Tag Archives: biogas

674–679 V. Dubrovskis and I. Plume
Suitability of oat bran for methane production
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Suitability of oat bran for methane production

V. Dubrovskis* and I. Plume

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Energetics, Cakstes blvd 5, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: vilisd@inbox.lv

Abstract:

There is need to investigate the suitability of various cheaper biomasses for energy production. It is necessary to explore ways to improve the anaerobic fermentation process with the help of various catalysts. Biocatalyst Metaferm produced in Latvia previous studies with other biomass gave an increase in production. The purpose of study is evaluation of suitability of granular and crushed oat bran waste biomass for the production of methane and influence of catalyst Metaferm on anaerobic digestion (AD) process. The biomass anaerobic digestion process was investigated in 0.75 L digesters, operated in batch mode at temperature 38 ± 1.0 °C. The average biogas yield per unit of dry organic matter added (DOM) from digestion of granular oat bran was 0.400 L g-1 DOM and methane yield was 0.193 L g-1 DOM. Average biogas yield from digestion of crushed oat bran was 0.439 L L g-1 DOM and specific methane yield was 0.193 L L g-1 DOM. Adding of 1 mL Metaferm in substrates with not crushed or crushed oat bran increases specific methane yield by 0.227 L g-1
DOM or 0.236 L g-1 DOM respectively. Investigated oat bran can be used for methane production, but methane production was less than from traditional biomass, e.g. maize silage.

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1198–1203 J. Pošta, B. Peterka, Z. Aleš, J. Pavlů and M. Pexa
Selection and evaluation of degradation intensity indicators of gas combustion engine oil
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Selection and evaluation of degradation intensity indicators of gas combustion engine oil

J. Pošta, B. Peterka, Z. Aleš, J. Pavlů* and M. Pexa

Faculty of Engineering, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: jindrichpavlu@seznam.cz

Abstract:

The paper is focused on the analysis of data obtained during the operation of gas combustion engines running on biogas. The observed engines were running continuously in cogeneration units of biogas plants. The long-term operational monitoring of engines operating on biogas was carried out using tribotechnical diagnostics methods focused on oil properties. Each of individual indicators was determined in obtained time series. As critical indicators oils were identified oxidation, sulfation, nitration and total acid number. The prerequisite for correct selection of the oil change interval is knowledge on evolution of critical indicators over time. In the reference case, oil oxidation was identified as critical indicator. This knowledge allows to optimize intervals of oil sampling and oil change interval on the basis of time series evaluation.

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540–552 H. Roubík, J. Mazancová,, L.D. Phung and D.V. Dung
Quantification of biogas potential from livestock waste in Vietnam
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Quantification of biogas potential from livestock waste in Vietnam

H. Roubík¹, J. Mazancová¹,*, L.D. Phung² and D.V. Dung²

¹ Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Department of Sustainable Technologies, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
² Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry, Hue University, 102 Phung Hung, Hue city, Thua Thien Hue, Vietnam
*Corresponding author: mazan@ftz.czu.cz

Abstract:

Quantification of biogas potential in Vietnam is highly needed to provide sufficient information for authorities properly support their future policy decisions. To achieve the aim of this investigation, two methods were applied: (i) the method for calculation of the amount of manure and its biogas potential from chosen livestock obtained from statistical data and (ii) the method for future forecast using middle scenario applications based on previous development of specific category, presuming homogenous continuation of growth. The total biogas energy potential in Vietnam was quantified to approximate 120,000 T Jy-1 in 2015 and has the potential of increasing to 127,000 TJ y-1 by 2020. However, when considering current manure management practices (including accessibility factor and collection efficiency) biogas potential was quantified to the values of almost 67,000 T Jy-1 in 2015 and over 71,000 T Jy-1 by 2020 if the current manure management practices remain unchanged. Biogas has the potential of generating renewable energy, while meeting requirements related to waste treatment and minimizing environmental impacts. This study shows that animal waste is a promising sustainable energy source in Vietnam which can be efficiently utilized for the generation of biogas energy as well as electricity. Furthermore, anaerobic digestion of livestock waste has the potential to play a vital role in farming systems by adding value to agricultural waste and livestock excreta, and reducing their presence in the environment therefore enhancing public health. There is a high development potential for the decentralized energy generation due to the exploitation of small-scale biogas plants in Vietnam. However, it is essential to realize that competition to other energy generating technologies is present.

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069–078 V. Dubrovskis and I. Plume
Biogas from wastes of pumpkin, marrow and apple
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Biogas from wastes of pumpkin, marrow and apple

V. Dubrovskis* and I. Plume

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Energetics, Cakstes blvd 5, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: vilisd@inbox.lv

Abstract:

A lot of vegetables and fruits, which have been grown in Latvia or were imported from foreign countries, become waste, often due to unconformity to the marketing standards or biodegradation process fouling during storage. Waste biomass piles emissions during storage that contributes to global warming. It is appropriate to use such biomass as raw material for anaerobic digestion. This article shows the results of studies on evaluation of suitability of vegetable and fruit waste biomass for the production of biogas. Anaerobic digestion was investigated in 0.75 L digesters, operated in batch mode at a temperature of 38 ± 1.0 °C. The average biogas yield per mass unit of dry organic matter added (DOM) from digestion of pumpkin biomass was 1.095 L g-1DOM and the specific methane yield was 0.422 L g-1DOM. Average biogas yield from digestion of marrow biomass was 0.768 L g-1ODM and the methane yield was 0.274 L g-1DOM. Average biogas yield from digestion of apple biomass was 1.020 L g-1DOM and the methane yield was 0.451 L g-1DOM. All investigated wastes can be a very good source for biogas production. Anaerobic digestion may be a solution to treat waste biomass from food production facilities or supermarkets.

