Tag Archives: carrot

1259–1266 A. Aboltins and J. Palabinskis
Studies of vegetable drying process in infrared film dryer
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Studies of vegetable drying process in infrared film dryer

A. Aboltins and J. Palabinskis*

Latvia University of Agriculture, Institute of Agricultural Machinery, Cakstes blvd.5, Jelgava, LV – 3001, Latvia
*Correspondence: janis.palabinskis@llu.lv

Abstract:

The research work analyzes the two fresh vegetable (carrot and garlic slices) drying process in the infrared film dryer. The energy of infrared radiation penetrates through the material and is  converted into heat, and the temperature gradient within the product is reduced in a short period of time. Infrared drying takes place at low temperatures (up to 35 °C) and it helps keep the  maximum product quality and natural color. The vegetable drying rate significantly differs  depending on the location of the products in relation to the infrared film and product location at the air inlet and outlet. With dried products in 3 parallel shelves the most rapid removal of moisture occurs in the lower shelf (close to the air inlet and film) and the top shelf (close to the air outlet and film). This difference compared to the middle shelf reaches 10–15%. Using the experimental data and multivariate analysis it has been found that the product moisture removal depends on its placement (at the heating film and air inlet, outlet) and the drying time.

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294-302 V. Dubrovskis and I. Plume
Anaerobic digestion of vegetables processing wastes with catalyst metaferm
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Anaerobic digestion of vegetables processing wastes with catalyst metaferm

V. Dubrovskis* and I. Plume

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Agriculture Energetics, 5, Cakstesblvd, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia *Correspondence: vilisd@inbox.lv

Abstract:

There are 54 active biogas plants in Latvia today. It is necessary to investigate the suitability of various biomasses for energy production. Maize is the dominating crop for biogas production in Latvia. The cultivation of more varied crops with good economical characteristics and a low environmental impact is thus desirable. One of the ways for improving biogas yield in Latvian conditions is using biological catalysts. This paper explores the results of the anaerobic digestion of vegetables’ processing wastes using the new biological catalyst Metaferm. The digestion process was investigated in view of biogas production in sixteen 0.7 l digesters operated in batch mode at the temperature of 38 ± 1.0 °C. The average methane yield per unit of dry organic matter added (DOM) from the digestion of onions was 0.433 l g–1DOM; with 1 ml ofMetaferm: 0.396 l g–1–1DOM, and with 2 ml of Metaferm: 0.394 l gDOM . The average methane yieldfrom the digestion of carrots was 0.325 l g–1–1DOM; with 1 ml of Metaferm: 0.498 l gDOM , and with2 ml of Metaferm: 0.426 l g–1DOM. The average additional methane yield per unit of dry organicmatter from the digestion of 50%:50% mixed onions and carrots was 0.382 l g–1DOMwith 2 mlof Metaferm. The average additional methane yield per unit of dry organic matter from the digestion of cabbage leftovers was 0.325 l g–1–1DOM; with 1 ml of Metaferm: 0.375 l gDOM , andwith 2 ml of Metaferm: 0.415 l g–1DOM. The average additional methane yield per unit of dryorganic matter from the digestion of potato cuttings was 0.570 l g–1DOM; with 1 ml ofMetaferm: 0.551 l g–1–1DOM, and with 2 ml of Metaferm:0.667 l gDOM . The average additionalmethane yield per unit of dry organic matter from the digestion of 50%:50% mixed cabbages and potatoes was 0.613 l g–1DOMwith 2 ml of Metaferm. All investigated vegetable wastes canbe successfully cultivated for energy production under agro-ecological conditions in Latvia. Adding the catalyst Metaferm increased methane yield, except for onions.

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879-891 U. Antone, J. Zagorska, V. Sterna, A. Jemeljanovs, A. Berzins, and D. Ikauniece
Effects of dairy cow diet supplementation with carrots on milk composition, concentration of cow blood serum carotenes, and butter oil fat-soluble antioxidative substances
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Effects of dairy cow diet supplementation with carrots on milk composition, concentration of cow blood serum carotenes, and butter oil fat-soluble antioxidative substances

U. Antone¹*, J. Zagorska², V. Sterna¹, A. Jemeljanovs¹³, A. Berzins³⁴, and D. Ikauniece¹⁴

¹Agency of the Latvia University of Agriculture ‘Research Institute of Biotechnology and Veterinary Medicine ‘Sigra’’, Instituta 1, Sigulda, LV- 2150, Latvia
²Faculty of Food Technology, the Latvia University of Agriculture, Liela 2, Jelgava, LV 3001, Latvia
³Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, the Latvia University of Agriculture, K.Helmana 8, Jelgava, LV 3004, Latvia
⁴Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment ‘BIOR’, Lejupes 3, Riga, LV 1076, Latvia
*Correspondence: u.antone@gmail.com

Abstract:

Fat-soluble constituents of milk – β-carotene and α-tocopherol – are essential for quality and nutritional value of milk and dairy products. Provision of fat-soluble antioxidants and vitamins such as carotenoids and vitamin E necessary for cow organism and milk synthesis depends on their concentration in fodder. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of cow feed supplementation by carrots on the total carotene concentration in cow blood serum, on fat, protein, lactose concentration in milk, and milk yield, as well as to investigate the effects on β-carotene and α-tocopherol concentration in butter oil and intensity of its yellow colour. A total 20 cows of Latvian brown (n = 8) and Danish red (n = 12) breed were divided into control (CG) and experimental group (EG). In the EG, cow feed was supplemented with seven kg of carrots per cow per day for six weeks at the end of the indoor period (March–May). Milk samples from indoor period (n = 100) and grazing (n = 20) were used for butter oil extraction. The carotene concentration observed in blood of animals before the experiment was insufficient taking into account that the recommended β-carotene concentration in serum is above 3.0 mg l-1 level. During indoor period the increase in carotene concentration in blood of cows was significant in both groups (P < 0.05) but in EG it was more eplicit showing the positive effect of carrot supplementation. Carrot supplementation did not change milk fat, protein, lactose concentration, and yield (P > 0.05). At the same time it contributed in more stable β-carotene, as well as 30% higher α-tocopherol concentration and more intense yellow colour of butter oil samples during the indoor period of the experiment (P < 0.05).

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305-310 R. Karklelienė, A. Radzevičius, E. Dambrauskienė, L. Duchovskienė,Č. Bobinas and D. Kavaliauskaitė
Reproduction features of organically grown edible carrot cultivars (Daucus sativus Röhl.) in Lithuania
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Reproduction features of organically grown edible carrot cultivars (Daucus sativus Röhl.) in Lithuania

R. Karklelienė, A. Radzevičius, E. Dambrauskienė, L. Duchovskienė,Č. Bobinas and D. Kavaliauskaitė

Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, LT-54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr.,Lithuania; e-mail: r.karkleliene@lsdi.lt

Abstract:

Absract. Investigations were carried out in the organic seed-growing greenhouse at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture. Seed stalks of two edible carrot (Daucus sativus Röhl.) hybrids („Svalia‟ and No 2030) and two carrot cultivars („Garduolės‟, „Šatrija‟) were grown. Plantings of carrots‟ root-crop were stored in a stationary cellar. Investigations showed that cultivar genotype and growing conditions influenced morphological characteristics of the grown carrot seeds. An abundance of the pests and their natural enemies were found in the seed stalks of carrot cultivars, but they didn‟t differ significantly. It was established that cultivar „Garduolės‟ is suitable for organic seed growing on organic farming. Good quality and high viability (viable – 75.0–83.0%) seeds are possible to grow in an organic seed-growing greenhouse.

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