator after long-term operation on n-butanol

M. Pexa, J. Čedík*, B. Peterka and M. Holůbek

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: cedikj@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The utilization of biofuels in spark ignition and compression ignition engines is the trend of the recent time. The great expectations are inserted into n-butanol as a fuel, especially for spark ignition engines. The short time use of n-butanol in the SI (spark ignition) combustion engine does not make a big problem (start of the cold engine, change of the air-fuel ratio). The purpose of this contribution is the effect of long-term use of n-butanol as a fuel for SI engine. For this purpose the small portable generator was used. The harmful emissions, fuel consumption and power of the generator was measured then the generator was operated for 300 hours on 100% n-butanol with 80% of nominal load and the measurement was repeated. The generator was loaded with adjustable electrical resistance. As a reference fuel the petrol BA 95 with no bio-component was used. During the operation on n-butanol no technical problems occurred with the generator. After 300 hours of operation on n-butanol the performance parameters slightly decreased with little impact on production of harmful emissions components.

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1237-1246 K. Sirviö, S. Heikkilä, R. Help, S. Niemi and E. Hiltunen
Properties of local produced animal-fat based biodiesel and its blend with fossil fuel
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Properties of local produced animal-fat based biodiesel and its blend with fossil fuel

K. Sirviö*, S. Heikkilä, R. Help, S. Niemi and E. Hiltunen

University of Vaasa, Faculty of Technology, PL 700, FIN-65101 Vaasa, Finland
*Correspondence: katriina.sirvio@uva.fi

Abstract:

In the near future, more emphasis must be put on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in road transportation, house heating, agricultural activities, marine transport etc. This study concentrated on the use of alternative fuels in engine-driven applications of non-road machineries and decentralized energy production. Today, the engines are mainly designed for crude oil derived fuels and liquid renewable fuels are blended with crude oil based fuels to fulfill the requirements of renewable energy usage. Due to the environmental reasons on one hand and to the agricultural needs, on the other hand, different blends of bio- and fossil fuels are becoming more popular. In Europe, the maximum FAME content in diesel fuel is 7 vol% according to the EN 590:2013 but higher percentages are also available and targeted around the world. For example in the United States, the 20% blend fraction is becoming more common. For these reasons, B20 fuels were chosen to be investigated in this study. Special emphasis was put on improving blending issues since fuel blending may cause some operating risks. The main aim was to research widely the properties of animal-fat based methyl ester (AFME) and B20 fuel blend produced from it. AFME is a waste based fuel and produced in Ostrobothnia region, Finland. The aim was to find out in which engine applications the fuels are feasible and investigate if the fuels fit in the quality of automotive fuel Standards. According to the results, AFME is a feasible option to increase self-sufficient energy production in Ostrobothnia.

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2226–2235 P. Zeman, V. Hönig, P. Procházka and J. Mařík
Dimethyl ether as a renewable fuel for diesel engines
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Dimethyl ether as a renewable fuel for diesel engines

P. Zeman¹, V. Hönig¹*, P. Procházka² and J. Mařík³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcka 129, CZ16521, Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, Kamýcka 129, CZ16521, Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýcka 129, CZ16521, Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: honig@af.czu.cz

Abstract:

The area of automotive fuel, or fuel components, which can be produced from biomass also includes dimethyl ether, otherwise known as DME. The issue of the use of DME as a fuel is one which has been monitored until recently. Biomass can also be used as the raw material for the production of DME. DME has therefore replaced the previously-used CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), which are now banned for their role in dangerous levels of ozone depletion. With regard to its physical properties and combustion characteristics, it is currently expected that DME will soon apply significantly as a fuel in the municipal sector and in households, and as an alternative fuel for motor vehicles with diesel engines. DME is a suitable fuel for diesel engines and can be considered as one of the most promising diesel fuel replacements. DME is a suitable fuel for diesel engines mainly due to its low self-ignition temperature and good cetane figures. It is well miscible with most organic solvents and because the polar solvent is water-immiscible. The advantage is its high levels of purity, and its being free of sulphur, nitrogen, or metals. The physical properties of DME are very similar to the physical properties of LPG. DME requires relatively complex and costly fuel accessories, but the original compression ratio of the diesel engine is maintained. A diagram of the fuel system is illustrated in the paper. The paper analyses the dependence of vapour pressure on temperature, the dependence of the density on temperature, kinematic viscosity, the flash point, the boiling point, and the solubility of water. The objective is to evaluate this interesting energy source for applications in diesel engines.

