Tag Archives: carbon dioxide

115-120 K. Krištof, T. Šima, L. Nozdrovický and P. Findura
The effect of soil tillage intensity on carbon dioxide emissions released from soil into the atmosphere
Abstract |
Full text PDF (220 kB)

The effect of soil tillage intensity on carbon dioxide emissions released from soil into the atmosphere

K. Krištof, T. Šima*, L. Nozdrovický and P. Findura

Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Systems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra, Slovak Republic; *Correspondence: tomasko.sima@gmail.com

Abstract:

Soil tillage is among the factors which affect the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions released from soil into the atmosphere. The objective of the study was to compare three tillage systems which overall represents the most commonly used systems. No-tillage, reduced tillage (shallow disc cultivation) performed by LEMKEN Rubin 9/600 KU disc cultivator and ploughing performed by LEMKEN EuroDiamant 8 mouldboard plough. Experimental area was divided into three replications of each tillage treatment as a randomized block design and the effect of soil tillage intensity on CO2 emissions were observed in field conditions by using ACE device (Automated Soil CO2 Exchange Station, ADC Bio-Scientific Ltd., UK). There were found an effect of soil tillage intensity on CO2 emissions released from soil into the atmosphere. Increasing tillage intensity resulted in increasing rate of CO2 emissions released from soil into the atmosphere where reduced tillage was reflected as 43% and ploughing as114% of this escalation. The results of our study supporting the more ecological effects of reduced tillage and no-tillage systems in comparison with widespread conventional systems by using mouldboard ploughs.

Key words:

, ,




207-214 M. Dubeňová, T. Šima, R. Gálik, Š. Mihina, G. Vagač and Š. Boďo
Reduction of nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide in the pig barn piggery by different ventilation system intensities
Abstract |
Full text PDF (419 kB)

Reduction of nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide in the pig barn piggery by different ventilation system intensities

M. Dubeňová¹, T. Šima²⋅*, R. Gálik¹, Š. Mihina¹, G. Vagač³ and Š. Boďo¹

¹Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Production Engineering, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra, Slovak Republic 2Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Systems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra, Slovak Republic; *Correspondence: tomasko.sima@gmail.com 3Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Department of Animal Husbandry, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra, Slovak Republic

Abstract:

Agriculture, especially animal production, is one of the most important factors influencing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and causing global warming. The ventilation system in a piggery has a significant impact to carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations. The concentrations of these gases in pig housing also affect the air quality and welfare of animals. The aim of the paper was to analyze the effect of ventilation system intensity on the concentration of CO2 and N2O in a piggery. An experiment was carried out at the Experimental Centre for Livestock at the Department of Animal Husbandry, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Slovakia. The concentrations were measured by a photoacoustic field gas monitor INNOVA 1412 connected to a multipoint sampler INNOVA 1309. Three levels of ventilation system intensity were used: low, medium and high. Fattening pigs, the Large White breed were housed in the piggery. For our experiment, three sensors were used inside and two sensors outside the barn. Based on the gathered data, statistically significant differences were found between different ventilation system intensities at a 95.0% confidence level. The concentration of gases fluctuates during day time interval and, based on the results, it is possible to set up a ventilation system intensity to create the best possible air quality in a building for pigs.

Key words:

, , , ,




925-934 A. Traumann, M. Kritsevskaja, P. Tint, and D. Klauson
Air quality as an important indicator for ergonomic offices and school premises
Abstract |
Full text PDF (413 kB)

Air quality as an important indicator for ergonomic offices and school premises

A. Traumann¹, M. Kritsevskaja², P. Tint¹,* and D. Klauson²

¹Department of Work Environment and Safety, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate 5, EE19086 Tallinn, Estonia; *Correspondence: piia.tint@ttu.ee 2Department of Chemical Engineering of Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate 5, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia

Abstract:

The health risk assessment model for office rooms contains the physical indoor air factors and the risks connected with the use of computers. Four comfort classes have been postulated. Indoor air quality is the main risk factor at workplaces such as office rooms and schools besides non-ergonomic use of computers. High levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) could be observed due to poor ventilation systems and inadequate air exchange due to inoperable windows. Overcrowded classrooms could also be the reason for a high CO2 level. Lowering the occupancy and increasing the breaks between classes could alleviate the high CO2 concentrations in schools and offices. The data of Estonian investigators are analyzed. Experiments for determination of the adequacy of ventilation rate and the respective build-up of CO2 are carried out by the authors of the paper.

