Tag Archives: biofuels

547-555 M. Pexa, J. Čedík and R. Pražan
Smoke and NOX emissions of combustion engine using biofuels
Abstract |

Smoke and NOX emissions of combustion engine using biofuels

M. Pexa¹*, J. Čedík¹ and R. Pražan²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamycka 129, CZ 16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i., Drnovská 507, CZ 16101 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: pexa@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Production of solid particles significantly increases the dangerousness of combustion engines. The excellent sorbtion characteristics of the solid particles increases their harmful effects and makes them very dangerous component of emissions which causes health problems. Currently there are many design solutions which aim to reduce smoke of combustion engines. One of the most significant solutions suggests increasing the injection pressures up to the limit of 250 MPa and filtering the exhaust gases. The paper compares different fuels and biofuels, whether used alone or in mixtures, and their effect on smoke of supercharged CI engine. The comparison uses the 8-point NRSC (Non-Road Steady Cycle) test during which the following fuels were used: diesel, rapeseed methyl ester, rapeseed oil, Jatropha curcas oil, biobutanol, hydrotreated oil and other blended fuels. The measurement and comparison results show that using biofuels can significantly reduce smoke of combustion engine by up to tens of percent in comparison to diesel.

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783–789 P. Jindra, M. Kotek, J. Mařík and M. Vojtíšek
Effect of different biofuels to particulate matters production
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Effect of different biofuels to particulate matters production

P. Jindra¹*, M. Kotek¹, J. Mařík¹ and M. Vojtíšek²

¹Czech University of Life Science Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýcká 129, CZ 16521 Prague, Czech republic
²Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Center of Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility, Technická 4, CZ 16607 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: jindrap@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

 In recent years the European Union has exhibited a significant interest in the reduction of crude oil usage. Biofuels can be used in conventional engines but the biofuels should reduce the emissions produced by internal combustion engines. This article deals with analysis of particulate matters (PM) production in chosen biofuels burned in internal combustion engine Zetor 1505. The conventional emission analysers are capable to detect gaseous emission components but they are not able to classify PM. Analysis of PM was performed with a TSI Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer 3090 which is able to classify particles from 5.6 nm to 560 nm. The device analysed different blends of alcohol–based biofuels tested under NRSC cycle conditions. The given size of PM can be taken as an impact on human organism’s cells consequently human health. PM create an ideal medium for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), their composition and structure. Analysis of PM should become a standard component of every emission parameter assessment.

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541-549 J. Čedík,, M. Pexa, J. Mařík, V. Hönig, Š. Horníčková and K. Kubín
Influence of butanol and FAME blends on operational characteristics of compression ignition engine
Abstract |
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Influence of butanol and FAME blends on operational characteristics of compression ignition engine

J. Čedík¹,*, M. Pexa¹, J. Mařík¹, V. Hönig², Š. Horníčková² and K. Kubín³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence cedikj@tf.czu.cz
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i., Drnovská 507, CZ16101 Prague 6, Czech Republic

Abstract:

The issue of the use of alternative fuels in diesel engines is discussed in this paper. The purpose is to reduce the dependence of EU Member States on fuels of petroleum origin. One of the possibilities is the use of butanol produced from organic products. The use of pure butanol in diesel engines is not possible. However, it may be used as an additive for fuels of petroleum origin or adding to oil for improving the operating conditions of the engine. Successively 10, 30 and 50% n-butanol was used as an additive. Turbocharged combustion engine of the tractor Zetor 8641 Foretrra was used to the test. This engine was burdened using a dynamometer to the PTO. Performance parameters and fuel consumption of the engine were monitored during measurements. Performance parameters of the engine decreases and fuel consumption increases due to the properties of butanol. Cleansing properties of butanol which restrict carbonization on functional surfaces of the engine seems advantageous.

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604-612 M. Müller, V. Šleger, M. Pexa, J. Mařík and Č. Mizera
Evaluation of stability of elastomer packing exposed to influence of various biofuels
Abstract |
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Evaluation of stability of elastomer packing exposed to influence of various biofuels

M. Müller¹, V. Šleger², M. Pexa³⋅*, J. Mařík³ and Č. Mizera²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: pexa@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The aim of the European Union Member States is to reduce dependence on fuels derived from oil. For this reason, significant attention is paid to the use of organic products as a substitute or an additive in the fuel of petroleum origin. The usage of biofuels in conventional combustion engines is not easy due to the different properties of the products. The aim of the research was to determine the effect of biofuels on mechanical properties of O-rings type ACM (polyacrylate elastomer). The research was evaluated by the change of density, Shore A hardness, permanent deformation CS, tensile strength and deformation after exposure in the test environment for a period of 15 months. Comparing the O-rings immersed in standard diesel fuel it is clear that similar behaviour of the hardness shows are sunflower oil and canola oil. RME – Rapeseed Methyl Ester 20% and oil from Jatropha has a negative effect on the increase in hardness. Comparing the O-rings immersed in standard diesel fuel it is evident that except RME – Rapeseed Methyl Ester 20% other fuels have negative influence on permanent deformation CS.

