Tag Archives: clay loam

542-547 A. Velykis, S. Maiksteniene, A. Arlauskiene, I. Kristaponyte and A. Satkus
Mechanical weed control in organically grown spring oat and field pea crops
Abstract |
Full text PDF (107 kB)

Mechanical weed control in organically grown spring oat and field pea crops

A. Velykis, S. Maiksteniene, A. Arlauskiene, I. Kristaponyte and A. Satkus

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Joniskelis Research Station,Joniskelis, LT–39301 Pasvalys District, Lithuania; e–mail: velykisalex@gmail.com

Abstract:

Experiments to study the effects of weed harrowing in an organic farming system were carried out during 2005–2007 at the Joniskelis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture on a clay loam Gleyic Cambisol. Spring oat (Avena sativa L.) and field pea (Pisum sativum L.) crops were harrowed once and twice with a Regent spring-tine harrow at pre-emergence, early post-emergence and late post-emergence stages. This study indicates that at early growth stages of crops the uprooting effect of harrowing could be more important for weed control than at late stages. Early post-emergence harrowing (at 2–3 leaf stage) was the most effective for spring oat. Twice (pre-emergence and early post-emergence) harrowing of oat was not more effective than early post-emergence harrowing once, since early harrowing stimulates new sprouting of weeds. Pea crop damage by harrowing was less when the crop was harrowed at late post-emergence (beginning of stem elongation) stage. No difference of crop yield was determined among the treatments.

Key words:

, , , , , ,




329-339 A. Satkus and A. Velykis
Modeling of seedbed creation for spring cereals in clayey soils
Abstract |
Full text PDF (165 kB)

Modeling of seedbed creation for spring cereals in clayey soils

A. Satkus and A. Velykis

Joniškėlis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture,Joniškėlis, LT-39301 Pasvalys District, Lithuania; e-mail: joniskelio_lzi@post.omnitel.net

Abstract:

A model field experiment to establish the optimal parameters of seedbed structure for spring cereals was conducted at the Joniškėlis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture from 2002–2004 on clay loam Gleyic Cambisol.We evaluated seedbed models for spring barley in small plots, where on the top seedbedsublayer (from 0 to 1.5 cm) the portion of desirable large-scale (>5 mm), on the middle sublayer (from 1.5 to 3.0 cm) of medium sized (2–5 mm) and on the bottom sublayer (from 3.0 to 4.5 cm) of smallest (<2 mm) soil structural aggregates made up to 40% in the 1st, 60% in the 2nd, 80% in the 3rd and 100% in the 4th model. Spring barley germination dynamics, emergence and growing intensity on clay loam soil were dependent on the structure of the seedbed and on the moisture content in the topsoil. When the topsoil moisture under the seedbed had decreased to 17.5 and 18.0% the spring barley seeds were germinating more intensively; more seed germinated in the seedbed where desirable soil structural aggregates account for 100 and 80% respectively in all seedbed sublayers, i.e. in the more fractionated seedbed, where bigger soil structural aggregates were taken to the surface, and smaller ones were concentrated deeper, closer to the seeds. When the moisture content in the topsoil was the highest (20.5%), the seedbed structure did not condition a consequent improvement in seed emergence. With increasing the seedbed fractionating, there was increasingly more moisture and higher porosity, less crust forming on the soil surface after rain, and less germination of annual weeds in the spring barley crop.

Key words:

, , ,




281-285 S. Maiksteniene and A. Arlauskiene
The effect of agricultural management systems on the weed incidence in cereals
Abstract |

The effect of agricultural management systems on the weed incidence in cereals

S. Maiksteniene and A. Arlauskiene

Joniskelis Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Joniskelis,LT-39301 Pasvalys District, Lithuania; e-mail: joniskelio_lzi@post.omnitel.net

Abstract:

Two field trials were carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Joniskelis Research Station on an Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol. The experiments were designed to identify the effects of legume pre-crops and intercrops as well as the impact of their biomass incorporated as green manure on the weed incidence in succeeding cereals. The effects of legume pre-crops red clover, sown lucerne, and vetch and oats mixture on the incidence of weeds were determined by their weed incidence and the cereal crop’s suppressive power that formed under its effect. Undersown intercrops (Trifolium pratense L., Lolium multiflorum Lam., Dactylis glomerata L.), reduced the number of weeds in cereals (on average 13.9%). During the cereal post-harvest period red clover performed best at suppressing weeds, and its positive effect persisted in the year following incorporation of intercrops biomass. The effect of intercrops as post-crops (Raphanus sativus L., Sinapis alba L.) on weed incidence in the cereal crop depended upon the weather conditions that determined intercrop emergence time and intensity of plant development.

Key words:

, , ,




87–97 S. Maiksteniene and A. Arlauskiene
Effect of preceding crops and green manure on the fertility of clay loam soil
Abstract |
Full text PDF (200 kB)

Effect of preceding crops and green manure on the fertility of clay loam soil

S. Maiksteniene and A. Arlauskiene

Joniskelis Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Joniskelis, LT-5240 Pasvalys District, Lithuania; tel.fax.: 370-71-38224; e-mail: joniskelio_lzi@post.omnitel.net

Abstract:

Influence of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), sown lucerne (Medicago sativa L.), vetch and oat mixture (Vicia sativa L., Avena sativa L.) and green material of these legume crops used as green manure on the build up of biological N variation of soil properties and productivity of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was investigated on Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol (CMg-n-w-can), according to the texture – clay loam on silty clay. Experiments were carried out at the Joniskelis Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture over the period 1996–2000. It was revealed that lucerne and clover left the highest content of plant residues in the soil (13.7 t ha-1 and 9.2 t ha-1 of dry matter, respectively) which was 2.7 and 1.8 times more as compared to annual vetch and oat mixture. These perennial plants also determined accumulation of the highest content of biological N in roots and residues. According to N content applied with green manure, only lucerne aftermath was comparable to farmyard manure. Lucerne determined accumulation of the highest contents of total nitrogen (0.138%), humus (2.18%) and available phosphorus and potassium (130 and 279 mg kg-1 of soil, respectively) in the soil. Analysis of humus composition showed that its content in clay loam soil was rather stable, however, a slightly higher content of mobile humic acids was found after lucerne as a preceding crop when green manure or farmyard manure had been applied. When winter wheat was grown after lucerne as a preceding crop, the highest grain yield (on average 5.58 t ha-1) was obtained, which was 18.5 and 28.3% higher than that after clover or vetch and oat mixture. Protein content in winter wheat grain was to a greater extent determined by legume crops rather than organic manure.

Key words:

, , , ,