Tag Archives: bulk density

xxx A. Muntean, T. Ivanova, P. Hutla and B. Havrland
Influence of raw material properties on the quality of solid biofuel and energy consumption in briquetting process
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Influence of raw material properties on the quality of solid biofuel and energy consumption in briquetting process

A. Muntean¹, T. Ivanova¹*, P. Hutla² and B. Havrland¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Department of
Sustainable Technologies, Kamýcká 129, CZ 16500 Prague, Czech Republic
²Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Drnovská 507, CZ 16101 Prague,
Czech Republic
*Correspondence: ivanova@ftz.czu.cz

Abstract:

The present paper is related to a pressing process research of raw materials with different density in order to investigate impact of biomass density on a formation of monolithic structure and the briquette’s strength. Another focus of the study is an influence of raw materials particles’ size on agglomeration process and quality of final product. Different biomass materials like two varieties of miscanthus, industrial hemp and apple wood were selected for experimental purposes of this research. Mechanical durability which represents one the main indicator of briquettes’ mechanical quality (strength) was determined. The research was conducted using hydraulic piston briquetting press. For assessment of briquetting efficiency during the whole process energy consumption was measured. One of the most important factors that can affect briquetting process is the temperature of pressing chamber which was registered as well. The main goal of the research was practical study of possibilities for increasing production efficiency and quality of briquettes on hydraulic piston briquetting press with respect to optimization of particles’ size of raw materials and use of raw materials the most appropriate density.

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xxx L. Chladek, V. Plachy, P. Vaculik and P. Brany
Evaluation of nutritional and physical values of pellets based on pea and lupine with added yeast in chickens fattening
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Evaluation of nutritional and physical values of pellets based on pea and lupine with added yeast in chickens fattening

L. Chladek¹*, V. Plachy², P. Vaculik¹ and P. Brany¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS), Faculty of Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague - Suchdol, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Microbiology, Nutrition and Dietetics, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague - Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: chladekl@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The article is focused on the development of the new type of broiler chicken feed, based on pea (Pisum sativum L.) and blue lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L), enriched with used dried brewer´s yeast. This composition eliminates use of soybean meal (PES) that was yet a traditional component in chicken feed. The main reason for its elimination was the using of genetically modified varieties of soybean and its relatively high price around 0.5 €uro kg-1 in Czech Republic. For milling of pea or blue lupine was used vertical (hammer) mill type Taurus, supplied by company TAURUS, for drying of used brewer´s yeast had been used drier Memmert UFE 800, final dry matter of the yeast was 88%. For pellets production were used two devices, press type JGE 120-6110 and Testmer. For the determination of physical properties of manufactured pellets (the weight of 1,000 pieces, bulk density, abrasiveness and pellet durability index PDI) were used following laboratory devices, Pellet Tester Holmen NHP and Testmer 200. Experimental activities had shown that the best results were reached using pellets manufactured on base blue lupine enriched by dried brewer´s yeast (6%).

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101-108 K. Trükmann, E. Reintam, J. Kuht, E. Nugis and L. Edesi
Effect of soil compaction on growth of narrow–leafed lupine, oilseed rape and spring barley on sandy loam soil
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Effect of soil compaction on growth of narrow–leafed lupine, oilseed rape and spring barley on sandy loam soil

K. Trükmann¹, E. Reintam¹, J. Kuht¹, E. Nugis² and L. Edesi²

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences,Kreutzwaldi St. 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: katrin.trykmann@emu.ee
²Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse St. 13, 75501 Saku, Estonia

Abstract:

