Tag Archives: biomass

848–858 V. Rooni, M. Raud and T. Kikas
Technical solutions used in different pretreatments of lignocellulosic biomass: a review
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Technical solutions used in different pretreatments of lignocellulosic biomass: a review

V. Rooni, M. Raud and T. Kikas*

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE 51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: timo.kikas@emu.ee

Abstract:

Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass has attracted a lot of attention as one of the most promising alternative to liquid fossil fuels. Over the last decades a lot of research has been done to find the optimal methods & devices to produce bioethanol from all kind of lignocellulosic biomass. A traditional three-step production process is used to produce bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass – pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, & fermentation. Today, the high cost of the pretreatment prevents bioethanol from competing with petrol. In this review article, the positive & negative aspects of different pretreatment methods & patented devices are investigated & analysed. Based on the analysis several options on how to lower lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment costs & how to increase the competitiveness of bioethanol are proposed.

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xxx J. Maga and K. Krištof
Effect of drill machine operating speed on quality of sowing and biomass yield
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Effect of drill machine operating speed on quality of sowing and biomass yield

J. Maga and K. Krištof*

University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Biosystems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovakia
*Correspondence: koloman.kristof@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The paper is focused on the study and evaluation of quality of the seeding of seeds and its effect on the biomass yield. The aim was to evaluate the space arrangement of the seeds by using of polygon method on one field with the repetition for different forward speeds of the drill machine. For the evaluation there were used digital photographs, which were taken during repeated measurements of the each value of the forward speed after sprouting of crop. These images have been used in order to determine the shape and size of the surface area belonging to the plant. Own software TfPolyM was used for the image analysis. The shape of the polygons belonging to the individual plants was expressed by values of the shape factor Tf. This factor characterises the suitability the shape of polygon surface related to the individual plant. By comparing of the values of the shape factors for different forward speeds of the drill machine we can determine the optimal value of the forward speed from the point of seed placement uniformity in horizontal level. During harvest of the crop there was analysed the variability of the biomass yield in relation to values of the forward speed used during seeding. The most suitable values of shape factor Tf (0.8519) was recorded for speed of drill machine set on 12 km h-1. For other tested speeds 8, 10, 15 km h-1 were recorded lower values of shape factor 0.7994, 0.8173 and 0.8449, respectively. In determination of biomass production for drill machine speed 12 km h-1 the greatest yield from 1 m2 was observed. Subsequently, for speeds 8 and 10 km h-1 was lower about 4.26% and 1.83%, respectively. For tested speeds of drill machinery 15 km h-1 and above was observed only a small descent of yields about 0.6%. Fluctuation in yields affected by working speed then demonstrates fluctuation in sowing rate. It was also observed that the working speed of sowing machinery also affect the amount of yield directly. However, in case of lowest yield of straw recorded it was observed even 20% decrease in yield of grains.

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725–732 D. Černý, J. Malaťák and J. Bradna
Influence of biofuel moisture content on combustion and emission characteristics of stove
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Influence of biofuel moisture content on combustion and emission characteristics of stove

D. Černý*, J. Malaťák and J. Bradna

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ 165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: david.cerny@dotacenazeleno.cz

Abstract:

 The research aim was to study the effect of moisture in solid fuel on combustion in a stove and its emissions. Analysed samples were from spruce woodchips. Four samples were prepared with different moisture contents and furthermore spruce wood was used as a reference sample. Combustion device used was a stove with a fixed fire grate. Studied parameters were ambient temperature, temperature of flue gases, coefficient of excess air, and contents of oxygen and carbon monoxide in flue gases. Laboratory measurement was performed on an analyser of flue gases whose function is based on electro-chemical converters. Measured values were first converted to a referential oxygen content in flue gases. Evaluation of these values was then made by regression analyses. The course of combustion process and its quality can be seen well in functional dependence of carbon monoxide on excess air coefficient. The area of combustion was the smallest with the least moist sample (3.2%) and increases with increasing moisture. A sample with high moisture (31.1%) was already causing the fire to gradually extinguish. Because flue gas temperature is in the same range for all samples, the overall efficiency of the stove decreases sharply with fuel moisture due to specific heat of flue gases. It has been thus confirmed that fuel moisture content has a substantial influence on combustion, especially in the chosen combustion device, which has been verified by comparison with the reference fuel.

