Tag Archives: calcium

31–36 J. Lanauskas and N. Kvikliené
Effect of calcium foliar application on some fruit quality characteristics of ‘Sinap Orlovskij’ apple
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Effect of calcium foliar application on some fruit quality characteristics of ‘Sinap Orlovskij’ apple

J. Lanauskas¹ and N. Kvikliené²

¹Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Kauno 30, LT-54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr., Lithuania; e-mail: j.lanauskas@lsdi.lt
²Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Kauno 30, LT-54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr., Lithuania;e-mail: n.kvikliene@lsdi.lt

Abstract:

Effect of calcium fertiliser sprays on eight-ten-year-old apple trees of the cv. ‘Sinap Orlovskij’ on rootstock 62-396 was investigated at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture in 2001–2003. Calcium chloride, calcium nitrate, liquid experimental calcium fertilisers and Wuxal Calcium were used. Calcium chloride was applied twice at the time close to harvest (total CaO rate – 5.9 kg ha-1). Other fertilisers were used fivefold from the beginning of June (total CaO rate – 6 kg ha-1) in the combination of two sprays with calcium chloride (CaO rate – 5.9 kg/ha-1). The most significant effect of calcium fertilisers on fruit calcium content was found in 2003. When fertilisers were applied sevenfold, fruit calcium increased by 50–120 mg/kg of dry fruit weight in comparison with the control. The most unfavourable for calcium accumulation was the warm and dry weather in year 2002. Apples contained only 170–230 mg of calcium per kg of fruit dry matter and bitter pit affected up to 35% of apples. In years 2001 and 2003 fruit calcium content was 300–330 and 340–460 mg/kg, respectively, bitter pit affected up to 2% of apples. Sevenfold applied calcium fertilisers decreased bitter pit incidence about twice in comparison with the control and two applications of calcium chloride. All tested fertilisers had a similar effect on bitter pit reduction. Calcium fertilisers had not a consistent effect on fruit flesh firmness, soluble solids content and natural weight loss.

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73–80 V. Loide, M. Nõges and J. Rebane
Assessment of the agrochemical properties of the soil using the extraction solution Mehlich 3 in Estonia
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Assessment of the agrochemical properties of the soil using the extraction solution Mehlich 3 in Estonia

V. Loide¹, M. Nõges² and J. Rebane²

¹Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: valli.loide@mail.ee
²Agricutural Research Centre, Teaduse 4/6, 75 501 Saku, Estonia; e-mail: noges@pmk.agri.ee

Abstract:

To determine the requirement of macro- and microelements, seven extraction solutions have been employed in Estonian practice. Double lactate (DL) extraction has been used for determination of the phosphorus and potassium requirement, ammonium lactate (AL) extraction for determination of the calcium and magnesium requirement, and five more different extractions have been used for determination of microelements. Hence the need for a more appropriate extraction solution was due to the large number of the extraction solutions used until now, which made determination of the fertiliser requirement less efficient; also, in some cases, use of some extraction solutions did not yield reliable results in the case of particular plants. It was found in this study that the extraction solution Mehlich 3 is suitable for determining the fertiliser requirement of the soils of Estonia, considering their diverse agrochemical properties, while it allows to reduce the number of the extraction solutions. Also, employment of the extraction solution Mehlich 3 yielded more reliable results with respect to plants in the case of phosphorus, potassium, copper and, particularly, magnesium and manganese.

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71–82 V. Loide
About the effect of the contents and ratios of soil’s available calcium, potassium and magnesium in liming of acid soils
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About the effect of the contents and ratios of soil’s available calcium, potassium and magnesium in liming of acid soils

V. Loide

Agricultural Research Centre, Teaduse 4/6, 75501 Saku, Estonia; e-mail: valli.loide@mail.ee

Abstract:

Soils in Estonia are characterised by washing out, i.e. leaching, of calcium carbonates and magnesium carbonates. Calcium losses from the arable layer may amount 150–500 (600) kg ha-1 a year, resulting in excessive concentration of free hydrogen ions in the soil solution, and therefore these soils require liming. Relatively high doses of lime fertilisers have to be used in order to eliminate harmful acidity of the soils. Clinker dust, oil shale ash and milled limestone are the materials widely used as lime fertilisers at present. Soils in Estonia are often poor in both potassium and magnesium, and that is why clinker dust, which is relatively rich in potassium, has been a particularly valued lime fertiliser. Magnesium deficiency is being alleviated by adding dolomite meal to milled limestone. However, a non-uniform mixing of these lime fertilisers does not ensure their sufficiently homogeneous consistence. Large doses of lime fertilisers, which are not uniformly mixed, have a variable effect on the contents and ratios of calcium, potassium and magnesium in the soil. The trials showed that, as a result of an incorrect use of lime fertilisers, both calcium-to-magnesium and potassium-to-magnesium ratios in the soil may change to the detriment of plants, leading to lower yields.

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