Tag Archives: cereal

xxx A. Biabani, M. Etesami, A. Rahemi Karizaki, A. Gholizadehand H. Sabouri
Response on light interception and radiation use efficiency of selected winter cereals at optimum N fertilizers
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Response on light interception and radiation use efficiency of selected winter cereals at optimum N fertilizers

A. Biabani¹*, M. Etesami², A. Rahemi Karizaki¹, A. Gholizadeh¹and H. Sabouri¹

¹University of Gonbad Kavous, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Production, Fallahi street, postal code 163, Iran
²Montana State University, Western Triangle Agricultural Research Center, USA
*Correspondence: abs346@yahoo.com

Abstract:

Nitrogen is an important element for leaf development and light interception. In order to study light interception and radiation use efficiency of winter cereals under optimum N fertilizer application the experiment was conducted during 2013–2014 and repeated in 2014–2015 in the research field of Gonbad Kavous University, Iran. Treatments included winter cereals [i.e. bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.), six rowed barley, two rowed barley, hull less barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), and triticale (Triticosecale wittmack L.)] and N rates (0 and optimum level (The optimum nitrogen level was determined as 150 kg ha–1 for bread wheat and hull less barley, 120 kg ha-1 for durum wheat and two rowed barley, 210 kg ha–1 for six rowed barley, 240 kg ha–1 for triticale and 90 kg ha–1 for oat, based on the average of recent 10-years grain yield according to Gonbad Kavous Agriculture Research Centre data’s for each cereal)). Measurements were recorded on leaf area index (LAI), dry matter accumulation (DMA), extinction coefficient (k) and radiation use efficiency (RUE). Results showed that LAI varied from 6.08 in triticale to 3.28 in hull less barley in first year and varied from 4.51 in triticale and 3.38 in oat in the second year. In both years, the accumulation total dry matter was related to triticale (2,054.9 g m–2, 2,557.05 g m–2). The maximum (0.86 ± 0.03) and minimum (0.67 ± 0.03) extinction coefficient were observed in bread wheat and triticale in 2013–2014 and the maximum (0.86 ± 0.043) and minimum (0.56 ± 0.036) k in two rowed barley and hull less barley in 2014–2015, respectively. In first year RUE varied from 2.02 ± 0.07 g mj−1 for durum wheat to 2.78 ± 0.14 g mj−1 in triticale. In the second year, the maximum (3.44 ± 0.25) RUE related to hull less barley and the minimum (2.80 ± 0.12) in six rowed barley. Light extension coefficient (k) and RUE variation associated to LAI and intercepted light by the canopy.

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379-384 K. Tamm
The impact of distance to the cereal plot on the annual emission of diesel exhaust caused by intra-farm transportation
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The impact of distance to the cereal plot on the annual emission of diesel exhaust caused by intra-farm transportation

K. Tamm

Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, Saku, Estonia;e-mail: kalvi.tamm@eria.ee

Abstract:

Machines and heavy-duty vehicles used in agriculture are powered almost exclusively by diesel engines. Diesel engines make a significant contribution to air pollution in most European countries. Aside from the engine properties, their use affects the annual diesel exhaust (DE) emission. The enlarging of farm production areas results in longer travelling distances to plots, which cause a higher fuel consumption and annual DE emission. The aim of the present study is to explain annual DE caused by transportation of equipment and materials, depending on plot distance and tillage technology.The calculation of annual DE emission is based on on-road transportation work hoursrelated to cereal plot. In the process of composing a calculation model, all technology/technical equipment used during the whole crop year on the plot is taken into account. The model incorporates two components from the model designed by the author: the transport of field operation units (FOUs) and the transport of technological materials. The simulations include considered specific DE emissions for on-road transport of agricultural machines.The simulations show that plot distance to the farm centre and tillage technology has sig-nificant impact on annual DE emission, especially on NOX amount. The greater the distance from plot to the farm centre, the higher is the emission. The emission is lowest in the case of direct drilling and highest when conventional tillage is used. The average values for CO, NOX, HC and PM are 7.2, 44.4, 2.6 and 1.9 g ha-1 km-1 respectively, in the case of conventional tillage.

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181–186 D. Kehayov, Ch. Vezirov and At. Atanasov
Some technical aspects of cut height in wheat harvest
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Some technical aspects of cut height in wheat harvest

D. Kehayov¹, Ch. Vezirov² and At. Atanasov²

¹Agrarian University – Plovdiv, Mendeleev Street 12, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria;
e-mail: d2k@au-plovdiv.bg
²University of Rousse, Studentska street 8, 7017 Rousse, Bulgaria;
e-mail: vezirov@ru.acad.bg, aatanasov@ru.acad.bg

Abstract:

In order to determine the most appropriate cut height of wheat harvest, it is necessary to take into consideration not only the agronomical aspects, but some technical factors as well. In this research, the influence of cut height of harvest on the accounted losses and the fuel consumption of a combine harvester has been considered. It has been shown that the increasing of cut height up to straw-level in the threshed wheat mass 0.24 does not lead the accounted losses of the combine “CLAAS DOMINATOR – 106” over the permissible limits, without a necessity to install additional equipment on the machine. With such a technical solution, a decrease of fuel consumption of up to 30% can be achieved.

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