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641–649 A. Adamovics, S. Ivanovs and V. Stramkale
Investigations about the impact of norms of the fertilisers and cultivars upon the crop capacity biomass of industrial hemp
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Investigations about the impact of norms of the fertilisers and cultivars upon the crop capacity biomass of industrial hemp

A. Adamovics, S. Ivanovs* and V. Stramkale

Latvia University of Agriculture, Liela iela 2, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: semjons@apollo.lv

Abstract:

Field trials were carried out in 2012–2014, on the Research and Study Farm ‘Pēterlauki’ of the Latvia University of Agriculture. Eleven sorts of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) – ‘Bialobrzeskie’, ‘Futura 75’, ‘Fedora 17’, ‘Santhica 27’, ‘Beniko’, ‘Ferimon’, ‘Felina 32’, ‘Epsilon 68’, ‘Tygra’, ‘Wojko’ and ‘Uso 31’ were sown in a sod calcareous soil (pHKCl 6.7, P 52 mg kg-1, K 128 mg kg-1, the organic matter content 21–25 g kg-1). The total seeding rate was 50 kg ha-1. The plots were fertilised as follows: N-120, P2O5– 90, K2O- 150 kg ha-1. Hemp was sown in the middle of May, in 10 m2 plots, triplicate. Hemp was harvested when the first matured seeds appeared. The biometrical indices, the height and stem diameter, the harvesting time, the amount of fresh and dry biomass and the fibre content were evaluated.
Yield of dry matter on average comprised 15.06 t ha-1, depending on the cultivars. Cultivation year and cultivar notably affected hemp biomass yield. In 2012, the highest yield of dry biomass was produced from cultivars ‘Futura 75’ (21.33 t ha-1) and ‘Tygra’ (20.87 t ha-1), the lowest – from ‘Bialobrzeskie’ (11.95 t ha-1). Significantly higher average yield of dry biomass was obtained from cultivars ‘Futura 75’ (17.76 t ha-1), ‘Tygra’ (16.31 t ha-1), ‘Wojko’ (15.51 t ha-1) and ‘Epsilon 68’ (15.28 t ha-1), the lowest – ‘Bialobrzeskie’ and ‘Uso 31’ (13.53 t ha-1). Meteorological conditions influenced the dry biomass yield.
The aim of this study was find productive cultivar of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and clarify nitrogen fertiliser rates impact for biomass production in Latvia.

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525–532, J. Malaták, J. Bradna and J. Velebil
Combustion of briquettes from oversize fraction of compost from wood waste and other biomass residues
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Combustion of briquettes from oversize fraction of compost from wood waste and other biomass residues

J. Malaták*, J. Bradna and J. Velebil

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of
Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ 165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: malatak@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This article aims to determine experimentally the energy potential of samples from oversize compost fraction formed into briquettes. Theoretical combustion characteristics of the briquettes are determined and are compared with a reference fuel. Elemental analysis and stoichiometric calculations were performed for the samples. Classical grate combustion device with manual fuel supply was chosen for combustion tests. Flue gas temperature and emission parameters, such as the emission levels of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides, were monitored by a multi-purpose flue gas analyzer Madur GA-60. Dependence of these parameters on air input was followed.
Elemental analyses and stoichiometric calculations of individual samples indicate favourable properties of the energy compost for further energy utilisation, namely the gross calorific value of 16.42 MJ kg-1. Excess air was causing high losses through heat of the flue gas during the experiments on combustion device. This fact occurred in a situation when the temperature of flue gas leaving the chimney reached high levels. The excess air coefficient also significantly influenced emissions of carbon dioxide and monoxide and nitrogen oxides in the flue gas. The trends are analysed statistically and are expressed by regression equations. The results can serve in practice for optimization of combustion processes in grate boilers with manual feed of the fuel.

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327–336 A. Brunerová, J. Pecen, M. Brožek and T. Ivanova
Mechanical durability of briquettes from digestate in different storage conditions
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Mechanical durability of briquettes from digestate in different storage conditions

A. Brunerová¹*, J. Pecen², M. Brožek¹ and T. Ivanova²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of
Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Kamýcká 129, CZ 165 00 Prague,
Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences,
Department of Sustainable Technologies, Kamýcká 129, CZ 165 00 Prague,
Czech Republic
*Correspondence: brunerova@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

