Tag Archives: chemical composition

198–210 S. Rancane, A. Karklins, D. Lazdina, P. Berzins, A. Bardule, A. Butlers and A. Lazdins
The evaluation of biomass yield and quality of Phalaris arundinacea and Festulolium fertilised with bio-energy waste products
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The evaluation of biomass yield and quality of Phalaris arundinacea and Festulolium fertilised with bio-energy waste products

S. Rancane¹*, A. Karklins², D. Lazdina³, P. Berzins¹, A. Bardule³, A. Butlers³ and A. Lazdins³

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Institute of Agriculture, Lielā iela 2, LV-3001,
Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Soil and Plant
Sciences, Lielā iela 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
³Latvia State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’, Rīgas iela 111, LV-2169 Salaspils,
Latvia
*Correspondence: sarmite.rancane@inbox.lv

Abstract:

 Tall growing perennial grasses such as Phalaris arundinacea and Festulolium can be used as an alternative source for bioenergy production in northern latitudes as they can be grown in less cultivated areas and can be potentially used as a dual purpose crop (bioenergy and forage). The aim of studies was to investigate the effectiveness of using bioenergy waste products – fermentation residues (digestate) and wood ash as fertilisers for perennial grasses. The field experiment was conducted in the central part of Latvia (56°42′ N and 25°08′ E) from 2013 to 2015. For all fertiliser treatments (wood ash, digestate once per season; digestate twice per season and mineral fertilisers) the same amount of plant nutrients (N, P, K) was applied annually: N (100), P2O5 (80), K2O (160); and the missing quantities of elements in ash and digestate were compensated by mineral fertilisers. Dry matter yield (DMY) in two harvest regimes (single cut and two cut) and chemical composition (ash content; total C and N) of grass biomass partitioning among tillers, leaves and panicles were estimated.
Biomass yield in the three years of use varied considerably depending on the fertiliser, harvest regime and species, ranging up to 10.0 Mg ha-1 for RCG and 7.73 Mg ha-1 for festulolium. All fertilisers provided a significant increase of DMY, however, better results for both species were obtained using wood ash and mineral fertilisers. The harvest regime and species affected directly the quality of biomass, single cut of RCG contained significantly less ash and more carbon. There were significant differences between sward fractions – culms in comparison with leaves contained less ash and nitrogen, and more carbon, what are desirable features for solid fuel.

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615-624 V. Kemešytė, N. Lemežienė, J. Kanapeckas, E. Vilčinskas,L. Z. Baistruk-Glodan and R. Ivanciv
Evaluation of Lolium perenne L. wild ecotypes of Ukrainian origin in Lithuania
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Evaluation of Lolium perenne L. wild ecotypes of Ukrainian origin in Lithuania

V. Kemešytė¹, N. Lemežienė¹, J. Kanapeckas¹, E. Vilčinskas¹,L. Z. Baistruk-Glodan² and R. Ivanciv²

¹Institute of Agriculture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and ForestryInstituto al. 1, Akademija, Kedainiai distr., Lithuania; e-mail: vilma@lzi.lt²Prikarpatjan branch of Western region Institute of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry,Ukrainian Academy of Agrarian Science., Lishnia, Lvov r., Ukraine; e-mail: d_stancija@mail.lviv.ua

Abstract:

The plants of 23 wild populations of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were collected in 2006 and 2007 in the natural habitats of grasses in West Ukraine (Prikarpatja, Karpat and Zakarpatja region). These populations and 2 Ukrainian varieties were planted in 2008 and 2009 into the germplasm collection at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture. In the collection trials the following parameters were assessed: winter damage, beginning of heading, growth at the beginning of vegetation and re-growth after cuts, plant height, leaf colour, flag leaf length and width, dry matter yield, disease incidence and chemical composition. The Ukrainian wild populations distinguished by winter hardiness, fast spring growth, high dry matter yield and forage quality under Lithuanian conditions. The plants of the wild Ukrainian populations were shorter, with narrower and shorter flag leaves and more sensitive to crown rust and leaf spot pathogens, compared with the Lithuanian varieties. The Ukrainian varieties exhibited early heading and worse chemical composition, compared with the standard Lithuanian variety ‘Žvilgė’.

