Tag Archives: cereals

1287–1294 M. Eliášová and L. Paznocht
Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of tritordeum wheat and barley
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Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of tritordeum wheat and barley

M. Eliášová* and L. Paznocht

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcka 129, CZ16521, Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: eliasovam@af.czu.cz

Abstract:

Whole grains are a source of numerous antioxidant compounds such as phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins, lignans and others which are able to scavenge free radicals. Thus cereals seem to be very useful in preventing chronic diseases like metabolic syndrome (obesity, high blood pressure, high blood triglyceride and glucose levels), diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and chronic inflammatory diseases. Recently, there has been an increased consumer demand for cereal based foods, especially whole cereals. Such demand provides scope for innovations of which an important one is introduction of a completely new cereal cross called tritordeum. This alternative cereal, which is presented as a good source of health beneficial compounds, was assessed in this study and compared with wheat and barley. The total phenolic content (TPC) and related total antioxidant activity (TAA) were investigated via two spectrophotometric methods using a stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocalteau reagent respectively. Both TPC and related TAA values of tritordeum and wheat were similar but were significantly lower compared to barley. Results have also revealed a close relationship between TAA and TPC (R2 = 0.93, p < 0.05), which might suggest that increased antioxidant activity in those grains is caused by phenolic compounds contained in them. Tritordeum seems to represent a new cereal with good prospects; nevertheless more detailed analysis of its health related compounds is required.

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1372–1383 Z. Kruma, L. Tomsone, T. Ķince, R. Galoburda, S. Senhofa, M. Sabovics, E. Straumite and I. Sturite
Effects of germination on total phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activity in hull-less spring cereals and triticale
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Effects of germination on total phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activity in hull-less spring cereals and triticale

Z. Kruma¹, L. Tomsone¹, T. Ķince¹*, R. Galoburda¹, S. Senhofa¹, M. Sabovics¹, E. Straumite¹ and I. Sturite²

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Food Technology, St. Rigas 22, LV-3004 Jelgava, Latvia
²Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, St. Fredrik A. Dahls 20, Ås, Akershus, NO 1432, Norway
*Correspondence: tatjana.kince@llu.lv

Abstract:

 The aim of the current research was to evaluate changes in the content of total phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activity at different germination stages of triticale, hull-less barley, hull-less oats, wheat, and rye. Grain germination was performed for 12, 24, 36 and 48 h at controlled conditions. Ultrasound assisted extraction was used for isolation of total phenolic compounds. For all extracts the total phenolic compounds content, DPPH radical and ABTS+ radical scavenging activity were determined spectrophotometrically. The results of the experiments demonstrated that the highest content of total phenolic compounds and the highest antiradical activity was determined in hull-less barley samples. In all studied grains the content of phenolic compounds increased significantly during soaking and germination process. DPPH radical scavenging activity during germination increased. ABTS+ radical scavenging activity also increased after soaking process and dynamics were cereal type dependent. Pearson’s coefficients between the phenolic compound levels and antioxidant activity taking into account all obtained results were high. Very strong positive correlations between the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were determined for triticale during germination. Also antioxidant activity determined by both tests correlated with the highest results for barley and oats. The highest content of total phenolic compounds determines the optimum duration of germination to be 24 hours, except rye samples where the highest value was reached only after 48 hours of germination. Shorter time was required to reach the highest values of DPPH radical activity – for wheat rye, and triticale, namely 12 hours.

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1299–1305 D. Herak
Image analysis of the shapes and dimensions of Teff seeds (Eragrostis tef)
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Image analysis of the shapes and dimensions of Teff seeds (Eragrostis tef)

D. Herak

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kamycka 129, CZ 16521 Prague, Czech Republic e-mail: herak@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

 With aid of the image analysis using trio ocular microscope the dimensions, circumferences and areas in two perpendicular planes of Teff seeds were measured and based on this information the new ellipsoid model of the seed’s shape was derived and compared with measured values. From statistical analysis implies that this model on probability 0.95 is significantly identical with measured values of the Teff seeds. Determined model can help more accurately set up and developed accurate mathematical model for describing mechanical behaviour of individual seeds as well as bulk seeds.

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1064-1073 S. Senhofa, E. Straumite, M. Sabovics, D. Klava, R. Galoburda andT. Rakcejeva
The effect of packaging type on quality of cereal muesli during storage
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The effect of packaging type on quality of cereal muesli during storage

S. Senhofa*, E. Straumite, M. Sabovics, D. Klava, R. Galoburda andT. Rakcejeva

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Food Technology, Liela Street 2, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia *Correspondence: santa@musli.lv

Abstract:

Cereal-derived breakfast products (cereal flakes, bread, and muesli) are increasingly consumed because they are an important source of energy for adults and children. Shelf-life of foods is highly dependent on the permeability characteristics of the packaging materials, which emphasize the importance of packaging design. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes of physically-chemical, microbiological and sensory parametrs of cereal muesli with chocolate and apricots during storage. Samples of muesli with chocolate and apricots were packaged in 3 different types of packaging–paper bag, paper tubes and Doypack (stand-up pouches) and stored for 9 months (at 20 ± 2°C temperature and relative air humidity – 55 ± 3%). During the storage moisture content, water activity, total plate count of mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms (MAFAm), mould and yeast, volatile compounds and sensory quality were evaluated in analysed muesli samples. The lowest moisture content after 9 months storage was determined for muesli samples stored in paper bag. Total number of mesophilic aerobic facultative anaerobic microorganisms (MAFAm, mould and yeast) of muesli in all samples during storage slightly increased. After 9 months storage muesli with chocolate and apricots in the Doypack had the best sensory properties. In muesli with chocolate and apricots there were identified 18 volatile compounds. The results indicated that paper bags were the least suitable for packaging of cereal muesli with chocolate and apricot, because of essential quality changes of samples during their storage. The shelf-life of 9 months can be recommended for cereal muesli with chocolate and apricots packaged in paper tube or Doypack.