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613-620 M. Pexa, J. Čedík,, J. Mařík, V. Hönig, Š. Horníčková and K. Kubín
Comparison of the operating characteristics of the internal combustion engine using rapeseed oil methyl ester and hydrogenated oil
Abstract |
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Comparison of the operating characteristics of the internal combustion engine using rapeseed oil methyl ester and hydrogenated oil

M. Pexa¹, J. Čedík¹,*, J. Mařík¹, V. Hönig², Š. Horníčková² and K. Kubín³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: cedikj@tf.czu.cz
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i., Drnovská 507, CZ16101 Prague 6, Czech Republic

Abstract:

The issue of the use of alternative fuels in diesel engines is discussed in this paper. The purpose is to reduce the dependence of EU Member States on fuels of petroleum origin. One of the possibilities is the use of oils from biological materials. The use of the oil in standard engines is not usually possible. The engine modification or the fuel modification is necessary. Esterification or hydrogenation of oils can be used as the fuel modification. Impact of these changes on the operational characteristics of a turbocharged internal combustion engine is observed in the paper. The internal combustion engine of the tractor Zetor Foretrra 8641 was used for testing. This engine was burdened using a dynamometer to the PTO. Performance and fuel consumption of the engine were monitored during measurement. As fuels the 100% rapeseed methyl ester and 100% hydrogenated oil was elected. Based on the results we can say that the operating parameters of the internal combustion engine does not change significantly when using these fuels.

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541-549 J. Čedík,, M. Pexa, J. Mařík, V. Hönig, Š. Horníčková and K. Kubín
Influence of butanol and FAME blends on operational characteristics of compression ignition engine
Abstract |
Full text PDF (851 kB)

Influence of butanol and FAME blends on operational characteristics of compression ignition engine

J. Čedík¹,*, M. Pexa¹, J. Mařík¹, V. Hönig², Š. Horníčková² and K. Kubín³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence cedikj@tf.czu.cz
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i., Drnovská 507, CZ16101 Prague 6, Czech Republic

Abstract:

The issue of the use of alternative fuels in diesel engines is discussed in this paper. The purpose is to reduce the dependence of EU Member States on fuels of petroleum origin. One of the possibilities is the use of butanol produced from organic products. The use of pure butanol in diesel engines is not possible. However, it may be used as an additive for fuels of petroleum origin or adding to oil for improving the operating conditions of the engine. Successively 10, 30 and 50% n-butanol was used as an additive. Turbocharged combustion engine of the tractor Zetor 8641 Foretrra was used to the test. This engine was burdened using a dynamometer to the PTO. Performance parameters and fuel consumption of the engine were monitored during measurements. Performance parameters of the engine decreases and fuel consumption increases due to the properties of butanol. Cleansing properties of butanol which restrict carbonization on functional surfaces of the engine seems advantageous.

Key words:

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604-612 M. Müller, V. Šleger, M. Pexa, J. Mařík and Č. Mizera
Evaluation of stability of elastomer packing exposed to influence of various biofuels
Abstract |
Full text PDF (695 kB)

Evaluation of stability of elastomer packing exposed to influence of various biofuels

M. Müller¹, V. Šleger², M. Pexa³⋅*, J. Mařík³ and Č. Mizera²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: pexa@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The aim of the European Union Member States is to reduce dependence on fuels derived from oil. For this reason, significant attention is paid to the use of organic products as a substitute or an additive in the fuel of petroleum origin. The usage of biofuels in conventional combustion engines is not easy due to the different properties of the products. The aim of the research was to determine the effect of biofuels on mechanical properties of O-rings type ACM (polyacrylate elastomer). The research was evaluated by the change of density, Shore A hardness, permanent deformation CS, tensile strength and deformation after exposure in the test environment for a period of 15 months. Comparing the O-rings immersed in standard diesel fuel it is clear that similar behaviour of the hardness shows are sunflower oil and canola oil. RME – Rapeseed Methyl Ester 20% and oil from Jatropha has a negative effect on the increase in hardness. Comparing the O-rings immersed in standard diesel fuel it is evident that except RME – Rapeseed Methyl Ester 20% other fuels have negative influence on permanent deformation CS.