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1846–1855 S. Akhmedov, T. Ivanova, V. Krepl and A. Muntean
Research on solid biofuels from cotton waste biomass –alternative for Tajikistan’s energy sector development
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Research on solid biofuels from cotton waste biomass –alternative for Tajikistan’s energy sector development

S. Akhmedov, T. Ivanova*, V. Krepl and A. Muntean

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Department of Sustainable Technologies, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: ivanova@ftz.czu.cz

Abstract:

An increasing awareness of the negative environmental cost associated with the combustion of fossil fuels and concerns over the geopolitical instability of the main oil producing regions is driving the development of renewable energy sources and biofuels. Use of solid biofuels made of different types of biomass became perspective alternative to conventional fuels in many countries. Such positive indicators as low cost of the final product that meets the quality of standards, not capital intensive production, possibility of producing briquettes/pellets from almost any agricultural waste or combination of raw materials are undoubted advantages of biomass based fuels. The main challenges for Tajikistan’s energy sector, which is depended on energy imports, are: to increase energy supply through better exploitation of hydropower and other renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and primary biofuels. Within the agricultural sector of Tajikistan, which is highly agrarian country, cotton accounts for 60% of agricultural output. According to the Ministry of Agriculture of Tajikistan 199,400 hectares of lands have been allocated to cotton cultivation in the year of 2014. Plenty of unused cotton residual biomass could be effectively utilized for winter heating in rural areas. The main focus of the research was to investigate and assess physical, chemical and mechanical properties of pellets and briquettes produced form cotton waste biomass.

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897–904 M. Strods and L. Mezule
Alcohol recovery from fermentation broth with gas stripping: system experimental and optimisation
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Alcohol recovery from fermentation broth with gas stripping: system experimental and optimisation

M. Strods* and L. Mezule

Riga Technical University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Research Centre for Civil Engineering, Water Research Laboratory, Kipsalas 6A–263, LV–1048 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: martins.strods_4@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Effective liquid biofuel production from various lignocellulosic waste resources is dependant not only on pre–treatment and hydrolysis but also on effective removal of alcohols from the fermentation media. Distillation and rectification is not suitable in low alcohol content systems (butanol production with clostridia) or in cases when the fermentation is performed in a continuous mode. One of the technologies offering continuous, in situ removal of alcohol is gas stripping. Despite the recognition of this technology, it is still under evaluation and adjustment. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate if gas stripping technology at rapid flow conditions is efficient enough to recover ethanol from the fermentation media. The results showed that 60 l min-1 flow rate was optimal to recover more than 45% of the available ethanol in 8 hours of stripping with nitrogen gas. The technology was efficient if the ethanol content in the fermentation broth was 10 wt%. At lower concentrations the recovery showed to be inefficient. Application of CO2 as the stripping gas was not suitable for ethanol recovery and should be tested prior use. In conclusion, the application of rapid N2 flow rate for gas stripping of ethanol from fermentation media showed to be an efficient technology and could replace long time, low flow rate stripping.

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830–847 L. Rocha–Meneses, M. Raud, K. Orupõld and T. Kikas,
Second-generation bioethanol production: A review of strategies for waste valorisation
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Second-generation bioethanol production: A review of strategies for waste valorisation

L. Rocha–Meneses¹, M. Raud¹, K. Orupõld² and T. Kikas¹,*

¹ Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56,
EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
² Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life
Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 5, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: Timo.Kikas@emu.ee

Abstract:

This paper reviews second–generation biofuel production chain and focuses on its energetic, economic and environmental impacts. The biggest challenge in the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic material refers to the biomass waste that is left over after the separation of bioethanol in the distillation process. This waste still has high energetic value and could be further utilised to add value to the production chain. Furthermore, the environmental impact of untreated waste from bioethanol production is very high, which also requires attention. Anaerobic digestion of bioethanol production waste has been proposed as a possible solution to utilise the energetic potential of this waste and lower its environmental impact.

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1582–1601 M. Gailis, J. Rudzitis, J. Kreicbergs and G. Zalcmanis
Experimental analysis of hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and commercial diesel fuel blend characteristics using modified CFR engine
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Experimental analysis of hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and commercial diesel fuel blend characteristics using modified CFR engine

M. Gailis¹²*, J. Rudzitis¹, J. Kreicbergs¹ and G. Zalcmanis¹

¹Riga Technical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Transport and Aeronautics, Department of Automotive Engineering, Viskalu 36A, LV1006 Riga, Latvia
²Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanics, Liela street 2, LV 3001, Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: maris.gailis@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Performance parameters of different commercial diesel fuels is a subject of interest for fuel consumers. Fuel retailer Neste recently introduced a new brand of WWFC 5th grade diesel fuel in Baltic market, consisting of diesel fuel and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) blend. Fuel samples have been recently tested on chassis dynamometer, measuring wheel power and torque and in road conditions, measuring fuel consumption. Evaluation of fuel consumption and performance parameters in road or laboratory conditions may yield uncertain results due to complexity of modern automobile engine management and emission reduction systems. To better evaluate the combustion, fuel samples have been tested in modified CFR engine at various intake air pressure, temperature and compression ratio settings. Engine indicated performance parameters and combustion phasing of regular diesel fuel and diesel fuel-HVO blend are presented. Comparing to regular diesel fuel, fuel blend with HVO showed reduced apparent heat release rate (AHRR) during premixed combustion phase at low inlet air temperature and low compression ratio conditions, comparing to regular diesel fuel. Premixed combustion phase AHRR of diesel-HVO blend increased above AHRR of regular diesel fuel at higher inlet air temperature and higher compression ratio conditions. Diffusion controlled combustion phase AHRR of diesel-HVO blend increased above AHRR of regular diesel fuel at higher inlet air temperature, higher compression ratio conditions and supercharged air supply.