Soil compaction is an environmental problem and has been recognized as the main form of soil degradation in Europe. Soil compaction may increase soil strength and compacted soil layers can affect root and shoot growth. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of soil compaction on soil properties and on the growth of narrow–leafed lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.), spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera Hertzg.), and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The experiment was carried out on the research field of the Estonian University of Life Sciences in the summers of 2004 and 2005 on the sandy loam Stagnic Luvisol. The field was compacted by tractor MTZ-82 (total weight 4.84 Mg) characterized by multiple tire-to-tire passing. Parameters such as plants biomass (roots and shoots) and the changes in physical properties, bulk density and penetration resistance of soil were measured. The results of the present study revealed that the highest increase of penetration resistance and soil bulk density due to the soil compaction occurred in growing spring barley. Although the roots and shoots mass of lupine and oilseed rape increased with increased soil bulk density, there was a very strong negative linear correlation between the roots and shoots weight and soil bulk density on spring barley. A positive correlation was detected between the roots and shoots mass of narrow–leafed lupine and soil bulk density, and soil compaction had a positive effect on the roots and shoots mass of oilseed rape. The study indicates that oilseed rape and narrow–leafed lupine can grow more successfully on compacted soils than can barley.

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189–202 E. Reintam, J. Kuht, H. Loogus, E. Nugis and K. Trükmann
Soil compaction and fertilisation effects on nutrient content and cellular fluid pH of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
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Soil compaction and fertilisation effects on nutrient content and cellular fluid pH of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

E. Reintam¹, J. Kuht¹, H. Loogus², E. Nugis² and K. Trükmann¹

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Kreutzwaldi Str. 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: endla.reintam@emu.ee
²Estonian Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Teaduse 13, 75501 Saku, Harjumaa, Estonia

Abstract:

The main objective of this work was to investigate the effect of soil bulk density on nutrient (N, P, K) assimilation and on cellular fluid pH of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with different levels of fertilisation. Data were collected from the research fields of the Estonian University of Life Sciences (58o23´N, 26o44´E) with four different levels of soil compaction on sandy loam Stagnic Luvisol from 2001 to 2003. The soil was compacted by a tractor MTZ-82 (with loader; total weight 4.9 Mg) before spring sowing. Four levels of fertilisation (N0P0K0, N40P7K20; N80P14K40; N120P21K80) were applied using N20: P3.5: K10 fertiliser. Results of our experiments showed a high positive correlation between soil bulk density and cellular fluid pH (average r = 0.87) and negative correlation between soil bulk density and nutrient content (average r = –0.88) at highest rates of fertilisation (N80P14K40; N120P21K80) and positive correlation (r = 0.84) at lower rates of fertilisation (N0P0K0, N40P7K20) in the earing phase of barley. If the soil bulk density increased up to the level 1.56 Mg m-3, there was a sudden increase of cellular fluid pH without fertiliser use. Use of fertilisers decreased the barley stress. A sudden increase of cellular fluid pH started after soil bulk density 1.61 Mg m-3. The greatest impact of soil compaction was on nitrogen and potassium content in barley dry matter in all fertilisation levels. The nitrogen and potassium content in barley dry matter decreased up to 37% by high soil bulk density depending on fertilisation. The experiment showed that the higher decrease of nutrient content and the sudden increase of cellular fluid pH started at the same soil bulk density value.

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169–180 K. Kauer, T. Köster and R. Kõlli
Chemical parameters of coastal grassland soils in Estonia
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Chemical parameters of coastal grassland soils in Estonia

K. Kauer, T. Köster and R. Kõlli

Department of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e–mail: kauer@eau.ee, tints@eau.ee, raimo@eau.ee

Abstract:

Larger areas of coastal grasslands can be found in western Estonia and in the islands of the west coast. Salt marshes of the Baltic Sea are not natural biotopes but developed by agricultural use, mainly grazing by beef cattle and horses. The main goal of the work is to discuss the properties of the investigated soils (Hyposalic Fluvisols), nutrient cycle in the plant-soil system and the influence of grazing on the coastal biotope. In this study, the coastal grassland soils in Hiiumaa have been investigated by using morphologic (depth of humus layer, bulk density) and chemical parameters (pH, total N and C, mineral elements P, K, Na, Ca, and Mg). The investigated soils contain high amounts of soluble salts K, Na, Ca, and Mg. The total nitrogen and humus content were high, but the content of P was low.

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