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1155–1160 M. Bloch-Michalik and M. Gaworski
Practical usage of additional heat from biogas plant
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Practical usage of additional heat from biogas plant

M. Bloch-Michalik* and M. Gaworski

Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Department of Production Management and Engineering, Nowoursynowska str. 164, PL 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
*Correspondence: marta_michalik@sggw.pl

Abstract:

Biogas plants are one of the most stable and cost-effective energy sources. The better volume of produced biogas is used for parallel electricity and heat production in CHP gas engines. The heat from the engine is conveniently used for heating the digester but the additional amount causes lot of problems and is wasted despite its large potential. The inefficiency in energy use is a bottleneck in current biogas production, causing macroeconomic and microeconomic losses and challenges in the context of increasing land use competition. As a major output of the biogas management process research provide by authors, this article was elaborated in order to introduce the results of theoretical heating system analysis.

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883–895 R. Pecenka, H.-J. Gusovius, J. Budde and T. Hoffmann
Efficient use of arable land for energy: Comparison of cropping natural fibre plants and energy plants
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Efficient use of arable land for energy: Comparison of cropping natural fibre plants and energy plants

R. Pecenka*, H.-J. Gusovius, J. Budde and T. Hoffmann

Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim (ATB), Max-Eyth-Allee 100, DE 14469 Potsdam, Germany
*Correspondence: rpecenka@atb-potsdam.de

Abstract:

 With focus on renewable energy from agriculture governments can either support the growing production of energy crops or it can invest in technology or measures to reduce the energy consumption. But what is more efficient with regard to the use of the limited resource arable land: to insulate a building with fibre material grown on arable land to reduce the heating demand or to use such land for growing energy plants for the sustainable energy supply of a building? To answer this question, a long term balance calculation under consideration of numerous framework parameters is necessary.
Based on traditional fibre plants like hemp, flax, and woody fibre crops (e.g. poplar), these agricultural plants and their processing to insulation material were examined. Based on available data for the typical building structure of detached and semi-detached houses in Germany, models of buildings were developed and the accessible potentials for heating energy savings by using suitable insulation measures with natural fibre materials were determined. As a comparable system for the supply of renewable energy, bio-methane from silage maize was chosen, since it can be used efficiently in conventional gas boilers for heat generation. The different levels of consideration allow the following interpretations of results: in a balance calculation period of 30 years, the required acreage for heating supply with methane can be reduced by approx. 20%, when at the beginning of the use period fibre plants for the insulation of the houses are grown on the arable acreage. Contrariwise, to compensate only the existing loss in heating energy due to inadequate insulation of older detached and semi-detached houses (build prior to 1979) an annual acreage of approx. 3 million ha silage maize for bio-methane would be required in Germany. Therefore, from the land use perspective the production of biogas plants in agriculture for heating should be accompanied by the production of fibre plants for a reasonable improvement of the heat insulation of houses.

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745–753 V. Dubrovskis and I. Plume
Microalgae for biomethane production
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Microalgae for biomethane production

V. Dubrovskis* and I. Plume

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Energetics, Cakstes blvd 5, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia; *Correspondence: vilisd@inbox.lv

Abstract:

 Competition for arable land between food and energy producers has begun in Latvia. Biogas producers are seeking to use the hitherto unused land. There is a need to investigate the suitability of various biomasses for energy production. Maize is the dominating crop for biogas production in Latvia, but it is expensive to grow. The cultivation of more varied biomass with good economics and low environmental impact is thus desirable. Microalgae can be grown in pipes, basins and also in open ponds. This paper shows the results from the anaerobic digestion of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris, cultivated with fertilizer Varicon in open pond and harvested on 27 October and centrifuged (Study 1). The anaerobic digestion process was investigated for biogas production in sixteen 0.75 l digesters, operated in batch mode at temperature 38 ± 1.0 °C. The average methane yield per unit of dry organic matter added (DOM) from digestion of Chlorella vulgaris was 0.331 l gDOM-1. The second investigation (Study 2) used fresh biomass of Chlorella vulgaris harvested on 10–15 June with low dry matter content, as it was obtained from 4 m deep open pond without centrifugation. Anaerobic digestion process was provided in 4 digesters with volume of 5 l each. Average methane yield from the digestion of Chlorella vulgaris was 0.290 l gDOM-1, which is comparable to methane yield obtainable from maize silage or other energy crop silages. Microalgae Chlorella vulgaris can be successfully cultivated for biogas production from May to October or at least 170–180 days in a year under the agro-ecological conditions in Latvia.