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406–416 V. Hönig,, Z. Linhart, P. Procházka and K. Pernica
Regulatives for biorefineries
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Regulatives for biorefineries

V. Hönig¹,*, Z. Linhart², P. Procházka³ and K. Pernica¹

¹ University of Economics, Faculty of Business Administration, Department of Strategy, W. Churchill Sq., CZ130 67 Prague 3, Czech Republic
² University of Economics and Management, Department of Marketing, Nárožní 2600/9A, Prague 5, Czech Republic
³ Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, Kamýcka 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: vladimir.honig@vse.cz

Abstract:

The relationship between uncertainty and risk–taking behaviour towards innovations and Common Market protection are investigated in this article. Therefore, the aim of this article is to assess points of control over market regulation protecting innovative products. It was found that risk of creative destruction due to implementation of innovations is increased by regulators due to antimonopoly metric they use. EU fiscal policy implementation in renewable fuels in Czech Republic of both EU and CZ calculations is compared. Historical data has shown that regulators have collapsed market of high condensed biofuels. Pattern of fine calculation has explained a market collapse. Comparison of excise duty of favoured biofuels was compared with subsidies for photovoltaics. Substitution of former fossil fuels taking into account excise duty and subsidies of alternative or renewable energies is less market distorting than recent tariffs of excise duty and fines to first generation biofuels.

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1232–1241 K. Sirviö, S. Niemi, S. Heikkilä and E. Hiltunen
Effects of sulphur on the storage stability of the bio and fossil fuel blends
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Effects of sulphur on the storage stability of the bio and fossil fuel blends

K. Sirviö*, S. Niemi, S. Heikkilä and E. Hiltunen

University of Vaasa, Faculty of Technology, PL 700, FIN-65101 Vaasa, Finland
*Correspondence: katriina.sirvio@uva.fi

Abstract:

In this study, the aim was to find out if mixing two common fuels together could be beneficial for both the environment and storage stability of fuel. It is obvious, that adding biodiesel to fossil fuel will decrease its sulphur content and reduce its carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon, sulphur dioxide and soot emissions. But will the high sulphur content enhance the storage stability of the biodiesel? Four B20 samples were produced, consisting of 20 vol% biodiesel and 80 vol% fossil diesel. The samples were prepared from rapeseed methyl ester (RME), low sulphuric fossil diesel fuel and high sulphuric diesel solvent. The blends had different sulphur contents of 6, 76, 149 and 226 mg kg-1. For these B20 fuel samples, the parameters were compared that correlate with the storage stability of the fuel blends. The studied parameters were the oxidation stability (OSI, according to EN 15751:2015), acid number (AN, according to EN 14104:2003) and kinematic viscosity (KV, by Stabinger SVM 3000 rotational viscometer). The measurements were carried out straight after mixing the blends, and again after 4, 8 and 12 weeks. According to the results, the fuel containing less sulphur slightly lost its oxidation stability within three months. Instead, the oxidation stability of high sulphuric samples improved within the same time frame. As a conclusion, the study gave a reason to assume that – in spite of its known drawbacks – the sulphur may be favourable to fuel blends’ storage stability but the phenomenon and chemistry should be studied in more detail.

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579–589 A. Zimelis, G. Spalva, G. Saule, M. Daugaviete, and A. Lazdinš
Productivity and cost of biofuel in ditch cleaning operations using tracked excavator based harvester
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Productivity and cost of biofuel in ditch cleaning operations using tracked excavator based harvester

A. Zimelis¹, G. Spalva¹, G. Saule¹, M. Daugaviete¹,² and A. Lazdinš¹*

¹Latvian State forest Research Institute 'Silava', RPgas street 111, LV-2169 Salaspils,
Latvia
²Forest Sector Competence Center, DzRrbenes street 27, LV-1006 RPga, Latvia
*Correspondence: andis.lazdins@silava.lv

Abstract:

Forest ditches is one of the poorly utilized sources of biomass for energy production and timber industry. Increase of productivity and reduction of cost of extraction of biomass from the ditches, retaining at the same time high quality standards, are the key issues of mechanization of harvesting operations in this area. The scope of the study was to evaluate productivity and cost of biomass delivered from forest ditches, when tracked excavator based harvester and different work methods are used. New Holland 215B excavator with Ponsse H7 felling head was used in trials. The machine was operated by experienced operators. The study was implemented in drainage systems managed by Joint stock company „Latvia state forests”. Total extracted area 12 ha, extracted biomass – 734 m3. Duration of the study including harvesting and forwarding – 4 months. Average cost of roundwood production including road transport to 50 km distance in the trials was 27 EUR m-3, average cost of biofuel – 11 EUR m-3 (4.5 EUR LV m-3). The study approved advantages of excavators in ditch cleaning operations; however, several improvements are possible. The machine should be equipped with smaller accumulating felling head, delimbing and bucking should be done in parallel to a ditch direction, number of assortments should be reduced, as well as extraction of trees with diameter below 6 cm should be avoided.

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