A present research was conducted to determine mechanical durability of digestate briquettes and potential influence of different storage condition. Experiments were performed on briquette samples produced from digestate feedstock with moisture content of 8.2%, ash content of 10.9% and gross calorific value of 17.15 MJ kg-1 by hydraulic piston press with working pressure of 18 MPa with external diameter 50 mm and length 40–60 mm. Briquette samples were divided into two groups and stored inside and outside building. Both groups were subjected to five experimental testing during specific time period from May until late November 2014. Mechanical durability of each briquette was measured after every testing, subsequently overall mechanical durability of specific groups was calculated. Results showed the lowest mechanical durability after first measurement: 98.85% for Group 1 and 98.95% for Group 2. The biggest change in mechanical durability was observed between first and second testing, values of following measurements were approximately equal. The highest mechanical durability was achieved after fifth testing: 99.65% for Group 1 and 99.63% for Group 2. It implied mechanical durability equal to 99.44% for Group 1 and 99.45% for Group 2 in average. Research proved very high mechanical durability which corresponds to the highest category of this quality indicator given by standard EN ISO 17225-1. Difference between mechanical durability of groups stored in different conditions was considered as minor. Thereby briquettes made from digestate are not only secondary product of proper waste management, effectively modified fertilizer but as was found by results of this research it is also suitable fuel with outstanding mechanical properties.

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109–122 D. Lazdiņa, S. Šēnhofa, M. Zeps, K. Makovskis, I. Bebre and Ā. Jansons
The early growth and fall frost damage of poplar clones in Latvia
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The early growth and fall frost damage of poplar clones in Latvia

D. Lazdiņa*, S. Šēnhofa, M. Zeps, K. Makovskis, I. Bebre and Ā. Jansons

Latvian State Forest Research Institute ʻSilava’, Rigas 111, LV 2169 Salaspils, Latvia
*Correspondence: dagnija.lazdina@silava.lv

Abstract:

The early growth and frost damage of Populus spp. was studied in two sites. The height of 23 five-year-old poplar clones was measured in the central part of Latvia; and the early-fall frost damage of 19 one-year-old and two-year-old poplar clones were assessed in the eastern part of Latvia. The relation between the height growth and frost damage of 16 clones, which were common for both sites, was assessed. The phenologically dormant stage was denoted for three clones, among which two are collected across Latvia (the origin un-known; introduced in 1960s). All the other clones had trees with damaged leaves and two clones had stem damage. The height of the clones ranged from 273.3 ± 60.2 to 711.0 ± 32.0 cm. The 3 most productive clones (LV3, LV1 and LV4) significantly (P < 0.01) exceeded others, by 34 and 65% for height and biomass, respectively. The mean height of these clones was 649.0 ± 21.5 cm and stem biomass varied from 33.7 ± 4.2 to 55.0 ± 6.4 tfresh=ha-1 (planting density 6,500 trees=ha-1). The clone had significant (P < 0.01) effect on the phenological stage, leaf and stem frost damage, as well as on the height and stem biomass. No relation (P > 0.05) between the frost damage of leaves and both tree height and stem biomass was found. The results suggest that fast-growing frost-tolerant clones might be selected.

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319-328 S. Kalinauskaitė,, A. Sakalauskas, E. Šarauskis, A. Jasinskasand M. Ahlhaus
Relation of energy content variations of straw to the fraction size, humidity, composition and environmental impact
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Relation of energy content variations of straw to the fraction size, humidity, composition and environmental impact

S. Kalinauskaitė¹,*, A. Sakalauskas¹, E. Šarauskis¹, A. Jasinskas¹and M. Ahlhaus²

¹Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentų g. 11, Akademija, Kauno r.LT-53361, Lithuania; *Correspondence: solveiga.kalinauskaite@gmail.com
²Fachhochschule Stralsund, Institut für Regenerative Energie Systeme (IRES),Zur Schwedenschanze 15, 18435 Stralsund, Germany

Abstract:

Biomass is the major source of renewable energy, the use of which is very importantin energy, environment and economical aspects. Biomass enables the replacement of fossilfuels, the importance of biomass usage is related to global warming questions. Biomassmoisture content is one of the main factors affecting straw preparation for the usage cost.In this research the main focus is on straw and different biomass composition and how itinfluences the solid biofuels preparation for usage, paying attention to straw fraction, humidity,composition and finally how it influences the energy and environmental aspects. Testedsamples consist of different composition- raw straw, 100% yellow straw pellets, 100% greystraw pellets, 98% straw pellets with 2% additives, 50% straw and 50% hay pellets, 49% strawand 49% hay pellets with 2% additives, 100% hay pellets, 98% hay pellets with 2% additivesand additionally two samples of straw briquettes with different chop size – (20 mm) and(30 mm and 10 mm). This research pays attention to the main material characteristics –moisture value, ash content, HHV (higher heating value), pyrolysis coke. Research results willhelp to find the best biomass pellet and briquette composition for solid biofuel usage. Duringthe research it was found that the lowest moisture value was 98% hay pellets with 2% CaOadditive – 5.79%. Highest amount of ash value was found in 50% straw and 50% haycomposition pellets – 0.021 g. Highest amount of HHV were tested pellets which consisted of98% hay with 2% CaO additives. Highest amount of pyrolysis coke in organic and dry matterwere in 100% yellow straw tested samples.Achieved results will help to estimate material fraction, humidity and composition on biomasspreparation for conversion steps, following biomass usage energy and environmentrequirements. These research results will help to realise further tasks of agricultural biomassusage in practice.

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115-122 S. Kalinauskaite, A. Sakalauskas, E. Šarauskis, A. Jasinskas, M. Ahlhaus and H. Gerath
Biomass preparation for conversion humidity and value assessment
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Biomass preparation for conversion humidity and value assessment

S. Kalinauskaite, A. Sakalauskas, E. Šarauskis, A. Jasinskas¹, M. Ahlhaus² and H. Gerath³

¹Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentų g. 11, Akademija, Kauno r. LT-53361,
Lithuania; e-mail: solveiga.kalinauskaite@gmail.com
²Fachhochschule Stralsund, Institut für Regenerative EnergieSysteme (IRES), Zur
Schwedenschanze 15, 18435 Stralsund, Germany;
e-mail: Matthias.Ahlhaus@fh-stralsund.de
³Hochschule Wismar, Philipp-Müller-Straße PF 1210 Wismar 23952, Germany;
e-mail: horst.gerath@hs-wismar.de

Abstract:

Biomass usage for heat and energy purposes is one of the questions which still required more detailed analysis and scientific research. In this research we have focused on an analysis of humidity correlation on biomass preparation to conversion steps and calorific value assessment. The concept of biomass is widely understood, and in this research the chosen research object is agricultural, biomass with a main focus on straw, and additionally for results comparison are analyzed samples, composition are a mixture of straw and hay, with an additional 2% lime additive. For this research analyzed samples and their humidity for production steps is: one chop size reduction (20 mm) straw briquettes, two chops size reduction (30 mm and 10 mm) straw briquettes, pallets composition of 100% straw, 98% straw incl. 2% lime additive, 50% straw and 50% hay, 49% straw and 49% hay incl. 2% lime additive, 100% hay, 98% hay incl. 2% lime additive. Samples of straw and hay mixture, also with a lime additive is choosen because it is discussed widely that not only is it possible to use surplus straw from agricultural biomass as renewable energy and heat source, as a lime additive helps to keep a higher temperature on the combustion process and to generate more energy, but it is not healthy for the plant and not recommended under environmental aspects. The results received will help to estimate and determine the material humidity impact on biomass preparation for conversion steps, following an energy requirement for the production of briquettes and pallets, combustion factor and efficiency. It is defined as material calorific, HHV (higher heating value) and ash content which is one of the main factors and the criteria for fuel valuation will allow to determine tested samples further usage for heat and energy purposes. The research results will help further research tasks on bio energy as an agricultural biomass usage.

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33-38 V. Dubrovin and M. Melnychuk
Cleaner Production of Biomass and Biofuels
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Cleaner Production of Biomass and Biofuels

V. Dubrovin and M. Melnychuk

National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
15 Geroiv Oborony Str., 03041 Kiev, Ukraine
e-mail: dubrovin@nauu.kiev.ua; maksym@nauu.kiev.ua

Abstract:

Ukrainian agriculture is an industry which produces a huge quantity of biomass. The main part of the biomass potential is made up by straw. By moderate estimations only 20% of the total amount of straw can be used for energy production. All plant growing and biomass processing technologies can be based on cleaner production methodology. Only a few ecological options in corn growing technology gave real profit, which was ca 220 UAH per hectare. The main steps for rearing Trichogramma insects are technical services in laboratory conditions and soft implementation of them on agricultural plants by special aircraft. The most important result of the research is an overview of the possibilities of Ukraine to cover up to 12% of the total primary biomass energy demand for cleaner biofuel production.

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