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311-316 F.L. Stoddard
Improving food and feed security in the Nordic and Baltic region by using appropriate crop rotations
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Improving food and feed security in the Nordic and Baltic region by using appropriate crop rotations

F.L. Stoddard

Dept. Agricultural Sciences, PL 27 (Latokartanonkaari 5), 00014 University ofHelsinki, Finland; email frederick.stoddard@helsinki.fi

Abstract:

Abstract: Rotations in the Nordic and Baltic region are, as elsewhere in Europe, heavily biased towards cereals. Broadleaved crops in general, and grain legumes in particular, offer a range of environmental and agricultural benefits that are inadequately exploited in this region. This article reviews some of the options available to the region. Brassica oilseeds can be used as catch crops, cover crops and biofumigants, as well as for their oil and protein-rich meal. Fibre hemp is a good soil-cleaning crop with excellent bioenergy potential. Grain legumes produce food and animal feed locally while contributing positively to soil health, and are particularly under-exploited regionally, in spite of the availability of suitable germplasm. The prospects for using mainstream alternative crops in regional rotations are therefore very good and this use should lead to improved agricultural sustainability and economic viability.

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677-683 S. Mikulioniene and L. Balezentiene
Responses of cereals grain quality on organical and conventional farming
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Responses of cereals grain quality on organical and conventional farming

S. Mikulioniene and L. Balezentiene

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentų 11, Akademija LT– 53361, Kaunas distr.,e-mail: ligita.balezentiene@lzuu.lt;

Abstract:

Commodity-based conventional farming induced applying heavy amounts of mineral and organic fertilizers and stimulated the decline of the animated part of the soil. Integrated, extensive and ecologically sustainable organic agriculture systems started to spread inherently as an alternative to such aggressive conventional farming. The main aim of this research was to evaluate and compare chemical composition of forage cereals (barley, wheat, rye, oat and triticale) cropped in different farming systems. Dry matter (DM), crude ash (CA), crude fat (CF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), content of mineral, trace elements and heavy metals were determined for estimation of the feed value of tested cereals grain. The highest content of important essential amino acid methionine+cystine (5.0 g kg -1 DM) and lysine (4.7 g kg -1 DM) was determined in chemical composition of oat. The equal content of tryptophane (1.2) was determined in wheat, oat and barley. The smallest content (0.95 g kg -1 DM) of this amino acid was found in rye. Mineral and trace element concentrations in DM ranged as follows: Ca– 0.3–0.9, P – 3.3–3.7, Mg – 1.1–1.2 and Na – 0.16–0.35 g kg -1. Organically cropped grain contained less crude protein (CP) and fat, but crude fiber content increased as compared to those conventionally cropped. CP varied from 8.2 (triticale) to11.5% (oat) in organically cropped grains. CP content was markedly higher in intensively cropped grain and ranged between 11.9–14.5%.

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21-32 R. Lauk and E. Lauk
Dual intercropping of common vetch and wheat or oats, effects on yields and interspecific competition
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Dual intercropping of common vetch and wheat or oats, effects on yields and interspecific competition

R. Lauk¹ and E. Lauk²

¹Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life
Sciences, Kreutzwaldi St. 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: ruth.lauk@emu.ee. 2
²Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life
Sciences, Kreutzwaldi St. 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: ervi.lauk@emu.ee.

Abstract:

A three-year field experiment was conducted in Estonia to determine a) which combinations of vetch (Vicia sativa L.) intercropped with either wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) or oats (Avena sativa L.) were most suitable for mixed cultivation and b) the effect of vetch on the yield potential of cereals in different weather conditions as compared to the respective sole crops of cereals. The vetch-wheat intercrops did not produce any greater yield than wheat sole crops but the yield of vetch-oats intercrops was higher as compared to oat sole crops and vetchwheat intercrops. The grain yield of vetch when intercropped was strongly correlated with seed density. In the years of normal precipitation and at higher vetch seed densities (over 60 seeds m- 2 ) the grain yield of intercrops was lower than that of the respective cereal sole crops. The yield of the cereal component was higher in sole crops and when increasing vetch seed density cereal grain yield decreased. The inter-specific competitiveness of wheat towards vetch increased when doubling the wheat seed density. Likewise the relatively dry growth period favored the growth of wheat as compared to vetch. Vetch-cereal intercrops produced considerably higher protein yields on the soil without any N-fertiliser than cereal sole crops and are regarded as highly suitable for organic farming.

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