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677-683 S. Mikulioniene and L. Balezentiene
Responses of cereals grain quality on organical and conventional farming
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Responses of cereals grain quality on organical and conventional farming

S. Mikulioniene and L. Balezentiene

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentų 11, Akademija LT– 53361, Kaunas distr.,e-mail: ligita.balezentiene@lzuu.lt;

Abstract:

Commodity-based conventional farming induced applying heavy amounts of mineral and organic fertilizers and stimulated the decline of the animated part of the soil. Integrated, extensive and ecologically sustainable organic agriculture systems started to spread inherently as an alternative to such aggressive conventional farming. The main aim of this research was to evaluate and compare chemical composition of forage cereals (barley, wheat, rye, oat and triticale) cropped in different farming systems. Dry matter (DM), crude ash (CA), crude fat (CF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), content of mineral, trace elements and heavy metals were determined for estimation of the feed value of tested cereals grain. The highest content of important essential amino acid methionine+cystine (5.0 g kg -1 DM) and lysine (4.7 g kg -1 DM) was determined in chemical composition of oat. The equal content of tryptophane (1.2) was determined in wheat, oat and barley. The smallest content (0.95 g kg -1 DM) of this amino acid was found in rye. Mineral and trace element concentrations in DM ranged as follows: Ca– 0.3–0.9, P – 3.3–3.7, Mg – 1.1–1.2 and Na – 0.16–0.35 g kg -1. Organically cropped grain contained less crude protein (CP) and fat, but crude fiber content increased as compared to those conventionally cropped. CP varied from 8.2 (triticale) to11.5% (oat) in organically cropped grains. CP content was markedly higher in intensively cropped grain and ranged between 11.9–14.5%.

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43-49 E. Jariene, H. Danilcenko, J. Kulaitienė and M. Gajewski
Effect of fertilizers on oil pumpkin seeds crude fat, fibre and protein quantity
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Effect of fertilizers on oil pumpkin seeds crude fat, fibre and protein quantity

E. Jariene¹, H. Danilcenko¹, J. Kulaitienė¹ and M. Gajewski²

¹Lithuanian Agriculture University, LT-4324 Kaunas, Studentų 11;e-mail: hd@lzuu.lt,
²Warsaw Agricultural University, Warszawa, Nowoursynowska 166

Abstract:

An investigation of the chemical composition of seeds of various oil bearing pumpkin cultivars grown with different forms of fertilizers was conducted in a certified organic field of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture; three oil pumpkin cultivars (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca L.) – ‘Miranda’, ‘Golosemiannaja’ and ‘Herakles’ were grown in 2004–2005. The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the impact of organic and chemical fertilizers on the chemical composition of seeds of different cultivars. The following fertilizers were applied: humic acid fertilizers (the rate was calculated according to the required amount of Humistar) – 30 l ha-1; complex fertilizers (N:P:K – 10:10:20) – 500 kg ha-1; compost (70% manure + 30% plant residues) – 40 t ha-1; complex fertilizers (N:P:K – 10:10:20)+ humic acid fertilizers – 500 kg ha-1 + 30 l ha-1. Standard analytical methods were used to determine crude fat, protein and fibre content. Higher amounts of crude fats were found in seeds of the control (non-fertilized) pumpkins. Compost, humic acid and complex fertilizers had non-significant effects on the synthesis of crude fats, however, they increased the amount of crude fibre in seeds. The highest amount was found in seeds of the pumpkins fertilized with humic acid and complex fertilizers. A mixture of complex and humic acid fertilizers significantly reduced the amount of crude fat in oil-cakes. Complex fertilizers and mixtures of fertilizers stimulated the process of crude protein accumulation in seeds.

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483-492 L. Baležentienė and S. Mikulionienė
Chemical composition of galega mixtures silages
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Chemical composition of galega mixtures silages

L. Baležentienė and S. Mikulionienė

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentų 11, LT-4324, Akademija, Kaunas distr.,Lithuania; e-mail: ligita.balezentiene@ lzuu.lt

Abstract:

A b s t r a c t . According to the near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy data, the chemical composition of fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam.) is more valuable forage than traditional fodder plants such as the red clover and timothy at budding-early flowering stage. Due to the high concentration of total protein (231 g kg-1) and some amino acids (asp, glu, phenylala), galega fresh mass could be used as a substitute for the soybean cake for 1.4–2.9 kg equivalent amounts. The mean of asp, glu and phenylala content in galega DM constitutes 68.22–56.37 % of their concentration in soybean cake. The high total protein concentration of fodder galega which was determined indicated that this crop could be used for increasing the protein content of livestock rations and successfully replace soybean cake, which is imported and expensive.For supplying livestock with succulent forage during the year and for producing highquality silage, galega mixtures with grasses containing many water-soluble carbohydrates could be ensiled. Possibilities of ensiling mixtures of early flowering stage fodder galega (1:1) with orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), timothy (Phleum pratense L.), wheat grass (Elytrigia repens L.), milk stage maize and sugar beet leaves were studied at Research Station and Training Farm of Lithuanian University of Agriculture. The addition of 0.3% FPC to galega-maize silage had no significant influence on DM (225 and 214 g kg-1), mineral element concentration and pH value (4.7 and 4.4) as compared to galega-maize silage without preservatives. The results of ensiling indicate that the quality of pure galega and galega-wheat grass silage was poor quality due to an unbalanced ratio of protein and water-soluble carbohydrates. Fodder galega appears suitable for ensiling with a grass component (orchardgrass, timothy or maize) which accumulated not less than 30% DM.

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253–264 A. Svirskis
Investigation of amaranth cultivation and utilisation in Lithuania
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Investigation of amaranth cultivation and utilisation in Lithuania

A. Svirskis

Šiauliai University, P. Višinskio 25, Šiauliai, Lithuania; e-mail: selekcentras@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Studies of amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) collections have been carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture since 1978. During the period of 1998–2001, 13 varieties and populations of amaranth and some parameters of amaranth growing technology (sowing time, seed rate, row spacing, etc.) were investigated. The amaranth was grown in the six-course perennial grass breeding crop rotation after ploughed-in first year clover, sown after black fallow without additional fertilising and pesticides.
Preliminary amaranth growing technology was elaborated. The highest yield was produced when amaranth had been sown in the middle of May, at a seed rate of 2–4 kg ha-1, with row spacings of 50 cm and thrashed dry after severe frosts (-3…-5°C). The technology needs further improvement, and it is especially necessary to investigate fertilisation of amaranth in ecological and conventional farming systems.
Three amaranth varieties – ‘Raudonukai’, ‘Geltonukai’ and ‘Rausvukai’ – were registered in Lithuania in 2001. It is necessary to continue selection of amaranth species and varieties best suited for local conditions and investigate possibilities for use of amaranth green material and seed for food, feed, and energy production.

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197–209 A. Makaraviciute
Effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on the yield and quality of different potato varieties
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Effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on the yield and quality of different potato varieties

A. Makaraviciute

Elmininkai Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Dvaro 6, N. Elmininkai, Anykš?iai district, LT-4930, Lithuania; e-mail: elmininkai@anyksciai.omnitel.net

Abstract:

The effect of different fertilizers on potato tuber yield and its quality was investigated at the Elmininkai Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 1997-1999. Potatoes of 10 varieties belonging to different maturity groups were grown on plots with different fertilization. The following potato varieties were investigated: the extra early ‘Venta’ and ‘Ukama’, the early ‘Voke’, the medium early ‘Mirta’ and ‘Karolin’, the medium late ‘Hertha’, ‘Saturna’ and ‘Agria’, and the late ‘Aistes’ and ‘Speci’.
It was established that different fertilizers, varietal properties and meteorological conditions during the potato vegetation period significantly influenced the yield and  quality of different potato varieties. The highest potato tuber yields (20.1–29.6 t ha-1) of all the tested varieties were harvested when one-component and complex mineral fertilizers with microelements had been applied, the lowest (14.6–21.7 t ha-1) when manure (60 t ha-1) had been used in spring. The highest starch and dry matter content had potatoes of the following varieties: the early ‘Voke’ (up to 16.3% and 22.6%, respectively), the medium early ‘Karolin’ (up to 15.6% and 21.8%, respectively), the medium late ‘Saturna’ (up to 17.4% and 23.7%, respectively) and the late ‘Speci’ (up to 16.3% and 22.6%, respectively). The 1998 vegetation period was the most favourable for potato tuber yield, and the 1997 vegetation period for the accumulation of starch and dry matter. The vegetation period of 1999 was the most unfavourable both for potato tuber yield and the accumulation of starch and dry matter.

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