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650–660 A. Ayhan
Biogas potential from animal waste of Marmara Region-Turkey
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Biogas potential from animal waste of Marmara Region-Turkey

A. Ayhan

University of Uludag, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Biosystems Engineering,
TR16059, Nilüfer, Bursa, Turkey; e-mail: aayhan@uludag.edu.tr

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine the biogas production capacity from animal wastes in Marmara region of Turkey for the years 2005–2014. The wastes from the cattle and hen in the region were considered the resource for biogas production taking the number of animals and the collectability of the wastes into the account. Three scenarios were evaluated to estimate the biogas capacity by assuming that 100% (theoretical potential), 50%, and 25% of the total animal waste could be used for biogas production in the region. For theoretical biogas production from cattle wastes, the greatest potential in the year 2014 was calculated for Balıkesir province with 145.53 Mm3, followed by Çanakkale, Bursa, Sakarya, and other seven provinces. Balıkesir had the highest biogas potential in 2014 from the poultry waste, too, followed by Sakarya, Kocaeli, Bursa, and other seven provinces. Biogas potential (100%) of Marmara region increased by 15% from 2005 to 2014 with 1,242.17 Mm3 in 2014. The heat and electrical energy equivalents of the biogas were found to be 7,453.02 GWh and 2,608.56 GWhe, respectively. In the other two scenarios, depending on the utilization rate of theoretical biogas potential: biogas amount, heat and electric power values were determined proportionally.

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25-32 V. Dubrovskis and I. Plume
Biogas production from sugar rich waste
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Biogas production from sugar rich waste

V. Dubrovskis* and I. Plume

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Energetics, Cakstes blvd 5, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia;
*Correspondence: vilisd@inbox.lv

Abstract:

56 biogas plants are working today in Latvia. There is need to investigate the suitability of various biomasses for energy production. Sweets production factories by-products are organic waste and wastewater featuring a high sugar content. Wastewater have a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) level and requires special treatment that results in additional input of energy and financial resources. 

This article shows the results of two studies evaluating sugar-containing biomass suitability for the production of biogas.
The anaerobic digestion process of damaged jam and sweets factory wastewater was investigated for biogas production in 0.75 L digesters, operated in batch mode at temperature 38 ± 0.1 °C. The average biogas yield per unit of organic dry matter (ODM) from digestion of damaged jam was 1.114 L g-1ODM and methane yield was 0.716 L g-1ODM. Average biogas yield from digestion of sweets production factory wastewater was 1.058 L g-1ODM and methane yield was 0.663 L g-1ODM. All investigated sugar rich wastes can be utilised for biogas production successfully thus providing an environmental solution for wastewater problem of sweets production factories.

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294-302 V. Dubrovskis and I. Plume
Anaerobic digestion of vegetables processing wastes with catalyst metaferm
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Anaerobic digestion of vegetables processing wastes with catalyst metaferm

V. Dubrovskis* and I. Plume

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Agriculture Energetics, 5, Cakstesblvd, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia *Correspondence: vilisd@inbox.lv

Abstract:

There are 54 active biogas plants in Latvia today. It is necessary to investigate the suitability of various biomasses for energy production. Maize is the dominating crop for biogas production in Latvia. The cultivation of more varied crops with good economical characteristics and a low environmental impact is thus desirable. One of the ways for improving biogas yield in Latvian conditions is using biological catalysts. This paper explores the results of the anaerobic digestion of vegetables’ processing wastes using the new biological catalyst Metaferm. The digestion process was investigated in view of biogas production in sixteen 0.7 l digesters operated in batch mode at the temperature of 38 ± 1.0 °C. The average methane yield per unit of dry organic matter added (DOM) from the digestion of onions was 0.433 l g–1DOM; with 1 ml ofMetaferm: 0.396 l g–1–1DOM, and with 2 ml of Metaferm: 0.394 l gDOM . The average methane yieldfrom the digestion of carrots was 0.325 l g–1–1DOM; with 1 ml of Metaferm: 0.498 l gDOM , and with2 ml of Metaferm: 0.426 l g–1DOM. The average additional methane yield per unit of dry organicmatter from the digestion of 50%:50% mixed onions and carrots was 0.382 l g–1DOMwith 2 mlof Metaferm. The average additional methane yield per unit of dry organic matter from the digestion of cabbage leftovers was 0.325 l g–1–1DOM; with 1 ml of Metaferm: 0.375 l gDOM , andwith 2 ml of Metaferm: 0.415 l g–1DOM. The average additional methane yield per unit of dryorganic matter from the digestion of potato cuttings was 0.570 l g–1DOM; with 1 ml ofMetaferm: 0.551 l g–1–1DOM, and with 2 ml of Metaferm:0.667 l gDOM . The average additionalmethane yield per unit of dry organic matter from the digestion of 50%:50% mixed cabbages and potatoes was 0.613 l g–1DOMwith 2 ml of Metaferm. All investigated vegetable wastes canbe successfully cultivated for energy production under agro-ecological conditions in Latvia. Adding the catalyst Metaferm increased methane yield, except for onions.

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