Tag Archives: briquettes

xxx A. Muntean, T. Ivanova, P. Hutla and B. Havrland
Influence of raw material properties on the quality of solid biofuel and energy consumption in briquetting process
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Influence of raw material properties on the quality of solid biofuel and energy consumption in briquetting process

A. Muntean¹, T. Ivanova¹*, P. Hutla² and B. Havrland¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Department of
Sustainable Technologies, Kamýcká 129, CZ 16500 Prague, Czech Republic
²Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Drnovská 507, CZ 16101 Prague,
Czech Republic
*Correspondence: ivanova@ftz.czu.cz

Abstract:

The present paper is related to a pressing process research of raw materials with different density in order to investigate impact of biomass density on a formation of monolithic structure and the briquette’s strength. Another focus of the study is an influence of raw materials particles’ size on agglomeration process and quality of final product. Different biomass materials like two varieties of miscanthus, industrial hemp and apple wood were selected for experimental purposes of this research. Mechanical durability which represents one the main indicator of briquettes’ mechanical quality (strength) was determined. The research was conducted using hydraulic piston briquetting press. For assessment of briquetting efficiency during the whole process energy consumption was measured. One of the most important factors that can affect briquetting process is the temperature of pressing chamber which was registered as well. The main goal of the research was practical study of possibilities for increasing production efficiency and quality of briquettes on hydraulic piston briquetting press with respect to optimization of particles’ size of raw materials and use of raw materials the most appropriate density.

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313–321 M. Barbari, L. Conti, G. Rossi and S. Simonini
Supply of wood as environmental enrichment material to post-weaning piglets
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Supply of wood as environmental enrichment material to post-weaning piglets

M. Barbari*, L. Conti, G. Rossi and S. Simonini

Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems, University of Firenze, Via San Bonaventura 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: matteo.barbari@unifi.it

Abstract:

Slatted flooring is a common system used for post-weaning of piglets. In this condition of breeding, it is very hard to provide materials for environmental enrichment to enable proper investigation and manipulation activities to improve animal welfare. The research aimed to identify an alternative way to provide natural environmental enrichment during post-weaning on slatted flooring using wood. Core of veneer poplar logs and wood sawdust pressed briquettes were selected among other types of wood thanks to their wide availability and low cost. Moreover, these kinds of wood can be used without compromising the health of the animals, neither by contact nor by ingestion. The most important step of the research was to design systems to make the wood more attractive for piglets. The developed devices consisted of a fixed structural component to be installed inside the pen to which wood materials could be added and replaced quite effortlessly. Three devices were developed: a) horizontal system, b) vertical system, c) pendulum system. They were tested in three different pens, each one with 24 post-weaning piglets. The results confirmed the assumption that there is a relation between the level of activity of the animals and the interaction with the wood proposed in the shape of small logs and briquettes. In particular the device a) can generate a valuable level of interaction of the animals reared inside the pen, especially in the first 10 days post-weaning, which is the most sensitive period for piglets after mixing.

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359–368 A. Brunerová, J. Malaťák, M. Müller, P. Valášek and H. Roubík
Tropical waste biomass potential for solid biofuels production
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Tropical waste biomass potential for solid biofuels production