Key words:

, , , ,




33-38 G. Mann, M. Schlegel, R. Schumann and A. Sakalauskas
Biogas-conditioning with microalgae
Abstract |
Full text PDF (504 kB)

Biogas-conditioning with microalgae

G. Mann¹, M. Schlegel¹, R. Schumann² and A. Sakalauskas³

¹ Institute for Farm Animals Sciences and Technology, Faculty for Agricultural and
Environmental Sciences, University of Rostock, Rostock, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 8, D-18059
Rostock,
² Institute for Biosciences, Faculty for Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of
Rostock, Albert-Einstein-Str. 3, D-18059 Rostock
³ Department of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Lithuanian
University of Agriculture, Student� 15A, LT-53361 Kaunas-Akademija, Lithuania,
e-mail: ZUM.katedra@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

To promote the expansion of feasible biogas production, an optimisation of the whole process chain is essential. In this context the optimisation of the biogas-conditioning process is of great importance. By improving this process, new fields of application, e.g. its usage as car fuel or natural gas substitute can be developed. Currently applied chemical/physical conditioning techniques are cost intensive and hinder a reasonable production for smaller biogas plants. At present a possible low-cost alternative by application of microalgae is being investigated at the University of Rostock. To determine their ability to reduce carbon dioxide from biogas, laboratory-scale photobioreactors with a culture volume of 0.45 l are deployed. In 2008 the microalgae Chlorella sp. was analysed in terms of conditioning biogas. As a result the biogas components CO2 and H2S could be reduced up to 97.07% and 100%, respectively. Also an increase of microalgae cell count could be documented, which provides interesting alternatives for the production of algae ingredients.

Key words:

, , , ,




67-78 O. Sada and B. Reppo
Indoor climate of pigsty with deep litter and liquid manure system in summer
Abstract |
Full text PDF (278 kB)

Indoor climate of pigsty with deep litter and liquid manure system in summer

O. Sada and B. Reppo

Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences,Kreutzwaldi St. 56, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: boris.reppo@emu.ee

Abstract:

Construction of big deep-litter pigsties and pigsties without litter (using liquid manure systems) is becoming more extensive. Due to lack of knowledge concerning animal-keeping in big pigsties, it has become necessary to study the work environment in pigsties and, in particular, their indoor climate. In order to determine the impact of the outdoor climate, different methods for animal-keeping and tending activities on indoor climate during summertime, the air temperature, relative humidity, air velocity and contents of oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia were measured on a daily basis at the height of 1.5 m from the floor above the pigsty in the centre of deep-litter (800 fattening pigs) and liquid manure system (600 young pigs) pigsties. Simultaneously outdoor air temperature and relative humidity were measured. Data Logger equipment with relevant sensors and Gas Monitor Pac III were used for studying the indoor climate. Hydrolog equipment was used for measuring the parameters of outdoor climate. Measurement results were processed by using computer programmes AMR Win Control, HW3 and MS Excel.It turned out that during summertime the indoor climate of pigsties was most affected byoutdoor climate and tending works. The daily average indoor temperature (17.04 and 17.60°C respectively; outdoor temperature, 18.15 and 8.75°C) and relative humidity (68.11 and 78.59% respectively; outdoor relative humidity, 71.88 and 84.19%) remained within recommended limits for animals in the deep-litter pigsty and in the pigsty without litter. However, partial floor heating had to be used in the morning in order to ensure optimum indoor temperature and relative humidity in the pigsty for young pigs. Due to good ventilation in the pigsties the daily average contents of carbon dioxide (0.06 and 0.07%) and ammonia (20.9 and 8.7 ppm) remained within standard limits. Ammonia content in pigsties was higher during tending works, reaching 43 and 27 ppm. As a result of the study, the graphical and empirical relationship was determined between ammonia concentration and indoor air both in terms of air temperature and combined effect of temperature and relative humidity.

Key words:

, , , , , , , , ,




45–54 O. Sada and B. Reppo
Impact of tending work on pigsty inner climate in winter
Abstract |
Full text PDF (187 kB)

Impact of tending work on pigsty inner climate in winter

O. Sada and B. Reppo

Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi St. 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: boris.reppo@emu.ee

Abstract:

Inner climate at pigsty is in strong correlation with outdoor climate and tending work. Up to now, main research has been conducted to investigate air temperature and relative humidity, in order to be able to offer solutions to pigsty ventilation. At the same time, little data can be found about pigsty air gas content depending on pigs’ function work. With the aim of investigating the impact of outdoor climate and tending work on the inner climate at a pigsty of fatlings and youngs, the research was conducted to measure the air temperature, relative humidity and the content of oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia at these pigsties in winter time diurnally at the height of 1.5 meters. To measure the inner climate, Data Logger, appropriate sensors and the computer program PC AMR Win Control were used. At the same time, the winter outdoor air temperature and relative humidity were measured using Rotronic logger. The results of the research presented in the article concern the air temperature and velocity, relative humidity and the content of oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia of the working environment, measured in different places and heights of the room during daytime and diurnally above the pigpen. It became evident that the pigsty’s inner air temperature was within the extent recommended, but the air relative humidity increased partly very high. The carbon dioxide content partly exceeded the established limits. The average measured ammonia also exceeded the limits in some cases but always increased during the tending work.

Key words:

, , , , , , , , , , , ,