Key words:

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613-620 M. Pexa, J. Čedík,, J. Mařík, V. Hönig, Š. Horníčková and K. Kubín
Comparison of the operating characteristics of the internal combustion engine using rapeseed oil methyl ester and hydrogenated oil
Abstract |
Full text PDF (772 kB)

Comparison of the operating characteristics of the internal combustion engine using rapeseed oil methyl ester and hydrogenated oil

M. Pexa¹, J. Čedík¹,*, J. Mařík¹, V. Hönig², Š. Horníčková² and K. Kubín³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: cedikj@tf.czu.cz
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i., Drnovská 507, CZ16101 Prague 6, Czech Republic

Abstract:

The issue of the use of alternative fuels in diesel engines is discussed in this paper. The purpose is to reduce the dependence of EU Member States on fuels of petroleum origin. One of the possibilities is the use of oils from biological materials. The use of the oil in standard engines is not usually possible. The engine modification or the fuel modification is necessary. Esterification or hydrogenation of oils can be used as the fuel modification. Impact of these changes on the operational characteristics of a turbocharged internal combustion engine is observed in the paper. The internal combustion engine of the tractor Zetor Foretrra 8641 was used for testing. This engine was burdened using a dynamometer to the PTO. Performance and fuel consumption of the engine were monitored during measurement. As fuels the 100% rapeseed methyl ester and 100% hydrogenated oil was elected. Based on the results we can say that the operating parameters of the internal combustion engine does not change significantly when using these fuels.

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359-366 J. Mařík, M. Pexa,, M. Kotek and V. Hönig
Comparison of the effect of gasoline – ethanol E85 – butanol on the performance and emission characteristics of the engine Saab 9-5 2.3 l turbo
Abstract |
Full text PDF (365 kB)

Comparison of the effect of gasoline – ethanol E85 – butanol on the performance and emission characteristics of the engine Saab 9-5 2.3 l turbo

J. Mařík¹, M. Pexa¹,*, M. Kotek¹ and V. Hönig²

¹Faculty of Engineering, CULS-Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: pexa@tf.czu.cz 2Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, CULS-Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic

Abstract:

Due to the increasing environmental demands of the European Union for reducing emissions, it is necessary to utilize biofuels at the expense of the conventional fossil fuel BA95. Biofuels in spark-ignition engines usually use ethanol at a ratio of up to 85% to 15% of the conventional fuel BA95. Such a fuel is known as E85. Butanol also has very similar properties to ethanol. Ethanol is a higher alcohol. For comparison, ethanol and butanol fuels with conventional fuels were chosen for the vehicle Saab 9-5, turbo-charged 2.3l. This vehicle is completely adapted to operation on ethanol fuel (broad adaptation control unit, suitable sealing elements, fuel pump, etc.). The engine performance and emissions were monitored when operating on these fuels as compared to the conventional fuels BA95. It can be stated that the engine reached higher performance parameters when operating on ethanol and butanol fuels. This is due to the fact that the control unit increases the fuel supply during operation on biofuels (lower calorific value of fuel). There is no lean combustion and the possible damage to the engine during long-term operation. From the perspective of bootable showing, butanol fuel has worse parameters compared to ethanol fuel and conventional fuels.

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391-396 M. Pointner, P. Kuttner, T. Obrlik, A. Jäger and H. Kahr
Composition of corncobs as a substrate for fermentation of biofuels
Abstract |
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Composition of corncobs as a substrate for fermentation of biofuels

M. Pointner*, P. Kuttner, T. Obrlik, A. Jäger and H. Kahr

University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Wels Campus, Stelzhamerstr. 23, 4600 Wels, Austria; *Correspondence: manuel.pointner@fh-wels.at

Abstract:

Lignocellulosic residues as for instance corncobs can be used as substrates for the production of biofuels. The corncobs are usually pre-treated in a thermal-physical step (steam explosion) before enzymatic hydrolysis. The pre-treatment process increases the accessibility of the raw material for the hydrolysis. The products of the hydrolyses are used as substrates for the fermentation of bio-ethanol. As an alternative, the hydrolysates could be used for the fermentation of oleaginous yeasts. These yeasts produce and accumulate lipids from glucose during growth. For the energetic use in the form of bio-diesel, the lipids can be converted into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in the same way as vegetable oils. The fibre composition of the raw material was determined in regard to the proportions of cellulose, hemicellulose und lignin. It was investigated whether different corn varieties show varying compositions. The fibre compositions before the pre-treatment of ten different varieties of corncobs (from locations in Upper Austria) were determined. No significant differences were observed (cellulose: 38.8% ± 2.5%, hemicellulose: 44.4% ± 5.2%, lignin: 11.9% ± 2.3% in the dry matter).

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