A. Brunerová¹*, J. Malaťák², M. Müller¹, P. Valášek¹ and H. Roubík³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Department of Sustainable Technologies, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: brunerova@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Subsequent utilization of waste biomass in developing countries occurs at poor level, despite the  act, that it has great potential in solid biofuel production. Densified waste biomass is utilized for  direct combustion, therefore, its suitability (energy potential, chemical composition) must be determined in attempt to protect environment and reduce air pollution. Main aim of present research was to determine suitability of waste biomass originating from production of rice (Oryza sativa), Date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and Jatropha fruit (Jatropha curcas) for solid biofuel production. Within a moisture, ash and volatile matter contents, major chemical elements (C, H, N, O) and net calorific value (NCV) were determined. Rice waste analysis proved low NCV (14.33 MJ kg–1) and high ash content (20.74%), which presented problems during combustion. Jatropha fruit waste (cake) analyses exhibited outstanding NCV (24.44 MJ kg–1) caused by residual oil content. Within major elements analysis a low content of oxygen (26.61%) was proved (recommended). Date fruit waste exhibited average NCV (16.40 MJ kg–1). However, high oxygen content (44.01%) was defined as limiting factor. Overall evaluation proved greatest suitability for Jatropha fruit waste (cake), followed by Date fruit waste and lowest potential was determined for Rice waste. However, investigated plants are not cultivated for energy production purposes, thus, observed results achieved satisfactory level of their suitability for solid biofuel production.

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311-317 T. Ivanova, А. Muntean, V. Titei, B. Havrland and M. Kolarikova,
Energy crops utilization as an alternative agricultural production
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Energy crops utilization as an alternative agricultural production

T. Ivanova¹, А. Muntean², V. Titei³, B. Havrland¹ and M. Kolarikova¹,*

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: kolarikova@ftz.czu.cz
²The State Agrarian University of Moldova, Mirceşti 42, Chișinău 2049, Republic of Moldova 3Botanical Garden of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Padurii 18, Chisinau 2002, Republic of Moldova

Abstract:

Nowadays an increasing attention is given to the production and use of solid biofuels as an alternative to traditional fossil fuels. The common raw material for the production of solid biofuels is a biomass of vegetal origin, which is mainly represented by waste and secondary agricultural products as well as forest or wood residues. Unfortunately, these types of materials do not always meet the quality requirements for the production of biofuels in the form of pellets and briquettes. This is primarily due to the fact that much of the agricultural wastes have low calorific value, high ash content, low density, etc. and at the end all these facts also negatively affects the price of biofuels. In addition, an intensive use of agricultural waste as a raw material for the purpose of biofuels’ production could have a negative impact on soil fertility. Based on abovementioned disadvantages of agricultural biomass, there is a big potential in utilization of alternative biomass such as energy crops. Several energy crops from the same biological family Asteraceae were selected for the research purposes. The main focus of this article is evaluation and comparison of the main solid biofuels’ properties, which were measured according to European and International standards. Assessment of an energy potential of selected crops for the Republic of Moldova is presented here as well.

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47-52 T. Ivanova,, A. Muntean, B. Havrland, and V. Pobedinsky
Theoretical modelling of the briquetting process with different pressing equipment
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Theoretical modelling of the briquetting process with different pressing equipment

T. Ivanova¹,*, A. Muntean², B. Havrland¹, and V. Pobedinsky²

¹Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague,Kamýcká 129, 16500 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic;
*Correspondence: ivanova@its.czu.cz
²Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Auto Transportation, State AgrarianUniversity of Moldova, Mircesti 44, 2049 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova

Abstract:

Recently, a large number of technologies for production of solid biofuels in the formof briquettes has been researched and put into practice. The main advantages and disadvantagesof modern production methods are analysed in this study. The lack of information about theprocess of formation and agglomeration of briquettes of different types of processing equipmentadversely affects the quality of bio-fuel, rapid and intensive wear and tear of the main workingparts and higher energy compaction; this influences the cost of the final product. In order tosolve the above problems, a theoretical modelling of the process of bio-briquettes’ formation onthe piston press is proposed in the present paper. The main task was not only an analysis of theoptimal technologies for briquette production, but also a comparison and elaboration ofmathematical multifactorial linear models of the pressing process. During the theoreticalmodelling the main factors influencing the mechanical quality of briquettes were analysed andcalculated. For a more understandable description of the briquetting process in a piston press,the pressing chamber was divided into three pressing zones. Analysis of forces and pressuredistribution during the passage of material through the pressing chamber was done. The studypretends to improve the design and operational parameters of the pressing equipment.

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